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revision 61 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:39:58 2007 UTC revision 221 by ph10, Fri Aug 17 09:25:08 2007 UTC
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1  ChangeLog for PCRE  ChangeLog for PCRE
2  ------------------  ------------------
4  Version 3.0 02-Jan-02  Version 7.3 17-Aug-07
5    ---------------------
7     1. In the rejigging of the build system that eventually resulted in 7.1, the
8        line "#include <pcre.h>" was included in pcre_internal.h. The use of angle
9        brackets there is not right, since it causes compilers to look for an
10        installed pcre.h, not the version that is in the source that is being
11        compiled (which of course may be different). I have changed it back to:
13          #include "pcre.h"
15        I have a vague recollection that the change was concerned with compiling in
16        different directories, but in the new build system, that is taken care of
17        by the VPATH setting the Makefile.
19     2. The pattern .*$ when run in not-DOTALL UTF-8 mode with newline=any failed
20        when the subject happened to end in the byte 0x85 (e.g. if the last
21        character was \x{1ec5}). *Character* 0x85 is one of the "any" newline
22        characters but of course it shouldn't be taken as a newline when it is part
23        of another character. The bug was that, for an unlimited repeat of . in
24        not-DOTALL UTF-8 mode, PCRE was advancing by bytes rather than by
25        characters when looking for a newline.
27     3. A small performance improvement in the DOTALL UTF-8 mode .* case.
29     4. Debugging: adjusted the names of opcodes for different kinds of parentheses
30        in debug output.
32     5. Arrange to use "%I64d" instead of "%lld" and "%I64u" instead of "%llu" for
33        long printing in the pcrecpp unittest when running under MinGW.
35     6. ESC_K was left out of the EBCDIC table.
37     7. Change 7.0/38 introduced a new limit on the number of nested non-capturing
38        parentheses; I made it 1000, which seemed large enough. Unfortunately, the
39        limit also applies to "virtual nesting" when a pattern is recursive, and in
40        this case 1000 isn't so big. I have been able to remove this limit at the
41        expense of backing off one optimization in certain circumstances. Normally,
42        when pcre_exec() would call its internal match() function recursively and
43        immediately return the result unconditionally, it uses a "tail recursion"
44        feature to save stack. However, when a subpattern that can match an empty
45        string has an unlimited repetition quantifier, it no longer makes this
46        optimization. That gives it a stack frame in which to save the data for
47        checking that an empty string has been matched. Previously this was taken
48        from the 1000-entry workspace that had been reserved. So now there is no
49        explicit limit, but more stack is used.
51     8. Applied Daniel's patches to solve problems with the import/export magic
52        syntax that is required for Windows, and which was going wrong for the
53        pcreposix and pcrecpp parts of the library. These were overlooked when this
54        problem was solved for the main library.
56     9. There were some crude static tests to avoid integer overflow when computing
57        the size of patterns that contain repeated groups with explicit upper
58        limits. As the maximum quantifier is 65535, the maximum group length was
59        set at 30,000 so that the product of these two numbers did not overflow a
60        32-bit integer. However, it turns out that people want to use groups that
61        are longer than 30,000 bytes (though not repeat them that many times).
62        Change 7.0/17 (the refactoring of the way the pattern size is computed) has
63        made it possible to implement the integer overflow checks in a much more
64        dynamic way, which I have now done. The artificial limitation on group
65        length has been removed - we now have only the limit on the total length of
66        the compiled pattern, which depends on the LINK_SIZE setting.
68    10. Fixed a bug in the documentation for get/copy named substring when
69        duplicate names are permitted. If none of the named substrings are set, the
70        functions return PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (7); the doc said they returned an
71        empty string.
73    11. Because Perl interprets \Q...\E at a high level, and ignores orphan \E
74        instances, patterns such as [\Q\E] or [\E] or even [^\E] cause an error,
75        because the ] is interpreted as the first data character and the
76        terminating ] is not found. PCRE has been made compatible with Perl in this
77        regard. Previously, it interpreted [\Q\E] as an empty class, and [\E] could
78        cause memory overwriting.
80    10. Like Perl, PCRE automatically breaks an unlimited repeat after an empty
81        string has been matched (to stop an infinite loop). It was not recognizing
82        a conditional subpattern that could match an empty string if that
83        subpattern was within another subpattern. For example, it looped when
84        trying to match  (((?(1)X|))*)  but it was OK with  ((?(1)X|)*)  where the
85        condition was not nested. This bug has been fixed.
87    12. A pattern like \X?\d or \P{L}?\d in non-UTF-8 mode could cause a backtrack
88        past the start of the subject in the presence of bytes with the top bit
89        set, for example "\x8aBCD".
91    13. Added Perl 5.10 experimental backtracking controls (*FAIL), (*F), (*PRUNE),
92        (*SKIP), (*THEN), (*COMMIT), and (*ACCEPT).
94    14. Optimized (?!) to (*FAIL).
96    15. Updated the test for a valid UTF-8 string to conform to the later RFC 3629.
97        This restricts code points to be within the range 0 to 0x10FFFF, excluding
98        the "low surrogate" sequence 0xD800 to 0xDFFF. Previously, PCRE allowed the
99        full range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF, as defined by RFC 2279. Internally, it still
100        does: it's just the validity check that is more restrictive.
102    16. Inserted checks for integer overflows during escape sequence (backslash)
103        processing, and also fixed erroneous offset values for syntax errors during
104        backslash processing.
106    17. Fixed another case of looking too far back in non-UTF-8 mode (cf 12 above)
107        for patterns like [\PPP\x8a]{1,}\x80 with the subject "A\x80".
109    18. An unterminated class in a pattern like (?1)\c[ with a "forward reference"
110        caused an overrun.
112    19. A pattern like (?:[\PPa*]*){8,} which had an "extended class" (one with
113        something other than just ASCII characters) inside a group that had an
114        unlimited repeat caused a loop at compile time (while checking to see
115        whether the group could match an empty string).
117    20. Debugging a pattern containing \p or \P could cause a crash. For example,
118        [\P{Any}] did so. (Error in the code for printing property names.)
120    21. An orphan \E inside a character class could cause a crash.
122    22. A repeated capturing bracket such as (A)? could cause a wild memory
123        reference during compilation.
125    23. There are several functions in pcre_compile() that scan along a compiled
126        expression for various reasons (e.g. to see if it's fixed length for look
127        behind). There were bugs in these functions when a repeated \p or \P was
128        present in the pattern. These operators have additional parameters compared
129        with \d, etc, and these were not being taken into account when moving along
130        the compiled data. Specifically:
132        (a) A item such as \p{Yi}{3} in a lookbehind was not treated as fixed
133            length.
135        (b) An item such as \pL+ within a repeated group could cause crashes or
136            loops.
138        (c) A pattern such as \p{Yi}+(\P{Yi}+)(?1) could give an incorrect
139            "reference to non-existent subpattern" error.
141        (d) A pattern like (\P{Yi}{2}\277)? could loop at compile time.
143    24. A repeated \S or \W in UTF-8 mode could give wrong answers when multibyte
144        characters were involved (for example /\S{2}/8g with "A\x{a3}BC").
147    Version 7.2 19-Jun-07
148    ---------------------
150     1. If the fr_FR locale cannot be found for test 3, try the "french" locale,
151        which is apparently normally available under Windows.
153     2. Re-jig the pcregrep tests with different newline settings in an attempt
154        to make them independent of the local environment's newline setting.
156     3. Add code to configure.ac to remove -g from the CFLAGS default settings.
158     4. Some of the "internals" tests were previously cut out when the link size
159        was not 2, because the output contained actual offsets. The recent new
160        "Z" feature of pcretest means that these can be cut out, making the tests
161        usable with all link sizes.
163     5. Implemented Stan Switzer's goto replacement for longjmp() when not using
164        stack recursion. This gives a massive performance boost under BSD, but just
165        a small improvement under Linux. However, it saves one field in the frame
166        in all cases.
168     6. Added more features from the forthcoming Perl 5.10:
170        (a) (?-n) (where n is a string of digits) is a relative subroutine or
171            recursion call. It refers to the nth most recently opened parentheses.
173        (b) (?+n) is also a relative subroutine call; it refers to the nth next
174            to be opened parentheses.
176        (c) Conditions that refer to capturing parentheses can be specified
177            relatively, for example, (?(-2)... or (?(+3)...
179        (d) \K resets the start of the current match so that everything before
180            is not part of it.
182        (e) \k{name} is synonymous with \k<name> and \k'name' (.NET compatible).
184        (f) \g{name} is another synonym - part of Perl 5.10's unification of
185            reference syntax.
187        (g) (?| introduces a group in which the numbering of parentheses in each
188            alternative starts with the same number.
190        (h) \h, \H, \v, and \V match horizontal and vertical whitespace.
192     7. Added two new calls to pcre_fullinfo(): PCRE_INFO_OKPARTIAL and
195     8. A pattern such as  (.*(.)?)*  caused pcre_exec() to fail by either not
196        terminating or by crashing. Diagnosed by Viktor Griph; it was in the code
197        for detecting groups that can match an empty string.
199     9. A pattern with a very large number of alternatives (more than several
200        hundred) was running out of internal workspace during the pre-compile
201        phase, where pcre_compile() figures out how much memory will be needed. A
202        bit of new cunning has reduced the workspace needed for groups with
203        alternatives. The 1000-alternative test pattern now uses 12 bytes of
204        workspace instead of running out of the 4096 that are available.
206    10. Inserted some missing (unsigned int) casts to get rid of compiler warnings.
208    11. Applied patch from Google to remove an optimization that didn't quite work.
209        The report of the bug said:
211          pcrecpp::RE("a*").FullMatch("aaa") matches, while
212          pcrecpp::RE("a*?").FullMatch("aaa") does not, and
213          pcrecpp::RE("a*?\\z").FullMatch("aaa") does again.
215    12. If \p or \P was used in non-UTF-8 mode on a character greater than 127
216        it matched the wrong number of bytes.
219    Version 7.1 24-Apr-07
220    ---------------------
222     1. Applied Bob Rossi and Daniel G's patches to convert the build system to one
223        that is more "standard", making use of automake and other Autotools. There
224        is some re-arrangement of the files and adjustment of comments consequent
225        on this.
227     2. Part of the patch fixed a problem with the pcregrep tests. The test of -r
228        for recursive directory scanning broke on some systems because the files
229        are not scanned in any specific order and on different systems the order
230        was different. A call to "sort" has been inserted into RunGrepTest for the
231        approprate test as a short-term fix. In the longer term there may be an
232        alternative.
234     3. I had an email from Eric Raymond about problems translating some of PCRE's
235        man pages to HTML (despite the fact that I distribute HTML pages, some
236        people do their own conversions for various reasons). The problems
237        concerned the use of low-level troff macros .br and .in. I have therefore
238        removed all such uses from the man pages (some were redundant, some could
239        be replaced by .nf/.fi pairs). The 132html script that I use to generate
240        HTML has been updated to handle .nf/.fi and to complain if it encounters
241        .br or .in.
243     4. Updated comments in configure.ac that get placed in config.h.in and also
244        arranged for config.h to be included in the distribution, with the name
245        config.h.generic, for the benefit of those who have to compile without
246        Autotools (compare pcre.h, which is now distributed as pcre.h.generic).
248     5. Updated the support (such as it is) for Virtual Pascal, thanks to Stefan
249        Weber: (1) pcre_internal.h was missing some function renames; (2) updated
250        makevp.bat for the current PCRE, using the additional files
251        makevp_c.txt, makevp_l.txt, and pcregexp.pas.
253     6. A Windows user reported a minor discrepancy with test 2, which turned out
254        to be caused by a trailing space on an input line that had got lost in his
255        copy. The trailing space was an accident, so I've just removed it.
257     7. Add -Wl,-R... flags in pcre-config.in for *BSD* systems, as I'm told
258        that is needed.
260     8. Mark ucp_table (in ucptable.h) and ucp_gentype (in pcre_ucp_searchfuncs.c)
261        as "const" (a) because they are and (b) because it helps the PHP
262        maintainers who have recently made a script to detect big data structures
263        in the php code that should be moved to the .rodata section. I remembered
264        to update Builducptable as well, so it won't revert if ucptable.h is ever
265        re-created.
