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1 README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
4 The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5 from:
7 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
11 There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
13 pcre-dev@exim.org
15 Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16 The contents of this README file are:
18 The PCRE APIs
19 Documentation for PCRE
20 Contributions by users of PCRE
21 Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22 Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23 Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24 Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25 Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27 Using PCRE from MySQL
28 Making new tarballs
29 Testing PCRE
30 Character tables
31 File manifest
34 The PCRE APIs
35 -------------
37 PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are two sets of functions,
38 one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, and one for the
39 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values. The distribution also
40 includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
41 courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
42 C++.
44 In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
45 library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
46 man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
47 provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
48 still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
49 not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
51 The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
52 official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
53 with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
54 an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
55 renamed or pointed at by a link.
57 If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
58 library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
59 file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
60 ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
61 up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
63 One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
64 -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
65 compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
66 effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
67 you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
68 new names.
71 Documentation for PCRE
72 ----------------------
74 If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
75 with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
76 called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
77 documentation is supplied in two other forms:
79 1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
80 doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
81 concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
82 those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
83 forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
84 These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
85 similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
86 <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
88 2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
89 in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
90 doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
92 Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
93 releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
94 site (see next section).
97 Contributions by users of PCRE
98 ------------------------------
100 You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
102 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
104 There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
105 complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
106 Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
107 contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
108 Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
109 in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
112 Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
113 ---------------------------------
115 For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
116 though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
117 able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
118 configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
119 CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
121 PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
122 straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
123 library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
126 Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
127 ----------------------------------
129 If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
130 in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
132 The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
133 make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
134 distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
135 file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
137 To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
138 PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
139 where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
140 "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
141 the file INSTALL.
143 Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
144 this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
145 the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
147 CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
149 This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
150 -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
151 under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
153 If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
154 directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
155 into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
157 cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
158 /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
160 PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
161 possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
162 does not have any features to support this.
164 There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
165 library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
167 . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
168 by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
170 --disable-shared
171 --disable-static
173 (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
175 . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
176 the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you want only
177 the 16-bit library, use "./configure --enable-pcre16 --disable-pcre8".
179 . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
180 the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
181 command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
182 try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
183 try to build the C++ wrapper.
185 . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
186 large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
187 "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
188 architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
189 will be a compile time error.
191 . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
192 you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
194 . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
195 the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
196 you must add --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
197 for handling UTF-8 and UTF-16 is not included in the relevant library. Even
198 when --enable-utf included, the use of UTF encoding still has to be enabled
199 by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its input
200 can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16, even when running on EBCDIC platforms.
201 It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at the same
202 time.
204 . The option --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier
205 releases that did not support 16-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
206 --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
207 and the other without in the same configuration.
209 . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16 character strings, you want to
210 include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
211 character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
212 "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
213 form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
214 are supported.
216 . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
217 of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
218 end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
219 of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
220 is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
221 newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
222 or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
223 --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
225 If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
226 the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
227 LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
228 to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
229 --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
230 failures.
232 . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
233 sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
234 be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
235 to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
236 --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
238 . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
239 storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
240 them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
242 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
244 on the "configure" command.
246 . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
247 If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
248 million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
250 --with-match-limit=500000
252 on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
253 pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
254 pcreapi man page.
256 . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
257 during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
258 essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
260 --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
262 Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
263 cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
264 sizes in the pcrestack man page.
266 . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
267 this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
268 library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
269 parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
270 the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
271 offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance.
273 . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
274 pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
275 obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
276 pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
277 build PCRE like this, use
279 --disable-stack-for-recursion
281 on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
282 necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
283 normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
284 successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
285 pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
286 discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
288 . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
289 whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
290 tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
292 --enable-rebuild-chartables
294 a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
295 you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
296 not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
297 pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
299 . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
300 character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
302 --enable-ebcdic
304 This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
305 when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
306 both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16.
308 . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
309 requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
310 libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
311 specifying one or both of
313 --enable-pcregrep-libz
314 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
316 Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
318 . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
319 example:
321 --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
323 The default value is 20K.
325 . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
326 library, by specifying
328 --enable-pcretest-libreadline
330 If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
331 the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
332 Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
333 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
335 Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
336 build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
337 library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
338 unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
339 to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
340 the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
341 with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
342 with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
343 messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
344 this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
346 The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
348 . Makefile the makefile that builds the library
349 . config.h build-time configuration options for the library
350 . pcre.h the public PCRE header file
351 . pcre-config script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
352 that were set for "configure"
353 . libpcre.pc ) data for the pkg-config command
354 . libpcre16.pc )
355 . libpcreposix.pc )
356 . libtool script that builds shared and/or static libraries
357 . RunTest script for running tests on the basic C library
358 . RunGrepTest script for running tests on the pcregrep command
360 Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
361 names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
362 have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
363 or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
365 When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
366 files are also built:
368 . libpcrecpp.pc data for the pkg-config command
369 . pcrecpparg.h header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
370 . pcre_stringpiece.h header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
372 The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
373 script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
374 contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
376 Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds either or both of the
377 libraries libpcre and libpcre16, and a test program called pcretest. If you
378 enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
379 built as well.
