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1 README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
4 The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5 from:
7 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
11 There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
13 pcre-dev@exim.org
15 Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16 The contents of this README file are:
18 The PCRE APIs
19 Documentation for PCRE
20 Contributions by users of PCRE
21 Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22 Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23 Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24 Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25 Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27 Using PCRE from MySQL
28 Making new tarballs
29 Testing PCRE
30 Character tables
31 File manifest
34 The PCRE APIs
35 -------------
37 PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are two sets of functions,
38 one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, and one for the
39 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values. The distribution also
40 includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
41 courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
42 C++.
44 In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
45 library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
46 man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
47 provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
48 still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
49 not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
51 The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
52 official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
53 with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
54 an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
55 renamed or pointed at by a link.
57 If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
58 library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
59 file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
60 ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
61 up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
63 One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
64 -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
65 compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
66 effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
67 you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
68 new names.
71 Documentation for PCRE
72 ----------------------
74 If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
75 with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
76 called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
77 documentation is supplied in two other forms:
79 1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
80 doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
81 concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
82 those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
83 forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
84 These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
85 similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
86 <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
88 2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
89 in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
90 doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
92 Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
93 releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
94 site (see next section).
97 Contributions by users of PCRE
98 ------------------------------
100 You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
102 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
104 There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
105 complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
106 Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
107 contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
108 Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
109 in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
112 Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
113 ---------------------------------
115 For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
116 though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
117 able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
118 configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
119 CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
121 PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
122 straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
123 library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
126 Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
127 ----------------------------------
129 If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
130 in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
132 The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
133 make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
134 distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
135 file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
137 To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
138 PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
139 where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
140 "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
141 the file INSTALL.
143 Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
144 this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
145 the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
147 CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
149 This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
150 -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
151 under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
153 If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
154 directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
155 into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
157 cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
158 /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
160 PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
161 possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
162 does not have any features to support this.
164 There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
165 library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
167 . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
168 by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
170 --disable-shared
171 --disable-static
173 (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
175 . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
176 the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you want only
177 the 16-bit library, use "./configure --enable-pcre16 --disable-pcre8".
179 . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
180 the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
181 command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
182 try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
183 try to build the C++ wrapper.
185 . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
186 large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
187 "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
188 architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
189 will be a compile time error.
191 . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
192 you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
194 . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
195 the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
196 you must add --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
197 for handling UTF-8 and UTF-16 is not included in the relevant library. Even
198 when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
199 enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
200 input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16, even when running on EBCDIC
201 platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
202 the same time.
204 . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8 and UTF-16 independently
205 because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting UTF-16
206 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
207 --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
208 that did not support 16-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
209 --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
210 and the other without in the same configuration.
212 . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16 character strings, you want to
213 include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
214 character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
215 "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
216 form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
217 are supported.
219 . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
220 of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
221 end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
222 of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
223 is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
224 newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
225 or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
226 --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
228 If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
229 the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
230 LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
231 to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
232 --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
233 failures.
235 . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
236 sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
237 be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
238 to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
239 --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
241 . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
242 storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
243 them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
245 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
247 on the "configure" command.
249 . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
250 If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
251 million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
253 --with-match-limit=500000
255 on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
256 pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
257 pcreapi man page.
259 . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
260 during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
261 essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
263 --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
265 Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
266 cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
267 sizes in the pcrestack man page.
269 . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
270 this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
271 library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
272 parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
273 the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
274 offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance.
276 . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
277 pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
278 obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
279 pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
280 build PCRE like this, use
282 --disable-stack-for-recursion
284 on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
285 necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
286 normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
287 successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
288 pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
289 discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
291 . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
292 whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
293 tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
295 --enable-rebuild-chartables
297 a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
298 you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
299 not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
300 pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
302 . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
303 character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
305 --enable-ebcdic
307 This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
308 when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
309 both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16.
311 . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
312 requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
313 libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
314 specifying one or both of
316 --enable-pcregrep-libz
317 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
319 Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
321 . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
322 example:
324 --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
326 The default value is 20K.
328 . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
329 library, by specifying
331 --enable-pcretest-libreadline
333 If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
334 the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
335 Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
336 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
338 Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
339 build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
340 library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
341 unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
342 to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
343 the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
344 with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
345 with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
346 messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
347 this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
349 The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
351 . Makefile the makefile that builds the library
352 . config.h build-time configuration options for the library
353 . pcre.h the public PCRE header file
354 . pcre-config script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
355 that were set for "configure"
356 . libpcre.pc ) data for the pkg-config command
357 . libpcre16.pc )
358 . libpcreposix.pc )
359 . libtool script that builds shared and/or static libraries
360 . RunTest script for running tests on the basic C library
361 . RunGrepTest script for running tests on the pcregrep command
363 Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
364 names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
365 have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
366 or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
368 When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
369 files are also built:
371 . libpcrecpp.pc data for the pkg-config command
372 . pcrecpparg.h header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
373 . pcre_stringpiece.h header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
375 The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
376 script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
377 contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
379 Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds either or both of the
380 libraries libpcre and libpcre16, and a test program called pcretest. If you
381 enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
382 built as well.