267     9. Added some extra #ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8 conditionals into pcretest.c,
268        pcre_printint.src, pcre_compile.c, pcre_study.c, and pcre_tables.c, in
269        order to be able to cut out the UTF-8 tables in the latter when UTF-8
270        support is not required. This saves 1.5-2K of code, which is important in
271        some applications.
273        Later: more #ifdefs are needed in pcre_ord2utf8.c and pcre_valid_utf8.c
274        so as not to refer to the tables, even though these functions will never be
275        called when UTF-8 support is disabled. Otherwise there are problems with a
276        shared library.
278    10. Fixed two bugs in the emulated memmove() function in pcre_internal.h:
280        (a) It was defining its arguments as char * instead of void *.
282        (b) It was assuming that all moves were upwards in memory; this was true
283            a long time ago when I wrote it, but is no longer the case.
285        The emulated memove() is provided for those environments that have neither
286        memmove() nor bcopy(). I didn't think anyone used it these days, but that
287        is clearly not the case, as these two bugs were recently reported.
289    11. The script PrepareRelease is now distributed: it calls 132html, CleanTxt,
290        and Detrail to create the HTML documentation, the .txt form of the man
291        pages, and it removes trailing spaces from listed files. It also creates
292        pcre.h.generic and config.h.generic from pcre.h and config.h. In the latter
293        case, it wraps all the #defines with #ifndefs. This script should be run
294        before "make dist".
296    12. Fixed two fairly obscure bugs concerned with quantified caseless matching
297        with Unicode property support.
299        (a) For a maximizing quantifier, if the two different cases of the
300            character were of different lengths in their UTF-8 codings (there are
301            some cases like this - I found 11), and the matching function had to
302            back up over a mixture of the two cases, it incorrectly assumed they
303            were both the same length.
305        (b) When PCRE was configured to use the heap rather than the stack for
306            recursion during matching, it was not correctly preserving the data for
307            the other case of a UTF-8 character when checking ahead for a match
308            while processing a minimizing repeat. If the check also involved
309            matching a wide character, but failed, corruption could cause an
310            erroneous result when trying to check for a repeat of the original
311            character.
313    13. Some tidying changes to the testing mechanism:
315        (a) The RunTest script now detects the internal link size and whether there
316            is UTF-8 and UCP support by running ./pcretest -C instead of relying on
317            values substituted by "configure". (The RunGrepTest script already did
318            this for UTF-8.) The configure.ac script no longer substitutes the
319            relevant variables.
321        (b) The debugging options /B and /D in pcretest show the compiled bytecode
322            with length and offset values. This means that the output is different
323            for different internal link sizes. Test 2 is skipped for link sizes
324            other than 2 because of this, bypassing the problem. Unfortunately,
325            there was also a test in test 3 (the locale tests) that used /B and
326            failed for link sizes other than 2. Rather than cut the whole test out,
327            I have added a new /Z option to pcretest that replaces the length and
328            offset values with spaces. This is now used to make test 3 independent
329            of link size. (Test 2 will be tidied up later.)
331    14. If erroroffset was passed as NULL to pcre_compile, it provoked a
332        segmentation fault instead of returning the appropriate error message.
334    15. In multiline mode when the newline sequence was set to "any", the pattern
335        ^$ would give a match between the \r and \n of a subject such as "A\r\nB".
336        This doesn't seem right; it now treats the CRLF combination as the line
337        ending, and so does not match in that case. It's only a pattern such as ^$
338        that would hit this one: something like ^ABC$ would have failed after \r
339        and then tried again after \r\n.
341    16. Changed the comparison command for RunGrepTest from "diff -u" to "diff -ub"
342        in an attempt to make files that differ only in their line terminators
343        compare equal. This works on Linux.
345    17. Under certain error circumstances pcregrep might try to free random memory
346        as it exited. This is now fixed, thanks to valgrind.
348    19. In pcretest, if the pattern /(?m)^$/g<any> was matched against the string
349        "abc\r\n\r\n", it found an unwanted second match after the second \r. This
350        was because its rules for how to advance for /g after matching an empty
351        string at the end of a line did not allow for this case. They now check for
352        it specially.
354    20. pcretest is supposed to handle patterns and data of any length, by
355        extending its buffers when necessary. It was getting this wrong when the
356        buffer for a data line had to be extended.
358    21. Added PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF which is like ANY, but matches only CR, LF, or
359        CRLF as a newline sequence.
361    22. Code for handling Unicode properties in pcre_dfa_exec() wasn't being cut
362        out by #ifdef SUPPORT_UCP. This did no harm, as it could never be used, but
363        I have nevertheless tidied it up.
365    23. Added some casts to kill warnings from HP-UX ia64 compiler.
367    24. Added a man page for pcre-config.
370    Version 7.0 19-Dec-06
371    ---------------------
373     1. Fixed a signed/unsigned compiler warning in pcre_compile.c, shown up by
374        moving to gcc 4.1.1.
376     2. The -S option for pcretest uses setrlimit(); I had omitted to #include
377        sys/time.h, which is documented as needed for this function. It doesn't
378        seem to matter on Linux, but it showed up on some releases of OS X.
380     3. It seems that there are systems where bytes whose values are greater than
381        127 match isprint() in the "C" locale. The "C" locale should be the
382        default when a C program starts up. In most systems, only ASCII printing
383        characters match isprint(). This difference caused the output from pcretest
384        to vary, making some of the tests fail. I have changed pcretest so that:
386        (a) When it is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern, bytes
387            other than 32-126 are always shown as hex escapes.
389        (b) When it is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject string,
390            it does the same, unless a different locale has been set for the match
391            (using the /L modifier). In this case, it uses isprint() to decide.
393     4. Fixed a major bug that caused incorrect computation of the amount of memory
394        required for a compiled pattern when options that changed within the
395        pattern affected the logic of the preliminary scan that determines the
396        length. The relevant options are -x, and -i in UTF-8 mode. The result was
397        that the computed length was too small. The symptoms of this bug were
398        either the PCRE error "internal error: code overflow" from pcre_compile(),
399        or a glibc crash with a message such as "pcretest: free(): invalid next
400        size (fast)". Examples of patterns that provoked this bug (shown in
401        pcretest format) are:
403          /(?-x: )/x
404          /(?x)(?-x: \s*#\s*)/
405          /((?i)[\x{c0}])/8
406          /(?i:[\x{c0}])/8
408        HOWEVER: Change 17 below makes this fix obsolete as the memory computation
409        is now done differently.
411     5. Applied patches from Google to: (a) add a QuoteMeta function to the C++
412        wrapper classes; (b) implement a new function in the C++ scanner that is
413        more efficient than the old way of doing things because it avoids levels of
414        recursion in the regex matching; (c) add a paragraph to the documentation
415        for the FullMatch() function.
417     6. The escape sequence \n was being treated as whatever was defined as
418        "newline". Not only was this contrary to the documentation, which states
419        that \n is character 10 (hex 0A), but it also went horribly wrong when
420        "newline" was defined as CRLF. This has been fixed.
422     7. In pcre_dfa_exec.c the value of an unsigned integer (the variable called c)
423        was being set to -1 for the "end of line" case (supposedly a value that no
424        character can have). Though this value is never used (the check for end of
425        line is "zero bytes in current character"), it caused compiler complaints.
426        I've changed it to 0xffffffff.
428     8. In pcre_version.c, the version string was being built by a sequence of
429        C macros that, in the event of PCRE_PRERELEASE being defined as an empty
430        string (as it is for production releases) called a macro with an empty
431        argument. The C standard says the result of this is undefined. The gcc
432        compiler treats it as an empty string (which was what was wanted) but it is
433        reported that Visual C gives an error. The source has been hacked around to
434        avoid this problem.
436     9. On the advice of a Windows user, included <io.h> and <fcntl.h> in Windows
437        builds of pcretest, and changed the call to _setmode() to use _O_BINARY
438        instead of 0x8000. Made all the #ifdefs test both _WIN32 and WIN32 (not all
439        of them did).
441    10. Originally, pcretest opened its input and output without "b"; then I was
442        told that "b" was needed in some environments, so it was added for release
443        5.0 to both the input and output. (It makes no difference on Unix-like
444        systems.) Later I was told that it is wrong for the input on Windows. I've
445        now abstracted the modes into two macros, to make it easier to fiddle with
446        them, and removed "b" from the input mode under Windows.
448    11. Added pkgconfig support for the C++ wrapper library, libpcrecpp.
450    12. Added -help and --help to pcretest as an official way of being reminded
451        of the options.
453    13. Removed some redundant semicolons after macro calls in pcrecpparg.h.in
454        and pcrecpp.cc because they annoy compilers at high warning levels.
456    14. A bit of tidying/refactoring in pcre_exec.c in the main bumpalong loop.
458    15. Fixed an occurrence of == in configure.ac that should have been = (shell
459        scripts are not C programs :-) and which was not noticed because it works
460        on Linux.
462    16. pcretest is supposed to handle any length of pattern and data line (as one
463        line or as a continued sequence of lines) by extending its input buffer if
464        necessary. This feature was broken for very long pattern lines, leading to
465        a string of junk being passed to pcre_compile() if the pattern was longer
466        than about 50K.
468    17. I have done a major re-factoring of the way pcre_compile() computes the
469        amount of memory needed for a compiled pattern. Previously, there was code
470        that made a preliminary scan of the pattern in order to do this. That was
471        OK when PCRE was new, but as the facilities have expanded, it has become
472        harder and harder to keep it in step with the real compile phase, and there
473        have been a number of bugs (see for example, 4 above). I have now found a
474        cunning way of running the real compile function in a "fake" mode that
475        enables it to compute how much memory it would need, while actually only
476        ever using a few hundred bytes of working memory and without too many
477        tests of the mode. This should make future maintenance and development
478        easier. A side effect of this work is that the limit of 200 on the nesting
479        depth of parentheses has been removed (though this was never a serious
480        limitation, I suspect). However, there is a downside: pcre_compile() now
481        runs more slowly than before (30% or more, depending on the pattern). I
482        hope this isn't a big issue. There is no effect on runtime performance.
484    18. Fixed a minor bug in pcretest: if a pattern line was not terminated by a
485        newline (only possible for the last line of a file) and it was a
486        pattern that set a locale (followed by /Lsomething), pcretest crashed.
488    19. Added additional timing features to pcretest. (1) The -tm option now times
489        matching only, not compiling. (2) Both -t and -tm can be followed, as a
490        separate command line item, by a number that specifies the number of
491        repeats to use when timing. The default is 50000; this gives better
492        precision, but takes uncomfortably long for very large patterns.
494    20. Extended pcre_study() to be more clever in cases where a branch of a
495        subpattern has no definite first character. For example, (a*|b*)[cd] would
496        previously give no result from pcre_study(). Now it recognizes that the
497        first character must be a, b, c, or d.
499    21. There was an incorrect error "recursive call could loop indefinitely" if
500        a subpattern (or the entire pattern) that was being tested for matching an
501        empty string contained only one non-empty item after a nested subpattern.
502        For example, the pattern (?>\x{100}*)\d(?R) provoked this error
503        incorrectly, because the \d was being skipped in the check.
505    22. The pcretest program now has a new pattern option /B and a command line
506        option -b, which is equivalent to adding /B to every pattern. This causes
507        it to show the compiled bytecode, without the additional information that
508        -d shows. The effect of -d is now the same as -b with -i (and similarly, /D
509        is the same as /B/I).
511    23. A new optimization is now able automatically to treat some sequences such
512        as a*b as a*+b. More specifically, if something simple (such as a character
513        or a simple class like \d) has an unlimited quantifier, and is followed by
514        something that cannot possibly match the quantified thing, the quantifier
515        is automatically "possessified".
517    24. A recursive reference to a subpattern whose number was greater than 39
518        went wrong under certain circumstances in UTF-8 mode. This bug could also
519        have affected the operation of pcre_study().
521    25. Realized that a little bit of performance could be had by replacing
522        (c & 0xc0) == 0xc0 with c >= 0xc0 when processing UTF-8 characters.
524    26. Timing data from pcretest is now shown to 4 decimal places instead of 3.
526    27. Possessive quantifiers such as a++ were previously implemented by turning
527        them into atomic groups such as ($>a+). Now they have their own opcodes,
528        which improves performance. This includes the automatically created ones
529        from 23 above.
531    28. A pattern such as (?=(\w+))\1: which simulates an atomic group using a
532        lookahead was broken if it was not anchored. PCRE was mistakenly expecting
533        the first matched character to be a colon. This applied both to named and
534        numbered groups.
