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revision 91 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:41:34 2007 UTC revision 378 by ph10, Sun Mar 1 14:13:34 2009 UTC
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1  ChangeLog for PCRE  ChangeLog for PCRE
2  ------------------  ------------------
4    Version 7.9 xx-xxx-09
5    ---------------------
7    1.  When building with support for bzlib/zlib (pcregrep) and/or readline
8        (pcretest), all targets were linked against these libraries. This included
9        libpcre, libpcreposix, and libpcrecpp, even though they do not use these
10        libraries. This caused unwanted dependencies to be created. This problem
11        has been fixed, and now only pcregrep is linked with bzlib/zlib and only
12        pcretest is linked with readline.
14    2.  The "typedef int BOOL" in pcre_internal.h that was included inside the
15        "#ifndef FALSE" condition by an earlier change (probably 7.8/18) has been
16        moved outside it again, because FALSE and TRUE are already defined in AIX,
17        but BOOL is not.
19    3.  The pcre_config() function was treating the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT and
20        PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RETURSION values as ints, when they should be long ints.
22    4.  The pcregrep documentation said spaces were inserted as well as colons (or
23        hyphens) following file names and line numbers when outputting matching
24        lines. This is not true; no spaces are inserted. I have also clarified the
25        wording for the --colour (or --color) option.
27    5.  In pcregrep, when --colour was used with -o, the list of matching strings
28        was not coloured; this is different to GNU grep, so I have changed it to be
29        the same.
31    6.  When --colo(u)r was used in pcregrep, only the first matching substring in
32        each matching line was coloured. Now it goes on to look for further matches
33        of any of the test patterns, which is the same behaviour as GNU grep.
36    Version 7.8 05-Sep-08
37    ---------------------
39    1.  Replaced UCP searching code with optimized version as implemented for Ad
40        Muncher (http://www.admuncher.com/) by Peter Kankowski. This uses a two-
41        stage table and inline lookup instead of a function, giving speed ups of 2
42        to 5 times on some simple patterns that I tested. Permission was given to
43        distribute the MultiStage2.py script that generates the tables (it's not in
44        the tarball, but is in the Subversion repository).
46    2.  Updated the Unicode datatables to Unicode 5.1.0. This adds yet more
47        scripts.
49    3.  Change 12 for 7.7 introduced a bug in pcre_study() when a pattern contained
50        a group with a zero qualifier. The result of the study could be incorrect,
51        or the function might crash, depending on the pattern.
53    4.  Caseless matching was not working for non-ASCII characters in back
54        references. For example, /(\x{de})\1/8i was not matching \x{de}\x{fe}.
55        It now works when Unicode Property Support is available.
57    5.  In pcretest, an escape such as \x{de} in the data was always generating
58        a UTF-8 string, even in non-UTF-8 mode. Now it generates a single byte in
59        non-UTF-8 mode. If the value is greater than 255, it gives a warning about
60        truncation.
62    6.  Minor bugfix in pcrecpp.cc (change "" == ... to NULL == ...).
64    7.  Added two (int) casts to pcregrep when printing the difference of two
65        pointers, in case they are 64-bit values.
67    8.  Added comments about Mac OS X stack usage to the pcrestack man page and to
68        test 2 if it fails.
70    9.  Added PCRE_CALL_CONVENTION just before the names of all exported functions,
71        and a #define of that name to empty if it is not externally set. This is to
72        allow users of MSVC to set it if necessary.
74    10. The PCRE_EXP_DEFN macro which precedes exported functions was missing from
75        the convenience functions in the pcre_get.c source file.
77    11. An option change at the start of a pattern that had top-level alternatives
78        could cause overwriting and/or a crash. This command provoked a crash in
79        some environments:
81          printf "/(?i)[\xc3\xa9\xc3\xbd]|[\xc3\xa9\xc3\xbdA]/8\n" | pcretest
83        This potential security problem was recorded as CVE-2008-2371.
85    12. For a pattern where the match had to start at the beginning or immediately
86        after a newline (e.g /.*anything/ without the DOTALL flag), pcre_exec() and
87        pcre_dfa_exec() could read past the end of the passed subject if there was
88        no match. To help with detecting such bugs (e.g. with valgrind), I modified
89        pcretest so that it places the subject at the end of its malloc-ed buffer.
91    13. The change to pcretest in 12 above threw up a couple more cases when pcre_
92        exec() might read past the end of the data buffer in UTF-8 mode.
94    14. A similar bug to 7.3/2 existed when the PCRE_FIRSTLINE option was set and
95        the data contained the byte 0x85 as part of a UTF-8 character within its
96        first line. This applied both to normal and DFA matching.
98    15. Lazy qualifiers were not working in some cases in UTF-8 mode. For example,
99        /^[^d]*?$/8 failed to match "abc".
101    16. Added a missing copyright notice to pcrecpp_internal.h.
103    17. Make it more clear in the documentation that values returned from
104        pcre_exec() in ovector are byte offsets, not character counts.
106    18. Tidied a few places to stop certain compilers from issuing warnings.