381 If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
382 built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
383 it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
384 libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
385 pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
387 The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
388 tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
390 You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
391 system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
392 <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
394 Commands (bin):
395 pcretest
396 pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
397 pcre-config
399 Libraries (lib):
400 libpcre16 (if 16-bit support is enabled)
401 libpcre (if 8-bit support is enabled)
402 libpcreposix (if 8-bit support is enabled)
403 libpcrecpp (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
405 Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
406 libpcre16.pc
407 libpcre.pc
408 libpcreposix.pc
409 libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
411 Header files (include):
412 pcre.h
413 pcreposix.h
414 pcre_scanner.h )
415 pcre_stringpiece.h ) if C++ support is enabled
416 pcrecpp.h )
417 pcrecpparg.h )
419 Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
420 pcregrep.1
421 pcretest.1
422 pcre-config.1
423 pcre.3
424 pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
426 HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
427 index.html
428 *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
430 Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
433 ChangeLog
435 NEWS
437 pcre.txt (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
438 pcretest.txt the pcretest man page
439 pcregrep.txt the pcregrep man page
440 pcre-config.txt the pcre-config man page
442 If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
443 This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
444 remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
447 Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
448 ---------------------------------------------------------
450 Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
451 recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
453 pcre-config --version
455 prints the version number, and
457 pcre-config --libs
459 outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
460 included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
461 having to remember too many details.
463 The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
464 about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
465 single command is used. For example:
467 pkg-config --cflags pcre
469 The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
470 <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
473 Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
474 -------------------------------------
476 The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
477 as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
478 support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
479 "configure" process.
481 The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
482 libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
483 built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
484 libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
485 you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
486 automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
487 installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
488 use the uninstalled libraries.
490 To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
491 configuring it. For example:
493 ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
495 Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
496 build only shared libraries.
499 Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
500 ------------------------------------
502 You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
503 order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
504 specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
505 file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
506 character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
507 because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
508 compiler.
510 When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
511 by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
512 that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
513 a problem.
515 If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
516 move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
517 run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
518 Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
521 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
522 ----------------------------------
524 Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
525 "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
526 environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
528 Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
529 needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
530 option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
531 use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
532 running the "configure" script:
534 CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
537 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
538 ---------------------------------
540 A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
541 Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
543 Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
544 Solaris 9 x86: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
547 Using PCRE from MySQL
548 ---------------------
550 On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
551 of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
552 There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
554 http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
557 Making new tarballs
558 -------------------
560 The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
561 zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
562 build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
564 If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
565 should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
566 script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
569 Testing PCRE
570 ------------
572 To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
573 created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
574 that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
575 built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
576 pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another
577 test program called pcre_jit_test is built.
579 Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
580 "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
582 The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
583 own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
584 directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
585 testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
586 were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8/16 support are run only if
587 --enable-utf was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
589 Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
590 run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
591 tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
592 done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
593 this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
595 When both 8-bit and 16-bit support is enabled, the entire set of tests is run
596 twice, once for each library. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
597 RunTest with either the -8 or -16 option.
599 RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest.
600 Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working files in some
601 tests. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test files, give their
602 numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
604 RunTest 2 7 11
606 The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
607 that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
608 first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
610 The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
611 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
612 detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
613 wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
614 pcre_compile().
616 If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
617 character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
618 cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
619 isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
620 [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
621 this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
622 listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
623 test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
624 bug in PCRE.
626 The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
627 set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
628 default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
629 running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
630 the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
631 in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
632 is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
634 ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
636 in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
637 despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
639 [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
640 work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
641 RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
642 Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
643 document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
645 The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16 support and error handling and
646 internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
647 sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
649 The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
650 matching function, in non-UTF-8/16 mode, UTF-8/16 mode, and UTF-8/16 mode with
651 Unicode property support, respectively.
653 The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
654 run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
655 change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
657 The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
658 test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
659 features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
661 The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
662 the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16-bit mode.
663 These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are for
664 general cases, UTF-8/16 support, and Unicode property support, respectively.
666 The twentieth test is run only in 16-bit mode. It tests some specific 16-bit
667 features of the DFA matching engine.
670 Character tables
671 ----------------
673 For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
674 whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
675 pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
676 concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
677 of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
678 passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
680 The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
681 default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
682 tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
683 for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
684 program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
685 handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
686 build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
687 your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
688 the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
689 you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
690 automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
691 pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
692 tables.
694 When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
695 it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
696 attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
697 system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
698 set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
699 locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
700 program by hand with the -L option. For example:
702 ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
704 The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
705 respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
706 digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
707 building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
708 than 256.
710 The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
711 follows:
713 1 white space character
714 2 letter
715 4 decimal digit
716 8 hexadecimal digit
717 16 alphanumeric or '_'
718 128 regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
720 You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
721 will cause PCRE to malfunction.