536    29. The ucpinternal.h header file was missing its idempotency #ifdef.
538    30. I was sent a "project" file called libpcre.a.dev which I understand makes
539        building PCRE on Windows easier, so I have included it in the distribution.
541    31. There is now a check in pcretest against a ridiculously large number being
542        returned by pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). If this happens in a /g or /G
543        loop, the loop is abandoned.
545    32. Forward references to subpatterns in conditions such as (?(2)...) where
546        subpattern 2 is defined later cause pcre_compile() to search forwards in
547        the pattern for the relevant set of parentheses. This search went wrong
548        when there were unescaped parentheses in a character class, parentheses
549        escaped with \Q...\E, or parentheses in a #-comment in /x mode.
551    33. "Subroutine" calls and backreferences were previously restricted to
552        referencing subpatterns earlier in the regex. This restriction has now
553        been removed.
555    34. Added a number of extra features that are going to be in Perl 5.10. On the
556        whole, these are just syntactic alternatives for features that PCRE had
557        previously implemented using the Python syntax or my own invention. The
558        other formats are all retained for compatibility.
560        (a) Named groups can now be defined as (?<name>...) or (?'name'...) as well
561            as (?P<name>...). The new forms, as well as being in Perl 5.10, are
562            also .NET compatible.
564        (b) A recursion or subroutine call to a named group can now be defined as
565            (?&name) as well as (?P>name).
567        (c) A backreference to a named group can now be defined as \k<name> or
568            \k'name' as well as (?P=name). The new forms, as well as being in Perl
569            5.10, are also .NET compatible.
571        (d) A conditional reference to a named group can now use the syntax
572            (?(<name>) or (?('name') as well as (?(name).
574        (e) A "conditional group" of the form (?(DEFINE)...) can be used to define
575            groups (named and numbered) that are never evaluated inline, but can be
576            called as "subroutines" from elsewhere. In effect, the DEFINE condition
577            is always false. There may be only one alternative in such a group.
579        (f) A test for recursion can be given as (?(R1).. or (?(R&name)... as well
580            as the simple (?(R). The condition is true only if the most recent
581            recursion is that of the given number or name. It does not search out
582            through the entire recursion stack.
584        (g) The escape \gN or \g{N} has been added, where N is a positive or
585            negative number, specifying an absolute or relative reference.
587    35. Tidied to get rid of some further signed/unsigned compiler warnings and
588        some "unreachable code" warnings.
590    36. Updated the Unicode property tables to Unicode version 5.0.0. Amongst other
591        things, this adds five new scripts.
593    37. Perl ignores orphaned \E escapes completely. PCRE now does the same.
594        There were also incompatibilities regarding the handling of \Q..\E inside
595        character classes, for example with patterns like [\Qa\E-\Qz\E] where the
596        hyphen was adjacent to \Q or \E. I hope I've cleared all this up now.
598    38. Like Perl, PCRE detects when an indefinitely repeated parenthesized group
599        matches an empty string, and forcibly breaks the loop. There were bugs in
600        this code in non-simple cases. For a pattern such as  ^(a()*)*  matched
601        against  aaaa  the result was just "a" rather than "aaaa", for example. Two
602        separate and independent bugs (that affected different cases) have been
603        fixed.
605    39. Refactored the code to abolish the use of different opcodes for small
606        capturing bracket numbers. This is a tidy that I avoided doing when I
607        removed the limit on the number of capturing brackets for 3.5 back in 2001.
608        The new approach is not only tidier, it makes it possible to reduce the
609        memory needed to fix the previous bug (38).
611    40. Implemented PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY to recognize any of the Unicode newline
612        sequences (http://unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr18/) as "newline" when
613        processing dot, circumflex, or dollar metacharacters, or #-comments in /x
614        mode.
616    41. Add \R to match any Unicode newline sequence, as suggested in the Unicode
617        report.
619    42. Applied patch, originally from Ari Pollak, modified by Google, to allow
620        copy construction and assignment in the C++ wrapper.
622    43. Updated pcregrep to support "--newline=any". In the process, I fixed a
623        couple of bugs that could have given wrong results in the "--newline=crlf"
624        case.
626    44. Added a number of casts and did some reorganization of signed/unsigned int
627        variables following suggestions from Dair Grant. Also renamed the variable
628        "this" as "item" because it is a C++ keyword.
630    45. Arranged for dftables to add
632          #include "pcre_internal.h"
634        to pcre_chartables.c because without it, gcc 4.x may remove the array
635        definition from the final binary if PCRE is built into a static library and
636        dead code stripping is activated.
638    46. For an unanchored pattern, if a match attempt fails at the start of a
639        newline sequence, and the newline setting is CRLF or ANY, and the next two
640        characters are CRLF, advance by two characters instead of one.
643    Version 6.7 04-Jul-06
644    ---------------------
646     1. In order to handle tests when input lines are enormously long, pcretest has
647        been re-factored so that it automatically extends its buffers when
648        necessary. The code is crude, but this _is_ just a test program. The
649        default size has been increased from 32K to 50K.
651     2. The code in pcre_study() was using the value of the re argument before
652        testing it for NULL. (Of course, in any sensible call of the function, it
653        won't be NULL.)
655     3. The memmove() emulation function in pcre_internal.h, which is used on
656        systems that lack both memmove() and bcopy() - that is, hardly ever -
657        was missing a "static" storage class specifier.
659     4. When UTF-8 mode was not set, PCRE looped when compiling certain patterns
660        containing an extended class (one that cannot be represented by a bitmap
661        because it contains high-valued characters or Unicode property items, e.g.
662        [\pZ]). Almost always one would set UTF-8 mode when processing such a
663        pattern, but PCRE should not loop if you do not (it no longer does).
664        [Detail: two cases were found: (a) a repeated subpattern containing an
665        extended class; (b) a recursive reference to a subpattern that followed a
666        previous extended class. It wasn't skipping over the extended class
667        correctly when UTF-8 mode was not set.]
669     5. A negated single-character class was not being recognized as fixed-length
670        in lookbehind assertions such as (?<=[^f]), leading to an incorrect
671        compile error "lookbehind assertion is not fixed length".
673     6. The RunPerlTest auxiliary script was showing an unexpected difference
674        between PCRE and Perl for UTF-8 tests. It turns out that it is hard to
675        write a Perl script that can interpret lines of an input file either as
676        byte characters or as UTF-8, which is what "perltest" was being required to
677        do for the non-UTF-8 and UTF-8 tests, respectively. Essentially what you
678        can't do is switch easily at run time between having the "use utf8;" pragma
679        or not. In the end, I fudged it by using the RunPerlTest script to insert
680        "use utf8;" explicitly for the UTF-8 tests.
682     7. In multiline (/m) mode, PCRE was matching ^ after a terminating newline at
683        the end of the subject string, contrary to the documentation and to what
684        Perl does. This was true of both matching functions. Now it matches only at
685        the start of the subject and immediately after *internal* newlines.
687     8. A call of pcre_fullinfo() from pcretest to get the option bits was passing
688        a pointer to an int instead of a pointer to an unsigned long int. This
689        caused problems on 64-bit systems.
691     9. Applied a patch from the folks at Google to pcrecpp.cc, to fix "another
692        instance of the 'standard' template library not being so standard".
694    10. There was no check on the number of named subpatterns nor the maximum
695        length of a subpattern name. The product of these values is used to compute
696        the size of the memory block for a compiled pattern. By supplying a very
697        long subpattern name and a large number of named subpatterns, the size
698        computation could be caused to overflow. This is now prevented by limiting
699        the length of names to 32 characters, and the number of named subpatterns
700        to 10,000.
702    11. Subpatterns that are repeated with specific counts have to be replicated in
703        the compiled pattern. The size of memory for this was computed from the
704        length of the subpattern and the repeat count. The latter is limited to
705        65535, but there was no limit on the former, meaning that integer overflow
706        could in principle occur. The compiled length of a repeated subpattern is
707        now limited to 30,000 bytes in order to prevent this.
709    12. Added the optional facility to have named substrings with the same name.
711    13. Added the ability to use a named substring as a condition, using the
712        Python syntax: (?(name)yes|no). This overloads (?(R)... and names that
713        are numbers (not recommended). Forward references are permitted.
715    14. Added forward references in named backreferences (if you see what I mean).
717    15. In UTF-8 mode, with the PCRE_DOTALL option set, a quantified dot in the
718        pattern could run off the end of the subject. For example, the pattern
719        "(?s)(.{1,5})"8 did this with the subject "ab".
721    16. If PCRE_DOTALL or PCRE_MULTILINE were set, pcre_dfa_exec() behaved as if
722        PCRE_CASELESS was set when matching characters that were quantified with ?
723        or *.
725    17. A character class other than a single negated character that had a minimum
726        but no maximum quantifier - for example [ab]{6,} - was not handled
727        correctly by pce_dfa_exec(). It would match only one character.
729    18. A valid (though odd) pattern that looked like a POSIX character
730        class but used an invalid character after [ (for example [[,abc,]]) caused
731        pcre_compile() to give the error "Failed: internal error: code overflow" or
732        in some cases to crash with a glibc free() error. This could even happen if
733        the pattern terminated after [[ but there just happened to be a sequence of
734        letters, a binary zero, and a closing ] in the memory that followed.
736    19. Perl's treatment of octal escapes in the range \400 to \777 has changed
737        over the years. Originally (before any Unicode support), just the bottom 8
738        bits were taken. Thus, for example, \500 really meant \100. Nowadays the
739        output from "man perlunicode" includes this:
741          The regular expression compiler produces polymorphic opcodes.  That
742          is, the pattern adapts to the data and automatically switches to
743          the Unicode character scheme when presented with Unicode data--or
744          instead uses a traditional byte scheme when presented with byte
745          data.
747        Sadly, a wide octal escape does not cause a switch, and in a string with
748        no other multibyte characters, these octal escapes are treated as before.
749        Thus, in Perl, the pattern  /\500/ actually matches \100 but the pattern
750        /\500|\x{1ff}/ matches \500 or \777 because the whole thing is treated as a
751        Unicode string.
753        I have not perpetrated such confusion in PCRE. Up till now, it took just
754        the bottom 8 bits, as in old Perl. I have now made octal escapes with
755        values greater than \377 illegal in non-UTF-8 mode. In UTF-8 mode they
756        translate to the appropriate multibyte character.
758    29. Applied some refactoring to reduce the number of warnings from Microsoft
759        and Borland compilers. This has included removing the fudge introduced
760        seven years ago for the OS/2 compiler (see 2.02/2 below) because it caused
761        a warning about an unused variable.
763    21. PCRE has not included VT (character 0x0b) in the set of whitespace
764        characters since release 4.0, because Perl (from release 5.004) does not.
765        [Or at least, is documented not to: some releases seem to be in conflict
766        with the documentation.] However, when a pattern was studied with
767        pcre_study() and all its branches started with \s, PCRE still included VT
768        as a possible starting character. Of course, this did no harm; it just
769        caused an unnecessary match attempt.
771    22. Removed a now-redundant internal flag bit that recorded the fact that case
772        dependency changed within the pattern. This was once needed for "required
773        byte" processing, but is no longer used. This recovers a now-scarce options
774        bit. Also moved the least significant internal flag bit to the most-
775        significant bit of the word, which was not previously used (hangover from
776        the days when it was an int rather than a uint) to free up another bit for
777        the future.
779    23. Added support for CRLF line endings as well as CR and LF. As well as the
780        default being selectable at build time, it can now be changed at runtime
781        via the PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx flags. There are now options for pcregrep to
782        specify that it is scanning data with non-default line endings.
784    24. Changed the definition of CXXLINK to make it agree with the definition of
785        LINK in the Makefile, by replacing LDFLAGS to CXXFLAGS.
787    25. Applied Ian Taylor's patches to avoid using another stack frame for tail
788        recursions. This makes a big different to stack usage for some patterns.
790    26. If a subpattern containing a named recursion or subroutine reference such
791        as (?P>B) was quantified, for example (xxx(?P>B)){3}, the calculation of
792        the space required for the compiled pattern went wrong and gave too small a
793        value. Depending on the environment, this could lead to "Failed: internal
794        error: code overflow at offset 49" or "glibc detected double free or
795        corruption" errors.
797    27. Applied patches from Google (a) to support the new newline modes and (b) to
798        advance over multibyte UTF-8 characters in GlobalReplace.