384 If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
385 built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
386 it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
387 libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
388 pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
390 The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
391 tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
393 You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
394 system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
395 <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
397 Commands (bin):
398 pcretest
399 pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
400 pcre-config
402 Libraries (lib):
403 libpcre16 (if 16-bit support is enabled)
404 libpcre (if 8-bit support is enabled)
405 libpcreposix (if 8-bit support is enabled)
406 libpcrecpp (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
408 Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
409 libpcre16.pc
410 libpcre.pc
411 libpcreposix.pc
412 libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
414 Header files (include):
415 pcre.h
416 pcreposix.h
417 pcre_scanner.h )
418 pcre_stringpiece.h ) if C++ support is enabled
419 pcrecpp.h )
420 pcrecpparg.h )
422 Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
423 pcregrep.1
424 pcretest.1
425 pcre-config.1
426 pcre.3
427 pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
429 HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
430 index.html
431 *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
433 Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
436 ChangeLog
438 NEWS
440 pcre.txt (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
441 pcretest.txt the pcretest man page
442 pcregrep.txt the pcregrep man page
443 pcre-config.txt the pcre-config man page
445 If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
446 This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
447 remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
450 Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
451 ---------------------------------------------------------
453 Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
454 recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
456 pcre-config --version
458 prints the version number, and
460 pcre-config --libs
462 outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
463 included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
464 having to remember too many details.
466 The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
467 about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
468 single command is used. For example:
470 pkg-config --cflags pcre
472 The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
473 <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
476 Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
477 -------------------------------------
479 The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
480 as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
481 support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
482 "configure" process.
484 The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
485 libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
486 built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
487 libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
488 you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
489 automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
490 installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
491 use the uninstalled libraries.
493 To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
494 configuring it. For example:
496 ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
498 Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
499 build only shared libraries.
502 Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
503 ------------------------------------
505 You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
506 order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
507 specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
508 file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
509 character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
510 because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
511 compiler.
513 When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
514 by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
515 that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
516 a problem.
518 If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
519 move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
520 run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
521 Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
524 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
525 ----------------------------------
527 Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
528 "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
529 environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
531 Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
532 needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
533 option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
534 use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
535 running the "configure" script:
537 CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
540 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
541 ---------------------------------
543 A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
544 Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
546 Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
547 Solaris 9 x86: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
550 Using PCRE from MySQL
551 ---------------------
553 On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
554 of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
555 There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
557 http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
560 Making new tarballs
561 -------------------
563 The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
564 zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
565 build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
567 If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
568 should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
569 script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
572 Testing PCRE
573 ------------
575 To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
576 created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
577 that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
578 built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
579 pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another
580 test program called pcre_jit_test is built.
582 Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
583 "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
585 The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
586 own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
587 directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
588 testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
589 were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8/16 support are run only if
590 --enable-utf was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
592 Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
593 run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
594 tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
595 done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
596 this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
598 When both 8-bit and 16-bit support is enabled, the entire set of tests is run
599 twice, once for each library. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
600 RunTest with either the -8 or -16 option.
602 RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest.
603 Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working files in some
604 tests. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test files, give their
605 numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
607 RunTest 2 7 11
609 The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
610 that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
611 first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
613 The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
614 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
615 detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
616 wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
617 pcre_compile().
619 If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
620 character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
621 cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
622 isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
623 [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
624 this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
625 listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
626 test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
627 bug in PCRE.
629 The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
630 set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
631 default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
632 running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
633 the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
634 in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
635 is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
637 ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
639 in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
640 despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
642 [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
643 work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
644 RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
645 Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
646 document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
648 The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16 support and error handling and
649 internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
650 sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
652 The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
653 matching function, in non-UTF-8/16 mode, UTF-8/16 mode, and UTF-8/16 mode with
654 Unicode property support, respectively.
656 The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
657 run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
658 change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
660 The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
661 test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
662 features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
664 The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
665 the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16-bit mode.
666 These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are for
667 general cases, UTF-8/16 support, and Unicode property support, respectively.
669 The twentieth test is run only in 16-bit mode. It tests some specific 16-bit
670 features of the DFA matching engine.
673 Character tables
674 ----------------
676 For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
677 whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
678 pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
679 concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
680 of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
681 passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
683 The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
684 default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
685 tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
686 for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
687 program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
688 handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
689 build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
690 your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
691 the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
692 you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
693 automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
694 pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
695 tables.
697 When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
698 it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
699 attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
700 system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
701 set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
702 locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
703 program by hand with the -L option. For example:
705 ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
707 The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
708 respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
709 digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
710 building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
711 than 256.
713 The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
714 follows:
716 1 white space character
717 2 letter
718 4 decimal digit
719 8 hexadecimal digit
720 16 alphanumeric or '_'
721 128 regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
723 You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
724 will cause PCRE to malfunction.