724 File manifest
725 -------------
727 The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
728 given as pcre[16]_xxx it means that there are two files, one with the name
729 pcre_xxx and the other with the name pcre16_xxx.
731 (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
733 dftables.c auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
734 when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
736 pcre_chartables.c.dist a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
737 coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
738 specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
740 pcreposix.c )
741 pcre[16]_byte_order.c )
742 pcre[16]_compile.c )
743 pcre[16]_config.c )
744 pcre[16]_dfa_exec.c )
745 pcre[16]_exec.c )
746 pcre[16]_fullinfo.c )
747 pcre[16]_get.c ) sources for the functions in the library,
748 pcre[16]_globals.c ) and some internal functions that they use
749 pcre[16]_jit_compile.c )
750 pcre[16]_maketables.c )
751 pcre[16]_newline.c )
752 pcre[16]_refcount.c )
753 pcre[16]_string_utils.c )
754 pcre[16]_study.c )
755 pcre[16]_tables.c )
756 pcre[16]_ucd.c )
757 pcre[16]_version.c )
758 pcre[16]_xclass.c )
759 pcre_ord2utf8.c )
760 pcre_valid_utf8.c )
761 pcre16_ord2utf16.c )
762 pcre16_utf16_utils.c )
763 pcre16_valid_utf16.c )
765 pcre[16]_printint.c ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
766 ) and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
768 pcre.h.in template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
769 pcreposix.h header for the external POSIX wrapper API
770 pcre_internal.h header for internal use
771 sljit/* 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
772 ucp.h header for Unicode property handling
774 config.h.in template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
776 pcrecpp.h public header file for the C++ wrapper
777 pcrecpparg.h.in template for another C++ header file
778 pcre_scanner.h public header file for C++ scanner functions
779 pcrecpp.cc )
780 pcre_scanner.cc ) source for the C++ wrapper library
782 pcre_stringpiece.h.in template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
783 C++ stringpiece functions
784 pcre_stringpiece.cc source for the C++ stringpiece functions
786 (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
788 pcredemo.c simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
789 pcregrep.c source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
790 pcretest.c comprehensive test program
792 (C) Auxiliary files:
794 132html script to turn "man" pages into HTML
795 AUTHORS information about the author of PCRE
796 ChangeLog log of changes to the code
797 CleanTxt script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
798 Detrail script to remove trailing spaces
799 HACKING some notes about the internals of PCRE
800 INSTALL generic installation instructions
801 LICENCE conditions for the use of PCRE
802 COPYING the same, using GNU's standard name
803 Makefile.in ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
804 ) "configure"
805 Makefile.am ) the automake input that was used to create
806 ) Makefile.in
807 NEWS important changes in this release
808 NON-UNIX-USE notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
809 PrepareRelease script to make preparations for "make dist"
810 README this file
811 RunTest a Unix shell script for running tests
812 RunGrepTest a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
813 aclocal.m4 m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
814 config.guess ) files used by libtool,
815 config.sub ) used only when building a shared library
816 configure a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
817 configure.ac ) the autoconf input that was used to build
818 ) "configure" and config.h
819 depcomp ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
820 ) automake
821 doc/*.3 man page sources for PCRE
822 doc/*.1 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
823 doc/index.html.src the base HTML page
824 doc/html/* HTML documentation
825 doc/pcre.txt plain text version of the man pages
826 doc/pcretest.txt plain text documentation of test program
827 doc/perltest.txt plain text documentation of Perl test program
828 install-sh a shell script for installing files
829 libpcre16.pc.in template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
830 libpcre.pc.in template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
831 libpcreposix.pc.in template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
832 libpcrecpp.pc.in template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
833 ltmain.sh file used to build a libtool script
834 missing ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
835 ) installing, generated by automake
836 mkinstalldirs script for making install directories
837 perltest.pl Perl test program
838 pcre-config.in source of script which retains PCRE information
839 pcre_jit_test.c test program for the JIT compiler
840 pcrecpp_unittest.cc )
841 pcre_scanner_unittest.cc ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
842 pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
843 testdata/testinput* test data for main library tests
844 testdata/testoutput* expected test results
845 testdata/grep* input and output for pcregrep tests
846 testdata/* other supporting test files
848 (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
851 cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
852 cmake/FindReadline.cmake
853 CMakeLists.txt
854 config-cmake.h.in
856 (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
858 makevp.bat
859 makevp_c.txt
860 makevp_l.txt
861 pcregexp.pas
863 (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
865 pcre.h.generic ) a version of the public PCRE header file
866 ) for use in non-"configure" environments
867 config.h.generic ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
868 ) environments
870 (F) Miscellaneous
872 RunTest.bat a script for running tests under Windows
874 Philip Hazel
875 Email local part: ph10
876 Email domain: cam.ac.uk
877 Last updated: 30 December 2011


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