800    28. Change free() to pcre_free() in pcredemo.c. Apparently this makes a
801        difference for some implementation of PCRE in some Windows version.
803    29. Added some extra testing facilities to pcretest:
805        \q<number>   in a data line sets the "match limit" value
806        \Q<number>   in a data line sets the "match recursion limt" value
807        -S <number>  sets the stack size, where <number> is in megabytes
809        The -S option isn't available for Windows.
812    Version 6.6 06-Feb-06
813    ---------------------
815     1. Change 16(a) for 6.5 broke things, because PCRE_DATA_SCOPE was not defined
816        in pcreposix.h. I have copied the definition from pcre.h.
818     2. Change 25 for 6.5 broke compilation in a build directory out-of-tree
819        because pcre.h is no longer a built file.
821     3. Added Jeff Friedl's additional debugging patches to pcregrep. These are
822        not normally included in the compiled code.
825    Version 6.5 01-Feb-06
826    ---------------------
828     1. When using the partial match feature with pcre_dfa_exec(), it was not
829        anchoring the second and subsequent partial matches at the new starting
830        point. This could lead to incorrect results. For example, with the pattern
831        /1234/, partially matching against "123" and then "a4" gave a match.
833     2. Changes to pcregrep:
835        (a) All non-match returns from pcre_exec() were being treated as failures
836            to match the line. Now, unless the error is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, an
837            error message is output. Some extra information is given for the
838            PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT and PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT errors, which are
839            probably the only errors that are likely to be caused by users (by
840            specifying a regex that has nested indefinite repeats, for instance).
841            If there are more than 20 of these errors, pcregrep is abandoned.
843        (b) A binary zero was treated as data while matching, but terminated the
844            output line if it was written out. This has been fixed: binary zeroes
845            are now no different to any other data bytes.
847        (c) Whichever of the LC_ALL or LC_CTYPE environment variables is set is
848            used to set a locale for matching. The --locale=xxxx long option has
849            been added (no short equivalent) to specify a locale explicitly on the
850            pcregrep command, overriding the environment variables.
852        (d) When -B was used with -n, some line numbers in the output were one less
853            than they should have been.
855        (e) Added the -o (--only-matching) option.
857        (f) If -A or -C was used with -c (count only), some lines of context were
858            accidentally printed for the final match.
860        (g) Added the -H (--with-filename) option.
862        (h) The combination of options -rh failed to suppress file names for files
863            that were found from directory arguments.
865        (i) Added the -D (--devices) and -d (--directories) options.
867        (j) Added the -F (--fixed-strings) option.
869        (k) Allow "-" to be used as a file name for -f as well as for a data file.
871        (l) Added the --colo(u)r option.
873        (m) Added Jeffrey Friedl's -S testing option, but within #ifdefs so that it
874            is not present by default.
876     3. A nasty bug was discovered in the handling of recursive patterns, that is,
877        items such as (?R) or (?1), when the recursion could match a number of
878        alternatives. If it matched one of the alternatives, but subsequently,
879        outside the recursion, there was a failure, the code tried to back up into
880        the recursion. However, because of the way PCRE is implemented, this is not
881        possible, and the result was an incorrect result from the match.
883        In order to prevent this happening, the specification of recursion has
884        been changed so that all such subpatterns are automatically treated as
885        atomic groups. Thus, for example, (?R) is treated as if it were (?>(?R)).
887     4. I had overlooked the fact that, in some locales, there are characters for
888        which isalpha() is true but neither isupper() nor islower() are true. In
889        the fr_FR locale, for instance, the \xAA and \xBA characters (ordmasculine
890        and ordfeminine) are like this. This affected the treatment of \w and \W
891        when they appeared in character classes, but not when they appeared outside
892        a character class. The bit map for "word" characters is now created
893        separately from the results of isalnum() instead of just taking it from the
894        upper, lower, and digit maps. (Plus the underscore character, of course.)
896     5. The above bug also affected the handling of POSIX character classes such as
897        [[:alpha:]] and [[:alnum:]]. These do not have their own bit maps in PCRE's
898        permanent tables. Instead, the bit maps for such a class were previously
899        created as the appropriate unions of the upper, lower, and digit bitmaps.
900        Now they are created by subtraction from the [[:word:]] class, which has
901        its own bitmap.
903     6. The [[:blank:]] character class matches horizontal, but not vertical space.
904        It is created by subtracting the vertical space characters (\x09, \x0a,
905        \x0b, \x0c) from the [[:space:]] bitmap. Previously, however, the
906        subtraction was done in the overall bitmap for a character class, meaning
907        that a class such as [\x0c[:blank:]] was incorrect because \x0c would not
908        be recognized. This bug has been fixed.
910     7. Patches from the folks at Google:
912          (a) pcrecpp.cc: "to handle a corner case that may or may not happen in
913          real life, but is still worth protecting against".
915          (b) pcrecpp.cc: "corrects a bug when negative radixes are used with
916          regular expressions".
918          (c) pcre_scanner.cc: avoid use of std::count() because not all systems
919          have it.
921          (d) Split off pcrecpparg.h from pcrecpp.h and had the former built by
922          "configure" and the latter not, in order to fix a problem somebody had
923          with compiling the Arg class on HP-UX.
925          (e) Improve the error-handling of the C++ wrapper a little bit.
927          (f) New tests for checking recursion limiting.
929     8. The pcre_memmove() function, which is used only if the environment does not
930        have a standard memmove() function (and is therefore rarely compiled),
931        contained two bugs: (a) use of int instead of size_t, and (b) it was not
932        returning a result (though PCRE never actually uses the result).
934     9. In the POSIX regexec() interface, if nmatch is specified as a ridiculously
935        large number - greater than INT_MAX/(3*sizeof(int)) - REG_ESPACE is
936        returned instead of calling malloc() with an overflowing number that would
937        most likely cause subsequent chaos.
939    10. The debugging option of pcretest was not showing the NO_AUTO_CAPTURE flag.
941    11. The POSIX flag REG_NOSUB is now supported. When a pattern that was compiled
942        with this option is matched, the nmatch and pmatch options of regexec() are
943        ignored.
945    12. Added REG_UTF8 to the POSIX interface. This is not defined by POSIX, but is
946        provided in case anyone wants to the the POSIX interface with UTF-8
947        strings.
949    13. Added CXXLDFLAGS to the Makefile parameters to provide settings only on the
950        C++ linking (needed for some HP-UX environments).
952    14. Avoid compiler warnings in get_ucpname() when compiled without UCP support
953        (unused parameter) and in the pcre_printint() function (omitted "default"
954        switch label when the default is to do nothing).
956    15. Added some code to make it possible, when PCRE is compiled as a C++
957        library, to replace subject pointers for pcre_exec() with a smart pointer
958        class, thus making it possible to process discontinuous strings.
960    16. The two macros PCRE_EXPORT and PCRE_DATA_SCOPE are confusing, and perform
961        much the same function. They were added by different people who were trying
962        to make PCRE easy to compile on non-Unix systems. It has been suggested
963        that PCRE_EXPORT be abolished now that there is more automatic apparatus
964        for compiling on Windows systems. I have therefore replaced it with
965        PCRE_DATA_SCOPE. This is set automatically for Windows; if not set it
966        defaults to "extern" for C or "extern C" for C++, which works fine on
967        Unix-like systems. It is now possible to override the value of PCRE_DATA_
968        SCOPE with something explicit in config.h. In addition:
970        (a) pcreposix.h still had just "extern" instead of either of these macros;
971            I have replaced it with PCRE_DATA_SCOPE.
973        (b) Functions such as _pcre_xclass(), which are internal to the library,
974            but external in the C sense, all had PCRE_EXPORT in their definitions.
975            This is apparently wrong for the Windows case, so I have removed it.
976            (It makes no difference on Unix-like systems.)
978    17. Added a new limit, MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION, which limits the depth of nesting
979        of recursive calls to match(). This is different to MATCH_LIMIT because
980        that limits the total number of calls to match(), not all of which increase
981        the depth of recursion. Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of
982        stack (or heap if NO_RECURSE is set) that is used. The default can be set
983        when PCRE is compiled, and changed at run time. A patch from Google adds
984        this functionality to the C++ interface.
986    18. Changes to the handling of Unicode character properties:
988        (a) Updated the table to Unicode 4.1.0.
990        (b) Recognize characters that are not in the table as "Cn" (undefined).
992        (c) I revised the way the table is implemented to a much improved format
993            which includes recognition of ranges. It now supports the ranges that
994            are defined in UnicodeData.txt, and it also amalgamates other
995            characters into ranges. This has reduced the number of entries in the
996            table from around 16,000 to around 3,000, thus reducing its size
997            considerably. I realized I did not need to use a tree structure after
998            all - a binary chop search is just as efficient. Having reduced the
999            number of entries, I extended their size from 6 bytes to 8 bytes to
1000            allow for more data.
1002        (d) Added support for Unicode script names via properties such as \p{Han}.
1004    19. In UTF-8 mode, a backslash followed by a non-Ascii character was not
1005        matching that character.
1007    20. When matching a repeated Unicode property with a minimum greater than zero,
1008        (for example \pL{2,}), PCRE could look past the end of the subject if it
1009        reached it while seeking the minimum number of characters. This could
1010        happen only if some of the characters were more than one byte long, because
1011        there is a check for at least the minimum number of bytes.
1013    21. Refactored the implementation of \p and \P so as to be more general, to
1014        allow for more different types of property in future. This has changed the
1015        compiled form incompatibly. Anybody with saved compiled patterns that use
1016        \p or \P will have to recompile them.
1018    22. Added "Any" and "L&" to the supported property types.
1020    23. Recognize \x{...} as a code point specifier, even when not in UTF-8 mode,
1021        but give a compile time error if the value is greater than 0xff.
1023    24. The man pages for pcrepartial, pcreprecompile, and pcre_compile2 were
1024        accidentally not being installed or uninstalled.
1026    25. The pcre.h file was built from pcre.h.in, but the only changes that were
1027        made were to insert the current release number. This seemed silly, because
1028        it made things harder for people building PCRE on systems that don't run
1029        "configure". I have turned pcre.h into a distributed file, no longer built
1030        by "configure", with the version identification directly included. There is
1031        no longer a pcre.h.in file.
1033        However, this change necessitated a change to the pcre-config script as
1034        well. It is built from pcre-config.in, and one of the substitutions was the
1035        release number. I have updated configure.ac so that ./configure now finds
1036        the release number by grepping pcre.h.
1038    26. Added the ability to run the tests under valgrind.
1041    Version 6.4 05-Sep-05
1042    ---------------------
1044     1. Change 6.0/10/(l) to pcregrep introduced a bug that caused separator lines
1045        "--" to be printed when multiple files were scanned, even when none of the
1046        -A, -B, or -C options were used. This is not compatible with Gnu grep, so I
1047        consider it to be a bug, and have restored the previous behaviour.
1049     2. A couple of code tidies to get rid of compiler warnings.
1051     3. The pcretest program used to cheat by referring to symbols in the library
1052        whose names begin with _pcre_. These are internal symbols that are not
1053        really supposed to be visible externally, and in some environments it is
1054        possible to suppress them. The cheating is now confined to including
1055        certain files from the library's source, which is a bit cleaner.
1057     4. Renamed pcre.in as pcre.h.in to go with pcrecpp.h.in; it also makes the
1058        file's purpose clearer.
1060     5. Reorganized pcre_ucp_findchar().
1063    Version 6.3 15-Aug-05
1064    ---------------------
1066     1. The file libpcre.pc.in did not have general read permission in the tarball.
1068     2. There were some problems when building without C++ support:
1070        (a) If C++ support was not built, "make install" and "make test" still
1071            tried to test it.
1073        (b) There were problems when the value of CXX was explicitly set. Some
1074            changes have been made to try to fix these, and ...
1076        (c) --disable-cpp can now be used to explicitly disable C++ support.
1078        (d) The use of @CPP_OBJ@ directly caused a blank line preceded by a
1079            backslash in a target when C++ was disabled. This confuses some
1080            versions of "make", apparently. Using an intermediate variable solves
1081            this. (Same for CPP_LOBJ.)
1083     3. $(LINK_FOR_BUILD) now includes $(CFLAGS_FOR_BUILD) and $(LINK)
1084        (non-Windows) now includes $(CFLAGS) because these flags are sometimes
1085        necessary on certain architectures.