727 File manifest
728 -------------
730 The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
731 given as pcre[16]_xxx it means that there are two files, one with the name
732 pcre_xxx and the other with the name pcre16_xxx.
734 (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
736 dftables.c auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
737 when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
739 pcre_chartables.c.dist a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
740 coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
741 specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
743 pcreposix.c )
744 pcre[16]_byte_order.c )
745 pcre[16]_compile.c )
746 pcre[16]_config.c )
747 pcre[16]_dfa_exec.c )
748 pcre[16]_exec.c )
749 pcre[16]_fullinfo.c )
750 pcre[16]_get.c ) sources for the functions in the library,
751 pcre[16]_globals.c ) and some internal functions that they use
752 pcre[16]_jit_compile.c )
753 pcre[16]_maketables.c )
754 pcre[16]_newline.c )
755 pcre[16]_refcount.c )
756 pcre[16]_string_utils.c )
757 pcre[16]_study.c )
758 pcre[16]_tables.c )
759 pcre[16]_ucd.c )
760 pcre[16]_version.c )
761 pcre[16]_xclass.c )
762 pcre_ord2utf8.c )
763 pcre_valid_utf8.c )
764 pcre16_ord2utf16.c )
765 pcre16_utf16_utils.c )
766 pcre16_valid_utf16.c )
768 pcre[16]_printint.c ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
769 ) and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
771 pcre.h.in template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
772 pcreposix.h header for the external POSIX wrapper API
773 pcre_internal.h header for internal use
774 sljit/* 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
775 ucp.h header for Unicode property handling
777 config.h.in template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
779 pcrecpp.h public header file for the C++ wrapper
780 pcrecpparg.h.in template for another C++ header file
781 pcre_scanner.h public header file for C++ scanner functions
782 pcrecpp.cc )
783 pcre_scanner.cc ) source for the C++ wrapper library
785 pcre_stringpiece.h.in template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
786 C++ stringpiece functions
787 pcre_stringpiece.cc source for the C++ stringpiece functions
789 (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
791 pcredemo.c simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
792 pcregrep.c source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
793 pcretest.c comprehensive test program
795 (C) Auxiliary files:
797 132html script to turn "man" pages into HTML
798 AUTHORS information about the author of PCRE
799 ChangeLog log of changes to the code
800 CleanTxt script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
801 Detrail script to remove trailing spaces
802 HACKING some notes about the internals of PCRE
803 INSTALL generic installation instructions
804 LICENCE conditions for the use of PCRE
805 COPYING the same, using GNU's standard name
806 Makefile.in ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
807 ) "configure"
808 Makefile.am ) the automake input that was used to create
809 ) Makefile.in
810 NEWS important changes in this release
811 NON-UNIX-USE notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
812 PrepareRelease script to make preparations for "make dist"
813 README this file
814 RunTest a Unix shell script for running tests
815 RunGrepTest a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
816 aclocal.m4 m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
817 config.guess ) files used by libtool,
818 config.sub ) used only when building a shared library
819 configure a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
820 configure.ac ) the autoconf input that was used to build
821 ) "configure" and config.h
822 depcomp ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
823 ) automake
824 doc/*.3 man page sources for PCRE
825 doc/*.1 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
826 doc/index.html.src the base HTML page
827 doc/html/* HTML documentation
828 doc/pcre.txt plain text version of the man pages
829 doc/pcretest.txt plain text documentation of test program
830 doc/perltest.txt plain text documentation of Perl test program
831 install-sh a shell script for installing files
832 libpcre16.pc.in template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
833 libpcre.pc.in template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
834 libpcreposix.pc.in template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
835 libpcrecpp.pc.in template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
836 ltmain.sh file used to build a libtool script
837 missing ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
838 ) installing, generated by automake
839 mkinstalldirs script for making install directories
840 perltest.pl Perl test program
841 pcre-config.in source of script which retains PCRE information
842 pcre_jit_test.c test program for the JIT compiler
843 pcrecpp_unittest.cc )
844 pcre_scanner_unittest.cc ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
845 pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
846 testdata/testinput* test data for main library tests
847 testdata/testoutput* expected test results
848 testdata/grep* input and output for pcregrep tests
849 testdata/* other supporting test files
851 (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
854 cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
855 cmake/FindReadline.cmake
856 CMakeLists.txt
857 config-cmake.h.in
859 (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
861 makevp.bat
862 makevp_c.txt
863 makevp_l.txt
864 pcregexp.pas
866 (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
868 pcre.h.generic ) a version of the public PCRE header file
869 ) for use in non-"configure" environments
870 config.h.generic ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
871 ) environments
873 (F) Miscellaneous
875 RunTest.bat a script for running tests under Windows
877 Philip Hazel
878 Email local part: ph10
879 Email domain: cam.ac.uk
880 Last updated: 30 December 2011


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