1087     4. Added a setting of -export-symbols-regex to the link command to remove
1088        those symbols that are exported in the C sense, but actually are local
1089        within the library, and not documented. Their names all begin with
1090        "_pcre_". This is not a perfect job, because (a) we have to except some
1091        symbols that pcretest ("illegally") uses, and (b) the facility isn't always
1092        available (and never for static libraries). I have made a note to try to
1093        find a way round (a) in the future.
1096    Version 6.2 01-Aug-05
1097    ---------------------
1099     1. There was no test for integer overflow of quantifier values. A construction
1100        such as {1111111111111111} would give undefined results. What is worse, if
1101        a minimum quantifier for a parenthesized subpattern overflowed and became
1102        negative, the calculation of the memory size went wrong. This could have
1103        led to memory overwriting.
1105     2. Building PCRE using VPATH was broken. Hopefully it is now fixed.
1107     3. Added "b" to the 2nd argument of fopen() in dftables.c, for non-Unix-like
1108        operating environments where this matters.
1110     4. Applied Giuseppe Maxia's patch to add additional features for controlling
1111        PCRE options from within the C++ wrapper.
1113     5. Named capturing subpatterns were not being correctly counted when a pattern
1114        was compiled. This caused two problems: (a) If there were more than 100
1115        such subpatterns, the calculation of the memory needed for the whole
1116        compiled pattern went wrong, leading to an overflow error. (b) Numerical
1117        back references of the form \12, where the number was greater than 9, were
1118        not recognized as back references, even though there were sufficient
1119        previous subpatterns.
1121     6. Two minor patches to pcrecpp.cc in order to allow it to compile on older
1122        versions of gcc, e.g. 2.95.4.
1125    Version 6.1 21-Jun-05
1126    ---------------------
1128     1. There was one reference to the variable "posix" in pcretest.c that was not
1129        surrounded by "#if !defined NOPOSIX".
1131     2. Make it possible to compile pcretest without DFA support, UTF8 support, or
1132        the cross-check on the old pcre_info() function, for the benefit of the
1133        cut-down version of PCRE that is currently imported into Exim.
1135     3. A (silly) pattern starting with (?i)(?-i) caused an internal space
1136        allocation error. I've done the easy fix, which wastes 2 bytes for sensible
1137        patterns that start (?i) but I don't think that matters. The use of (?i) is
1138        just an example; this all applies to the other options as well.
1140     4. Since libtool seems to echo the compile commands it is issuing, the output
1141        from "make" can be reduced a bit by putting "@" in front of each libtool
1142        compile command.
1144     5. Patch from the folks at Google for configure.in to be a bit more thorough
1145        in checking for a suitable C++ installation before trying to compile the
1146        C++ stuff. This should fix a reported problem when a compiler was present,
1147        but no suitable headers.
1149     6. The man pages all had just "PCRE" as their title. I have changed them to
1150        be the relevant file name. I have also arranged that these names are
1151        retained in the file doc/pcre.txt, which is a concatenation in text format
1152        of all the man pages except the little individual ones for each function.
1154     7. The NON-UNIX-USE file had not been updated for the different set of source
1155        files that come with release 6. I also added a few comments about the C++
1156        wrapper.
1159    Version 6.0 07-Jun-05
1160    ---------------------
1162     1. Some minor internal re-organization to help with my DFA experiments.
1164     2. Some missing #ifdef SUPPORT_UCP conditionals in pcretest and printint that
1165        didn't matter for the library itself when fully configured, but did matter
1166        when compiling without UCP support, or within Exim, where the ucp files are
1167        not imported.
1169     3. Refactoring of the library code to split up the various functions into
1170        different source modules. The addition of the new DFA matching code (see
1171        below) to a single monolithic source would have made it really too
1172        unwieldy, quite apart from causing all the code to be include in a
1173        statically linked application, when only some functions are used. This is
1174        relevant even without the DFA addition now that patterns can be compiled in
1175        one application and matched in another.
1177        The downside of splitting up is that there have to be some external
1178        functions and data tables that are used internally in different modules of
1179        the library but which are not part of the API. These have all had their
1180        names changed to start with "_pcre_" so that they are unlikely to clash
1181        with other external names.
1183     4. Added an alternate matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), which matches using
1184        a different (DFA) algorithm. Although it is slower than the original
1185        function, it does have some advantages for certain types of matching
1186        problem.
1188     5. Upgrades to pcretest in order to test the features of pcre_dfa_exec(),
1189        including restarting after a partial match.
1191     6. A patch for pcregrep that defines INVALID_FILE_ATTRIBUTES if it is not
1192        defined when compiling for Windows was sent to me. I have put it into the
1193        code, though I have no means of testing or verifying it.
1195     7. Added the pcre_refcount() auxiliary function.
1197     8. Added the PCRE_FIRSTLINE option. This constrains an unanchored pattern to
1198        match before or at the first newline in the subject string. In pcretest,
1199        the /f option on a pattern can be used to set this.
1201     9. A repeated \w when used in UTF-8 mode with characters greater than 256
1202        would behave wrongly. This has been present in PCRE since release 4.0.
1204    10. A number of changes to the pcregrep command:
1206        (a) Refactored how -x works; insert ^(...)$ instead of setting
1207            PCRE_ANCHORED and checking the length, in preparation for adding
1208            something similar for -w.
1210        (b) Added the -w (match as a word) option.
1212        (c) Refactored the way lines are read and buffered so as to have more
1213            than one at a time available.
1215        (d) Implemented a pcregrep test script.
1217        (e) Added the -M (multiline match) option. This allows patterns to match
1218            over several lines of the subject. The buffering ensures that at least
1219            8K, or the rest of the document (whichever is the shorter) is available
1220            for matching (and similarly the previous 8K for lookbehind assertions).
1222        (f) Changed the --help output so that it now says
1224              -w, --word-regex(p)
1226            instead of two lines, one with "regex" and the other with "regexp"
1227            because that confused at least one person since the short forms are the
1228            same. (This required a bit of code, as the output is generated
1229            automatically from a table. It wasn't just a text change.)
1231        (g) -- can be used to terminate pcregrep options if the next thing isn't an
1232            option but starts with a hyphen. Could be a pattern or a path name
1233            starting with a hyphen, for instance.
1235        (h) "-" can be given as a file name to represent stdin.
1237        (i) When file names are being printed, "(standard input)" is used for
1238            the standard input, for compatibility with GNU grep. Previously
1239            "<stdin>" was used.
1241        (j) The option --label=xxx can be used to supply a name to be used for
1242            stdin when file names are being printed. There is no short form.
1244        (k) Re-factored the options decoding logic because we are going to add
1245            two more options that take data. Such options can now be given in four
1246            different ways, e.g. "-fname", "-f name", "--file=name", "--file name".
1248        (l) Added the -A, -B, and -C options for requesting that lines of context
1249            around matches be printed.
1251        (m) Added the -L option to print the names of files that do not contain
1252            any matching lines, that is, the complement of -l.
1254        (n) The return code is 2 if any file cannot be opened, but pcregrep does
1255            continue to scan other files.
1257        (o) The -s option was incorrectly implemented. For compatibility with other
1258            greps, it now suppresses the error message for a non-existent or non-
1259            accessible file (but not the return code). There is a new option called
1260            -q that suppresses the output of matching lines, which was what -s was
1261            previously doing.
1263        (p) Added --include and --exclude options to specify files for inclusion
1264            and exclusion when recursing.
1266    11. The Makefile was not using the Autoconf-supported LDFLAGS macro properly.
1267        Hopefully, it now does.
1269    12. Missing cast in pcre_study().
1271    13. Added an "uninstall" target to the makefile.
1273    14. Replaced "extern" in the function prototypes in Makefile.in with
1274        "PCRE_DATA_SCOPE", which defaults to 'extern' or 'extern "C"' in the Unix
1275        world, but is set differently for Windows.
1277    15. Added a second compiling function called pcre_compile2(). The only
1278        difference is that it has an extra argument, which is a pointer to an
1279        integer error code. When there is a compile-time failure, this is set
1280        non-zero, in addition to the error test pointer being set to point to an
1281        error message. The new argument may be NULL if no error number is required
1282        (but then you may as well call pcre_compile(), which is now just a
1283        wrapper). This facility is provided because some applications need a
1284        numeric error indication, but it has also enabled me to tidy up the way
1285        compile-time errors are handled in the POSIX wrapper.
1287    16. Added VPATH=.libs to the makefile; this should help when building with one
1288        prefix path and installing with another. (Or so I'm told by someone who
1289        knows more about this stuff than I do.)
1291    17. Added a new option, REG_DOTALL, to the POSIX function regcomp(). This
1292        passes PCRE_DOTALL to the pcre_compile() function, making the "." character
1293        match everything, including newlines. This is not POSIX-compatible, but
1294        somebody wanted the feature. From pcretest it can be activated by using
1295        both the P and the s flags.
1297    18. AC_PROG_LIBTOOL appeared twice in Makefile.in. Removed one.
1299    19. libpcre.pc was being incorrectly installed as executable.
1301    20. A couple of places in pcretest check for end-of-line by looking for '\n';
1302        it now also looks for '\r' so that it will work unmodified on Windows.
1304    21. Added Google's contributed C++ wrapper to the distribution.
1306    22. Added some untidy missing memory free() calls in pcretest, to keep
1307        Electric Fence happy when testing.
1311    Version 5.0 13-Sep-04
1312    ---------------------
1314     1. Internal change: literal characters are no longer packed up into items
1315        containing multiple characters in a single byte-string. Each character
1316        is now matched using a separate opcode. However, there may be more than one
1317        byte in the character in UTF-8 mode.
1319     2. The pcre_callout_block structure has two new fields: pattern_position and
1320        next_item_length. These contain the offset in the pattern to the next match
1321        item, and its length, respectively.
1323     3. The PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT option for pcre_compile() requests the automatic
1324        insertion of callouts before each pattern item. Added the /C option to
1325        pcretest to make use of this.
1327     4. On the advice of a Windows user, the lines
1329          #if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
1330          _setmode( _fileno( stdout ), 0x8000 );
1331          #endif  /* defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32) */
1333        have been added to the source of pcretest. This apparently does useful
1334        magic in relation to line terminators.
1336     5. Changed "r" and "w" in the calls to fopen() in pcretest to "rb" and "wb"
1337        for the benefit of those environments where the "b" makes a difference.
1339     6. The icc compiler has the same options as gcc, but "configure" doesn't seem
1340        to know about it. I have put a hack into configure.in that adds in code
1341        to set GCC=yes if CC=icc. This seems to end up at a point in the
1342        generated configure script that is early enough to affect the setting of
1343        compiler options, which is what is needed, but I have no means of testing
1344        whether it really works. (The user who reported this had patched the
1345        generated configure script, which of course I cannot do.)
1347        LATER: After change 22 below (new libtool files), the configure script
1348        seems to know about icc (and also ecc). Therefore, I have commented out
1349        this hack in configure.in.
1351     7. Added support for pkg-config (2 patches were sent in).
1353     8. Negated POSIX character classes that used a combination of internal tables
1354        were completely broken. These were [[:^alpha:]], [[:^alnum:]], and
1355        [[:^ascii]]. Typically, they would match almost any characters. The other
1356        POSIX classes were not broken in this way.
1358     9. Matching the pattern "\b.*?" against "ab cd", starting at offset 1, failed
1359        to find the match, as PCRE was deluded into thinking that the match had to
1360        start at the start point or following a newline. The same bug applied to
1361        patterns with negative forward assertions or any backward assertions
1362        preceding ".*" at the start, unless the pattern required a fixed first
1363        character. This was a failing pattern: "(?!.bcd).*". The bug is now fixed.
1365    10. In UTF-8 mode, when moving forwards in the subject after a failed match
1366        starting at the last subject character, bytes beyond the end of the subject
1367        string were read.
1369    11. Renamed the variable "class" as "classbits" to make life easier for C++
1370        users. (Previously there was a macro definition, but it apparently wasn't
1371        enough.)
1373    12. Added the new field "tables" to the extra data so that tables can be passed
1374        in at exec time, or the internal tables can be re-selected. This allows
1375        a compiled regex to be saved and re-used at a later time by a different
1376        program that might have everything at different addresses.
1378    13. Modified the pcre-config script so that, when run on Solaris, it shows a
1379        -R library as well as a -L library.
1381    14. The debugging options of pcretest (-d on the command line or D on a
1382        pattern) showed incorrect output for anything following an extended class
1383        that contained multibyte characters and which was followed by a quantifier.
1385    15. Added optional support for general category Unicode character properties
1386        via the \p, \P, and \X escapes. Unicode property support implies UTF-8
1387        support. It adds about 90K to the size of the library. The meanings of the
1388        inbuilt class escapes such as \d and \s have NOT been changed.
1390    16. Updated pcredemo.c to include calls to free() to release the memory for the
1391        compiled pattern.
1393    17. The generated file chartables.c was being created in the source directory
1394        instead of in the building directory. This caused the build to fail if the
1395        source directory was different from the building directory, and was
1396        read-only.
1398    18. Added some sample Win commands from Mark Tetrode into the NON-UNIX-USE
1399        file. No doubt somebody will tell me if they don't make sense... Also added
1400        Dan Mooney's comments about building on OpenVMS.
1402    19. Added support for partial matching via the PCRE_PARTIAL option for
1403        pcre_exec() and the \P data escape in pcretest.
1405    20. Extended pcretest with 3 new pattern features:
1407        (i)   A pattern option of the form ">rest-of-line" causes pcretest to
1408              write the compiled pattern to the file whose name is "rest-of-line".
1409              This is a straight binary dump of the data, with the saved pointer to
1410              the character tables forced to be NULL. The study data, if any, is
1411              written too. After writing, pcretest reads a new pattern.
1413        (ii)  If, instead of a pattern, "<rest-of-line" is given, pcretest reads a
1414              compiled pattern from the given file. There must not be any
1415              occurrences of "<" in the file name (pretty unlikely); if there are,
1416              pcretest will instead treat the initial "<" as a pattern delimiter.
1417              After reading in the pattern, pcretest goes on to read data lines as
1418              usual.
1420        (iii) The F pattern option causes pcretest to flip the bytes in the 32-bit
1421              and 16-bit fields in a compiled pattern, to simulate a pattern that
1422              was compiled on a host of opposite endianness.
1424    21. The pcre-exec() function can now cope with patterns that were compiled on
1425        hosts of opposite endianness, with this restriction:
1427          As for any compiled expression that is saved and used later, the tables
1428          pointer field cannot be preserved; the extra_data field in the arguments
1429          to pcre_exec() should be used to pass in a tables address if a value
1430          other than the default internal tables were used at compile time.
1432    22. Calling pcre_exec() with a negative value of the "ovecsize" parameter is
1433        now diagnosed as an error. Previously, most of the time, a negative number
1434        would have been treated as zero, but if in addition "ovector" was passed as
1435        NULL, a crash could occur.
1437    23. Updated the files ltmain.sh, config.sub, config.guess, and aclocal.m4 with
1438        new versions from the libtool 1.5 distribution (the last one is a copy of
1439        a file called libtool.m4). This seems to have fixed the need to patch
1440        "configure" to support Darwin 1.3 (which I used to do). However, I still
1441        had to patch ltmain.sh to ensure that ${SED} is set (it isn't on my
1442        workstation).
1444    24. Changed the PCRE licence to be the more standard "BSD" licence.
1447    Version 4.5 01-Dec-03
1448    ---------------------
1450     1. There has been some re-arrangement of the code for the match() function so
1451        that it can be compiled in a version that does not call itself recursively.
1452        Instead, it keeps those local variables that need separate instances for
1453        each "recursion" in a frame on the heap, and gets/frees frames whenever it
1454        needs to "recurse". Keeping track of where control must go is done by means
1455        of setjmp/longjmp. The whole thing is implemented by a set of macros that
1456        hide most of the details from the main code, and operates only if
1457        NO_RECURSE is defined while compiling pcre.c. If PCRE is built using the
1458        "configure" mechanism, "--disable-stack-for-recursion" turns on this way of
1459        operating.
1461        To make it easier for callers to provide specially tailored get/free
1462        functions for this usage, two new functions, pcre_stack_malloc, and
1463        pcre_stack_free, are used. They are always called in strict stacking order,
1464        and the size of block requested is always the same.
1466        The PCRE_CONFIG_STACKRECURSE info parameter can be used to find out whether
1467        PCRE has been compiled to use the stack or the heap for recursion. The
1468        -C option of pcretest uses this to show which version is compiled.
1470        A new data escape \S, is added to pcretest; it causes the amounts of store
1471        obtained and freed by both kinds of malloc/free at match time to be added
1472        to the output.
1474     2. Changed the locale test to use "fr_FR" instead of "fr" because that's
1475        what's available on my current Linux desktop machine.
1477     3. When matching a UTF-8 string, the test for a valid string at the start has
1478        been extended. If start_offset is not zero, PCRE now checks that it points
1479        to a byte that is the start of a UTF-8 character. If not, it returns
1480        PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11). Note: the whole string is still checked;
1481        this is necessary because there may be backward assertions in the pattern.
1482        When matching the same subject several times, it may save resources to use
1483        PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK on all but the first call if the string is long.
1485     4. The code for checking the validity of UTF-8 strings has been tightened so
1486        that it rejects (a) strings containing 0xfe or 0xff bytes and (b) strings
1487        containing "overlong sequences".
1489     5. Fixed a bug (appearing twice) that I could not find any way of exploiting!
1490        I had written "if ((digitab[*p++] && chtab_digit) == 0)" where the "&&"
1491        should have been "&", but it just so happened that all the cases this let
1492        through by mistake were picked up later in the function.
1494     6. I had used a variable called "isblank" - this is a C99 function, causing
1495        some compilers to warn. To avoid this, I renamed it (as "blankclass").
1497     7. Cosmetic: (a) only output another newline at the end of pcretest if it is
1498        prompting; (b) run "./pcretest /dev/null" at the start of the test script
1499        so the version is shown; (c) stop "make test" echoing "./RunTest".
1501     8. Added patches from David Burgess to enable PCRE to run on EBCDIC systems.
1503     9. The prototype for memmove() for systems that don't have it was using
1504        size_t, but the inclusion of the header that defines size_t was later. I've
1505        moved the #includes for the C headers earlier to avoid this.
1507    10. Added some adjustments to the code to make it easier to compiler on certain
1508        special systems:
1510          (a) Some "const" qualifiers were missing.
1511          (b) Added the macro EXPORT before all exported functions; by default this
1512              is defined to be empty.
1513          (c) Changed the dftables auxiliary program (that builds chartables.c) so
1514              that it reads its output file name as an argument instead of writing
1515              to the standard output and assuming this can be redirected.
1517    11. In UTF-8 mode, if a recursive reference (e.g. (?1)) followed a character
1518        class containing characters with values greater than 255, PCRE compilation
1519        went into a loop.
1521    12. A recursive reference to a subpattern that was within another subpattern
1522        that had a minimum quantifier of zero caused PCRE to crash. For example,
1523        (x(y(?2))z)? provoked this bug with a subject that got as far as the
1524        recursion. If the recursively-called subpattern itself had a zero repeat,
1525        that was OK.
1527    13. In pcretest, the buffer for reading a data line was set at 30K, but the
1528        buffer into which it was copied (for escape processing) was still set at
1529        1024, so long lines caused crashes.
1531    14. A pattern such as /[ab]{1,3}+/ failed to compile, giving the error
1532        "internal error: code overflow...". This applied to any character class
1533        that was followed by a possessive quantifier.
1535    15. Modified the Makefile to add libpcre.la as a prerequisite for
1536        libpcreposix.la because I was told this is needed for a parallel build to
1537        work.
1539    16. If a pattern that contained .* following optional items at the start was
1540        studied, the wrong optimizing data was generated, leading to matching
1541        errors. For example, studying /[ab]*.*c/ concluded, erroneously, that any
1542        matching string must start with a or b or c. The correct conclusion for
1543        this pattern is that a match can start with any character.
1546    Version 4.4 13-Aug-03
1547    ---------------------
1549     1. In UTF-8 mode, a character class containing characters with values between
1550        127 and 255 was not handled correctly if the compiled pattern was studied.
1551        In fixing this, I have also improved the studying algorithm for such
1552        classes (slightly).
1554     2. Three internal functions had redundant arguments passed to them. Removal
1555        might give a very teeny performance improvement.
1557     3. Documentation bug: the value of the capture_top field in a callout is *one
1558        more than* the number of the hightest numbered captured substring.
1560     4. The Makefile linked pcretest and pcregrep with -lpcre, which could result
1561        in incorrectly linking with a previously installed version. They now link
1562        explicitly with libpcre.la.
1564     5. configure.in no longer needs to recognize Cygwin specially.
1566     6. A problem in pcre.in for Windows platforms is fixed.
1568     7. If a pattern was successfully studied, and the -d (or /D) flag was given to
1569        pcretest, it used to include the size of the study block as part of its
1570        output. Unfortunately, the structure contains a field that has a different
1571        size on different hardware architectures. This meant that the tests that
1572        showed this size failed. As the block is currently always of a fixed size,
1573        this information isn't actually particularly useful in pcretest output, so
1574        I have just removed it.
1576     8. Three pre-processor statements accidentally did not start in column 1.
1577        Sadly, there are *still* compilers around that complain, even though
1578        standard C has not required this for well over a decade. Sigh.
1580     9. In pcretest, the code for checking callouts passed small integers in the
1581        callout_data field, which is a void * field. However, some picky compilers
1582        complained about the casts involved for this on 64-bit systems. Now
1583        pcretest passes the address of the small integer instead, which should get
1584        rid of the warnings.
1586    10. By default, when in UTF-8 mode, PCRE now checks for valid UTF-8 strings at
1587        both compile and run time, and gives an error if an invalid UTF-8 sequence
1588        is found. There is a option for disabling this check in cases where the
1589        string is known to be correct and/or the maximum performance is wanted.
1591    11. In response to a bug report, I changed one line in Makefile.in from
1593            -Wl,--out-implib,.libs/lib@WIN_PREFIX@pcreposix.dll.a \
1594        to
1595            -Wl,--out-implib,.libs/@WIN_PREFIX@libpcreposix.dll.a \
1597        to look similar to other lines, but I have no way of telling whether this
1598        is the right thing to do, as I do not use Windows. No doubt I'll get told
1599        if it's wrong...
1602    Version 4.3 21-May-03
1603    ---------------------
1605    1. Two instances of @WIN_PREFIX@ omitted from the Windows targets in the
1606       Makefile.
1608    2. Some refactoring to improve the quality of the code:
1610       (i)   The utf8_table... variables are now declared "const".
1612       (ii)  The code for \cx, which used the "case flipping" table to upper case
1613             lower case letters, now just substracts 32. This is ASCII-specific,
1614             but the whole concept of \cx is ASCII-specific, so it seems
1615             reasonable.
1617       (iii) PCRE was using its character types table to recognize decimal and
1618             hexadecimal digits in the pattern. This is silly, because it handles
1619             only 0-9, a-f, and A-F, but the character types table is locale-
1620             specific, which means strange things might happen. A private
1621             table is now used for this - though it costs 256 bytes, a table is
1622             much faster than multiple explicit tests. Of course, the standard
1623             character types table is still used for matching digits in subject
1624             strings against \d.
1626       (iv)  Strictly, the identifier ESC_t is reserved by POSIX (all identifiers
1627             ending in _t are). So I've renamed it as ESC_tee.
1629    3. The first argument for regexec() in the POSIX wrapper should have been
1630       defined as "const".
1632    4. Changed pcretest to use malloc() for its buffers so that they can be
1633       Electric Fenced for debugging.
1635    5. There were several places in the code where, in UTF-8 mode, PCRE would try
1636       to read one or more bytes before the start of the subject string. Often this
1637       had no effect on PCRE's behaviour, but in some circumstances it could
1638       provoke a segmentation fault.
1640    6. A lookbehind at the start of a pattern in UTF-8 mode could also cause PCRE
1641       to try to read one or more bytes before the start of the subject string.
1643    7. A lookbehind in a pattern matched in non-UTF-8 mode on a PCRE compiled with
1644       UTF-8 support could misbehave in various ways if the subject string
1645       contained bytes with the 0x80 bit set and the 0x40 bit unset in a lookbehind
1646       area. (PCRE was not checking for the UTF-8 mode flag, and trying to move
1647       back over UTF-8 characters.)
1650    Version 4.2 14-Apr-03
1651    ---------------------
1653    1. Typo "#if SUPPORT_UTF8" instead of "#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8" fixed.
1655    2. Changes to the building process, supplied by Ronald Landheer-Cieslak
1656         [ON_WINDOWS]: new variable, "#" on non-Windows platforms
1657         [NOT_ON_WINDOWS]: new variable, "#" on Windows platforms
1658         [WIN_PREFIX]: new variable, "cyg" for Cygwin
1659         * Makefile.in: use autoconf substitution for OBJEXT, EXEEXT, BUILD_OBJEXT
1660           and BUILD_EXEEXT
1661         Note: automatic setting of the BUILD variables is not yet working
1662         set CPPFLAGS and BUILD_CPPFLAGS (but don't use yet) - should be used at
1663           compile-time but not at link-time
1664         [LINK]: use for linking executables only
1665         make different versions for Windows and non-Windows
1666         [LINKLIB]: new variable, copy of UNIX-style LINK, used for linking
1667           libraries
1668         [LINK_FOR_BUILD]: new variable
1669         [OBJEXT]: use throughout
1670         [EXEEXT]: use throughout
1671         <winshared>: new target
1672         <wininstall>: new target
1673         <dftables.o>: use native compiler
1674         <dftables>: use native linker
1675         <install>: handle Windows platform correctly
1676         <clean>: ditto
1677         <check>: ditto
1678         copy DLL to top builddir before testing
1680       As part of these changes, -no-undefined was removed again. This was reported
1681       to give trouble on HP-UX 11.0, so getting rid of it seems like a good idea
1682       in any case.
1684    3. Some tidies to get rid of compiler warnings:
1686       . In the match_data structure, match_limit was an unsigned long int, whereas
1687         match_call_count was an int. I've made them both unsigned long ints.
1689       . In pcretest the fact that a const uschar * doesn't automatically cast to
1690         a void * provoked a warning.
1692       . Turning on some more compiler warnings threw up some "shadow" variables
1693         and a few more missing casts.
1695    4. If PCRE was complied with UTF-8 support, but called without the PCRE_UTF8
1696       option, a class that contained a single character with a value between 128
1697       and 255 (e.g. /[\xFF]/) caused PCRE to crash.
1699    5. If PCRE was compiled with UTF-8 support, but called without the PCRE_UTF8
1700       option, a class that contained several characters, but with at least one
1701       whose value was between 128 and 255 caused PCRE to crash.
1704    Version 4.1 12-Mar-03
1705    ---------------------
1707    1. Compiling with gcc -pedantic found a couple of places where casts were
1708    needed, and a string in dftables.c that was longer than standard compilers are
1709    required to support.
1711    2. Compiling with Sun's compiler found a few more places where the code could
1712    be tidied up in order to avoid warnings.
1714    3. The variables for cross-compiling were called HOST_CC and HOST_CFLAGS; the
1715    first of these names is deprecated in the latest Autoconf in favour of the name
1716    CC_FOR_BUILD, because "host" is typically used to mean the system on which the
1717    compiled code will be run. I can't find a reference for HOST_CFLAGS, but by
1718    analogy I have changed it to CFLAGS_FOR_BUILD.
1720    4. Added -no-undefined to the linking command in the Makefile, because this is
1721    apparently helpful for Windows. To make it work, also added "-L. -lpcre" to the
1722    linking step for the pcreposix library.
1724    5. PCRE was failing to diagnose the case of two named groups with the same
1725    name.
1727    6. A problem with one of PCRE's optimizations was discovered. PCRE remembers a
1728    literal character that is needed in the subject for a match, and scans along to
1729    ensure that it is present before embarking on the full matching process. This
1730    saves time in cases of nested unlimited repeats that are never going to match.
1731    Problem: the scan can take a lot of time if the subject is very long (e.g.
1732    megabytes), thus penalizing straightforward matches. It is now done only if the
1733    amount of subject to be scanned is less than 1000 bytes.
1735    7. A lesser problem with the same optimization is that it was recording the
1736    first character of an anchored pattern as "needed", thus provoking a search
1737    right along the subject, even when the first match of the pattern was going to
1738    fail. The "needed" character is now not set for anchored patterns, unless it
1739    follows something in the pattern that is of non-fixed length. Thus, it still
1740    fulfils its original purpose of finding quick non-matches in cases of nested
1741    unlimited repeats, but isn't used for simple anchored patterns such as /^abc/.
1744    Version 4.0 17-Feb-03
1745    ---------------------
1747    1. If a comment in an extended regex that started immediately after a meta-item
1748    extended to the end of string, PCRE compiled incorrect data. This could lead to
1749    all kinds of weird effects. Example: /#/ was bad; /()#/ was bad; /a#/ was not.
1751    2. Moved to autoconf 2.53 and libtool 1.4.2.
1753    3. Perl 5.8 no longer needs "use utf8" for doing UTF-8 things. Consequently,
1754    the special perltest8 script is no longer needed - all the tests can be run
1755    from a single perltest script.
1757    4. From 5.004, Perl has not included the VT character (0x0b) in the set defined
1758    by \s. It has now been removed in PCRE. This means it isn't recognized as
1759    whitespace in /x regexes too, which is the same as Perl. Note that the POSIX
1760    class [:space:] *does* include VT, thereby creating a mess.
1762    5. Added the class [:blank:] (a GNU extension from Perl 5.8) to match only
1763    space and tab.
1765    6. Perl 5.005 was a long time ago. It's time to amalgamate the tests that use
1766    its new features into the main test script, reducing the number of scripts.
1768    7. Perl 5.8 has changed the meaning of patterns like /a(?i)b/. Earlier versions
1769    were backward compatible, and made the (?i) apply to the whole pattern, as if
1770    /i were given. Now it behaves more logically, and applies the option setting
1771    only to what follows. PCRE has been changed to follow suit. However, if it
1772    finds options settings right at the start of the pattern, it extracts them into
1773    the global options, as before. Thus, they show up in the info data.
1775    8. Added support for the \Q...\E escape sequence. Characters in between are
1776    treated as literals. This is slightly different from Perl in that $ and @ are
1777    also handled as literals inside the quotes. In Perl, they will cause variable
1778    interpolation. Note the following examples:
1780        Pattern            PCRE matches      Perl matches
1782        \Qabc$xyz\E        abc$xyz           abc followed by the contents of $xyz
1783        \Qabc\$xyz\E       abc\$xyz          abc\$xyz
1784        \Qabc\E\$\Qxyz\E   abc$xyz           abc$xyz
1786    For compatibility with Perl, \Q...\E sequences are recognized inside character
1787    classes as well as outside them.
1789    9. Re-organized 3 code statements in pcretest to avoid "overflow in
1790    floating-point constant arithmetic" warnings from a Microsoft compiler. Added a
1791    (size_t) cast to one statement in pcretest and one in pcreposix to avoid
1792    signed/unsigned warnings.
1794    10. SunOS4 doesn't have strtoul(). This was used only for unpicking the -o
1795    option for pcretest, so I've replaced it by a simple function that does just
1796    that job.
1798    11. pcregrep was ending with code 0 instead of 2 for the commands "pcregrep" or
1799    "pcregrep -".
1801    12. Added "possessive quantifiers" ?+, *+, ++, and {,}+ which come from Sun's
1802    Java package. This provides some syntactic sugar for simple cases of what my
1803    documentation calls "once-only subpatterns". A pattern such as x*+ is the same
1804    as (?>x*). In other words, if what is inside (?>...) is just a single repeated
1805    item, you can use this simplified notation. Note that only makes sense with
1806    greedy quantifiers. Consequently, the use of the possessive quantifier forces
1807    greediness, whatever the setting of the PCRE_UNGREEDY option.
1809    13. A change of greediness default within a pattern was not taking effect at
1810    the current level for patterns like /(b+(?U)a+)/. It did apply to parenthesized
1811    subpatterns that followed. Patterns like /b+(?U)a+/ worked because the option
1812    was abstracted outside.
1814    14. PCRE now supports the \G assertion. It is true when the current matching
1815    position is at the start point of the match. This differs from \A when the
1816    starting offset is non-zero. Used with the /g option of pcretest (or similar
1817    code), it works in the same way as it does for Perl's /g option. If all
1818    alternatives of a regex begin with \G, the expression is anchored to the start
1819    match position, and the "anchored" flag is set in the compiled expression.
1821    15. Some bugs concerning the handling of certain option changes within patterns
1822    have been fixed. These applied to options other than (?ims). For example,
1823    "a(?x: b c )d" did not match "XabcdY" but did match "Xa b c dY". It should have
1824    been the other way round. Some of this was related to change 7 above.
1826    16. PCRE now gives errors for /[.x.]/ and /[=x=]/ as unsupported POSIX
1827    features, as Perl does. Previously, PCRE gave the warnings only for /[[.x.]]/
1828    and /[[=x=]]/. PCRE now also gives an error for /[:name:]/ because it supports
1829    POSIX classes only within a class (e.g. /[[:alpha:]]/).
1831    17. Added support for Perl's \C escape. This matches one byte, even in UTF8
1832    mode. Unlike ".", it always matches newline, whatever the setting of
1833    PCRE_DOTALL. However, PCRE does not permit \C to appear in lookbehind
1834    assertions. Perl allows it, but it doesn't (in general) work because it can't
1835    calculate the length of the lookbehind. At least, that's the case for Perl
1836    5.8.0 - I've been told they are going to document that it doesn't work in
1837    future.
1839    18. Added an error diagnosis for escapes that PCRE does not support: these are
1840    \L, \l, \N, \P, \p, \U, \u, and \X.
1842    19. Although correctly diagnosing a missing ']' in a character class, PCRE was
1843    reading past the end of the pattern in cases such as /[abcd/.
1845    20. PCRE was getting more memory than necessary for patterns with classes that
1846    contained both POSIX named classes and other characters, e.g. /[[:space:]abc/.
1848    21. Added some code, conditional on #ifdef VPCOMPAT, to make life easier for
1849    compiling PCRE for use with Virtual Pascal.
1851    22. Small fix to the Makefile to make it work properly if the build is done
1852    outside the source tree.
1854    23. Added a new extension: a condition to go with recursion. If a conditional
1855    subpattern starts with (?(R) the "true" branch is used if recursion has
1856    happened, whereas the "false" branch is used only at the top level.
1858    24. When there was a very long string of literal characters (over 255 bytes
1859    without UTF support, over 250 bytes with UTF support), the computation of how
1860    much memory was required could be incorrect, leading to segfaults or other
1861    strange effects.
1863    25. PCRE was incorrectly assuming anchoring (either to start of subject or to
1864    start of line for a non-DOTALL pattern) when a pattern started with (.*) and
1865    there was a subsequent back reference to those brackets. This meant that, for
1866    example, /(.*)\d+\1/ failed to match "abc123bc". Unfortunately, it isn't
1867    possible to check for precisely this case. All we can do is abandon the
1868    optimization if .* occurs inside capturing brackets when there are any back
1869    references whatsoever. (See below for a better fix that came later.)
1871    26. The handling of the optimization for finding the first character of a
1872    non-anchored pattern, and for finding a character that is required later in the
1873    match were failing in some cases. This didn't break the matching; it just
1874    failed to optimize when it could. The way this is done has been re-implemented.
1876    27. Fixed typo in error message for invalid (?R item (it said "(?p").
1878    28. Added a new feature that provides some of the functionality that Perl
1879    provides with (?{...}). The facility is termed a "callout". The way it is done
1880    in PCRE is for the caller to provide an optional function, by setting
1881    pcre_callout to its entry point. Like pcre_malloc and pcre_free, this is a
1882    global variable. By default it is unset, which disables all calling out. To get
1883    the function called, the regex must include (?C) at appropriate points. This
1884    is, in fact, equivalent to (?C0), and any number <= 255 may be given with (?C).
1885    This provides a means of identifying different callout points. When PCRE
1886    reaches such a point in the regex, if pcre_callout has been set, the external
1887    function is called. It is provided with data in a structure called
1888    pcre_callout_block, which is defined in pcre.h. If the function returns 0,
1889    matching continues; if it returns a non-zero value, the match at the current
1890    point fails. However, backtracking will occur if possible. [This was changed
1891    later and other features added - see item 49 below.]
1893    29. pcretest is upgraded to test the callout functionality. It provides a
1894    callout function that displays information. By default, it shows the start of
1895    the match and the current position in the text. There are some new data escapes
1896    to vary what happens:
1898        \C+         in addition, show current contents of captured substrings
1899        \C-         do not supply a callout function
1900        \C!n        return 1 when callout number n is reached
1901        \C!n!m      return 1 when callout number n is reached for the mth time
1903    30. If pcregrep was called with the -l option and just a single file name, it
1904    output "<stdin>" if a match was found, instead of the file name.
1906    31. Improve the efficiency of the POSIX API to PCRE. If the number of capturing
1907    slots is less than POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD, use a block on the stack to pass to
1908    pcre_exec(). This saves a malloc/free per call. The default value of
1909    POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD is 10; it can be changed by --with-posix-malloc-threshold
1910    when configuring.
1912    32. The default maximum size of a compiled pattern is 64K. There have been a
1913    few cases of people hitting this limit. The code now uses macros to handle the
1914    storing of links as offsets within the compiled pattern. It defaults to 2-byte
1915    links, but this can be changed to 3 or 4 bytes by --with-link-size when
1916    configuring. Tests 2 and 5 work only with 2-byte links because they output
1917    debugging information about compiled patterns.
1919    33. Internal code re-arrangements:
1921    (a) Moved the debugging function for printing out a compiled regex into
1922        its own source file (printint.c) and used #include to pull it into
1923        pcretest.c and, when DEBUG is defined, into pcre.c, instead of having two
1924        separate copies.
1926    (b) Defined the list of op-code names for debugging as a macro in
1927        internal.h so that it is next to the definition of the opcodes.
1929    (c) Defined a table of op-code lengths for simpler skipping along compiled
1930        code. This is again a macro in internal.h so that it is next to the
1931        definition of the opcodes.
1933    34. Added support for recursive calls to individual subpatterns, along the
1934    lines of Robin Houston's patch (but implemented somewhat differently).
1936    35. Further mods to the Makefile to help Win32. Also, added code to pcregrep to
1937    allow it to read and process whole directories in Win32. This code was
1938    contributed by Lionel Fourquaux; it has not been tested by me.
1940    36. Added support for named subpatterns. The Python syntax (?P<name>...) is
1941    used to name a group. Names consist of alphanumerics and underscores, and must
1942    be unique. Back references use the syntax (?P=name) and recursive calls use
1943    (?P>name) which is a PCRE extension to the Python extension. Groups still have
1944    numbers. The function pcre_fullinfo() can be used after compilation to extract
1945    a name/number map. There are three relevant calls:
1947      PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE        yields the size of each entry in the map
1948      PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT            yields the number of entries
1949      PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE            yields a pointer to the map.
1951    The map is a vector of fixed-size entries. The size of each entry depends on
1952    the length of the longest name used. The first two bytes of each entry are the
1953    group number, most significant byte first. There follows the corresponding
1954    name, zero terminated. The names are in alphabetical order.
1956    37. Make the maximum literal string in the compiled code 250 for the non-UTF-8
1957    case instead of 255. Making it the same both with and without UTF-8 support
1958    means that the same test output works with both.
1960    38. There was a case of malloc(0) in the POSIX testing code in pcretest. Avoid
1961    calling malloc() with a zero argument.
1963    39. Change 25 above had to resort to a heavy-handed test for the .* anchoring
1964    optimization. I've improved things by keeping a bitmap of backreferences with
1965    numbers 1-31 so that if .* occurs inside capturing brackets that are not in
1966    fact referenced, the optimization can be applied. It is unlikely that a
1967    relevant occurrence of .* (i.e. one which might indicate anchoring or forcing
1968    the match to follow \n) will appear inside brackets with a number greater than
1969    31, but if it does, any back reference > 31 suppresses the optimization.
1971    40. Added a new compile-time option PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE. This has the effect
1972    of disabling numbered capturing parentheses. Any opening parenthesis that is
1973    not followed by ? behaves as if it were followed by ?: but named parentheses
1974    can still be used for capturing (and they will acquire numbers in the usual
1975    way).
1977    41. Redesigned the return codes from the match() function into yes/no/error so
1978    that errors can be passed back from deep inside the nested calls. A malloc
1979    failure while inside a recursive subpattern call now causes the
1980    PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY return instead of quietly going wrong.
1982    42. It is now possible to set a limit on the number of times the match()
1983    function is called in a call to pcre_exec(). This facility makes it possible to
1984    limit the amount of recursion and backtracking, though not in a directly
1985    obvious way, because the match() function is used in a number of different
1986    circumstances. The count starts from zero for each position in the subject
1987    string (for non-anchored patterns). The default limit is, for compatibility, a
1988    large number, namely 10 000 000. You can change this in two ways:
1990    (a) When configuring PCRE before making, you can use --with-match-limit=n
1991        to set a default value for the compiled library.
1993    (b) For each call to pcre_exec(), you can pass a pcre_extra block in which
1994        a different value is set. See 45 below.
1996    If the limit is exceeded, pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT.
1998    43. Added a new function pcre_config(int, void *) to enable run-time extraction
1999    of things that can be changed at compile time. The first argument specifies
2000    what is wanted and the second points to where the information is to be placed.
2001    The current list of available information is:
2003      PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8
2005    The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;
2006    otherwise it is set to zero.
2010    The output is an integer that it set to the value of the code that is used for
2011    newline. It is either LF (10) or CR (13).
2015    The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal
2016    linkage in compiled expressions. The value is 2, 3, or 4. See item 32 above.
2020    The output is an integer that contains the threshold above which the POSIX
2021    interface uses malloc() for output vectors. See item 31 above.
2025    The output is an unsigned integer that contains the default limit of the number
2026    of match() calls in a pcre_exec() execution. See 42 above.
2028    44. pcretest has been upgraded by the addition of the -C option. This causes it
2029    to extract all the available output from the new pcre_config() function, and to
2030    output it. The program then exits immediately.
2032    45. A need has arisen to pass over additional data with calls to pcre_exec() in
2033    order to support additional features. One way would have been to define
2034    pcre_exec2() (for example) with extra arguments, but this would not have been
2035    extensible, and would also have required all calls to the original function to
2036    be mapped to the new one. Instead, I have chosen to extend the mechanism that
2037    is used for passing in "extra" data from pcre_study().
2039    The pcre_extra structure is now exposed and defined in pcre.h. It currently
2040    contains the following fields:
2042      flags         a bitmap indicating which of the following fields are set
2043      study_data    opaque data from pcre_study()
2044      match_limit   a way of specifying a limit on match() calls for a specific
2045                      call to pcre_exec()
2046      callout_data  data for callouts (see 49 below)
2048    The flag bits are also defined in pcre.h, and are
2054    The pcre_study() function now returns one of these new pcre_extra blocks, with
2055    the actual study data pointed to by the study_data field, and the
2056    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA flag set. This can be passed directly to pcre_exec() as
2057    before. That is, this change is entirely upwards-compatible and requires no
2058    change to existing code.
2060    If you want to pass in additional data to pcre_exec(), you can either place it
2061    in a pcre_extra block provided by pcre_study(), or create your own pcre_extra
2062    block.
2064    46. pcretest has been extended to test the PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT feature. If a
2065    data string contains the escape sequence \M, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several
2066    times with different match limits, until it finds the minimum value needed for
2067    pcre_exec() to complete. The value is then output. This can be instructive; for
2068    most simple matches the number is quite small, but for pathological cases it
2069    gets very large very quickly.
2071    47. There's a new option for pcre_fullinfo() called PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE. It
2072    returns the size of the data block pointed to by the study_data field in a
2073    pcre_extra block, that is, the value that was passed as the argument to
2074    pcre_malloc() when PCRE was getting memory in which to place the information
2075    created by pcre_study(). The fourth argument should point to a size_t variable.
2076    pcretest has been extended so that this information is shown after a successful
2077    pcre_study() call when information about the compiled regex is being displayed.
2079    48. Cosmetic change to Makefile: there's no need to have / after $(DESTDIR)
2080    because what follows is always an absolute path. (Later: it turns out that this
2081    is more than cosmetic for MinGW, because it doesn't like empty path
2082    components.)
2084    49. Some changes have been made to the callout feature (see 28 above):
2086    (i)  A callout function now has three choices for what it returns:
2088           0  =>  success, carry on matching
2089         > 0  =>  failure at this point, but backtrack if possible
2090         < 0  =>  serious error, return this value from pcre_exec()
2092         Negative values should normally be chosen from the set of PCRE_ERROR_xxx
2093         values. In particular, returning PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH forces a standard
2094         "match failed" error. The error number PCRE_ERROR_CALLOUT is reserved for
2095         use by callout functions. It will never be used by PCRE itself.
2097    (ii) The pcre_extra structure (see 45 above) has a void * field called
2098         callout_data, with corresponding flag bit PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA. The
2099         pcre_callout_block structure has a field of the same name. The contents of
2100         the field passed in the pcre_extra structure are passed to the callout
2101         function in the corresponding field in the callout block. This makes it
2102         easier to use the same callout-containing regex from multiple threads. For
2103         testing, the pcretest program has a new data escape
2105           \C*n        pass the number n (may be negative) as callout_data
2107         If the callout function in pcretest receives a non-zero value as
2108         callout_data, it returns that value.
2110    50. Makefile wasn't handling CFLAGS properly when compiling dftables. Also,
2111    there were some redundant $(CFLAGS) in commands that are now specified as
2112    $(LINK), which already includes $(CFLAGS).
2114    51. Extensions to UTF-8 support are listed below. These all apply when (a) PCRE
2115    has been compiled with UTF-8 support *and* pcre_compile() has been compiled
2116    with the PCRE_UTF8 flag. Patterns that are compiled without that flag assume
2117    one-byte characters throughout. Note that case-insensitive matching applies
2118    only to characters whose values are less than 256. PCRE doesn't support the
2119    notion of cases for higher-valued characters.
2121    (i)   A character class whose characters are all within 0-255 is handled as
2122          a bit map, and the map is inverted for negative classes. Previously, a
2123          character > 255 always failed to match such a class; however it should
2124          match if the class was a negative one (e.g. [^ab]). This has been fixed.
2126    (ii)  A negated character class with a single character < 255 is coded as
2127          "not this character" (OP_NOT). This wasn't working properly when the test
2128          character was multibyte, either singly or repeated.
2130    (iii) Repeats of multibyte characters are now handled correctly in UTF-8
2131          mode, for example: \x{100}{2,3}.
2133    (iv)  The character escapes \b, \B, \d, \D, \s, \S, \w, and \W (either
2134          singly or repeated) now correctly test multibyte characters. However,
2135          PCRE doesn't recognize any characters with values greater than 255 as
2136          digits, spaces, or word characters. Such characters always match \D, \S,
2137          and \W, and never match \d, \s, or \w.
2139    (v)   Classes may now contain characters and character ranges with values
2140          greater than 255. For example: [ab\x{100}-\x{400}].
2142    (vi)  pcregrep now has a --utf-8 option (synonym -u) which makes it call
2143          PCRE in UTF-8 mode.
2145    52. The info request value PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR has been renamed
2146    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE because it is a byte value. However, the old name is
2147    retained for backwards compatibility. (Note that LASTLITERAL is also a byte
2148    value.)
2150    53. The single man page has become too large. I have therefore split it up into
2151    a number of separate man pages. These also give rise to individual HTML pages;
2152    these are now put in a separate directory, and there is an index.html page that
2153    lists them all. Some hyperlinking between the pages has been installed.
2155    54. Added convenience functions for handling named capturing parentheses.
2157    55. Unknown escapes inside character classes (e.g. [\M]) and escapes that
2158    aren't interpreted therein (e.g. [\C]) are literals in Perl. This is now also
2159    true in PCRE, except when the PCRE_EXTENDED option is set, in which case they
2160    are faulted.
2162    56. Introduced HOST_CC and HOST_CFLAGS which can be set in the environment when
2163    calling configure. These values are used when compiling the dftables.c program
2164    which is run to generate the source of the default character tables. They
2165    default to the values of CC and CFLAGS. If you are cross-compiling PCRE,
2166    you will need to set these values.
2168    57. Updated the building process for Windows DLL, as provided by Fred Cox.
2171    Version 3.9 02-Jan-02
2172  ---------------------  ---------------------
2174  1. A bit of extraneous text had somehow crept into the pcregrep documentation.  1. A bit of extraneous text had somehow crept into the pcregrep documentation.

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