108    19. Updated the Virtual Pascal + BCC files to compile the latest v7.7, as
109        supplied by Stefan Weber. I made a further small update for 7.8 because
110        there is a change of source arrangements: the pcre_searchfuncs.c module is
111        replaced by pcre_ucd.c.
114    Version 7.7 07-May-08
115    ---------------------
117    1.  Applied Craig's patch to sort out a long long problem: "If we can't convert
118        a string to a long long, pretend we don't even have a long long." This is
119        done by checking for the strtoq, strtoll, and _strtoi64 functions.
121    2.  Applied Craig's patch to pcrecpp.cc to restore ABI compatibility with
122        pre-7.6 versions, which defined a global no_arg variable instead of putting
123        it in the RE class. (See also #8 below.)
125    3.  Remove a line of dead code, identified by coverity and reported by Nuno
126        Lopes.
128    4.  Fixed two related pcregrep bugs involving -r with --include or --exclude:
130        (1) The include/exclude patterns were being applied to the whole pathnames
131            of files, instead of just to the final components.
133        (2) If there was more than one level of directory, the subdirectories were
134            skipped unless they satisfied the include/exclude conditions. This is
135            inconsistent with GNU grep (and could even be seen as contrary to the
136            pcregrep specification - which I improved to make it absolutely clear).
137            The action now is always to scan all levels of directory, and just
138            apply the include/exclude patterns to regular files.
140    5.  Added the --include_dir and --exclude_dir patterns to pcregrep, and used
141        --exclude_dir in the tests to avoid scanning .svn directories.
143    6.  Applied Craig's patch to the QuoteMeta function so that it escapes the
144        NUL character as backslash + 0 rather than backslash + NUL, because PCRE
145        doesn't support NULs in patterns.
147    7.  Added some missing "const"s to declarations of static tables in
148        pcre_compile.c and pcre_dfa_exec.c.
150    8.  Applied Craig's patch to pcrecpp.cc to fix a problem in OS X that was
151        caused by fix #2  above. (Subsequently also a second patch to fix the
152        first patch. And a third patch - this was a messy problem.)
154    9.  Applied Craig's patch to remove the use of push_back().
156    10. Applied Alan Lehotsky's patch to add REG_STARTEND support to the POSIX
157        matching function regexec().
159    11. Added support for the Oniguruma syntax \g<name>, \g<n>, \g'name', \g'n',
160        which, however, unlike Perl's \g{...}, are subroutine calls, not back
161        references. PCRE supports relative numbers with this syntax (I don't think
162        Oniguruma does).
164    12. Previously, a group with a zero repeat such as (...){0} was completely
165        omitted from the compiled regex. However, this means that if the group
166        was called as a subroutine from elsewhere in the pattern, things went wrong
167        (an internal error was given). Such groups are now left in the compiled
168        pattern, with a new opcode that causes them to be skipped at execution
169        time.
171    13. Added the PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT option. This makes the following changes
172        to the way PCRE behaves:
174        (a) A lone ] character is dis-allowed (Perl treats it as data).
176        (b) A back reference to an unmatched subpattern matches an empty string
177            (Perl fails the current match path).
179        (c) A data ] in a character class must be notated as \] because if the
180            first data character in a class is ], it defines an empty class. (In
181            Perl it is not possible to have an empty class.) The empty class []
182            never matches; it forces failure and is equivalent to (*FAIL) or (?!).
183            The negative empty class [^] matches any one character, independently
184            of the DOTALL setting.
186    14. A pattern such as /(?2)[]a()b](abc)/ which had a forward reference to a
187        non-existent subpattern following a character class starting with ']' and
188        containing () gave an internal compiling error instead of "reference to
189        non-existent subpattern". Fortunately, when the pattern did exist, the
190        compiled code was correct. (When scanning forwards to check for the
191        existencd of the subpattern, it was treating the data ']' as terminating
192        the class, so got the count wrong. When actually compiling, the reference
193        was subsequently set up correctly.)
195    15. The "always fail" assertion (?!) is optimzed to (*FAIL) by pcre_compile;
196        it was being rejected as not supported by pcre_dfa_exec(), even though
197        other assertions are supported. I have made pcre_dfa_exec() support
198        (*FAIL).
200    16. The implementation of 13c above involved the invention of a new opcode,
201        OP_ALLANY, which is like OP_ANY but doesn't check the /s flag. Since /s
202        cannot be changed at match time, I realized I could make a small
203        improvement to matching performance by compiling OP_ALLANY instead of
204        OP_ANY for "." when DOTALL was set, and then removing the runtime tests
205        on the OP_ANY path.
207    17. Compiling pcretest on Windows with readline support failed without the
208        following two fixes: (1) Make the unistd.h include conditional on
209        HAVE_UNISTD_H; (2) #define isatty and fileno as _isatty and _fileno.
211    18. Changed CMakeLists.txt and cmake/FindReadline.cmake to arrange for the
212        ncurses library to be included for pcretest when ReadLine support is
213        requested, but also to allow for it to be overridden. This patch came from
214        Daniel Bergström.
216    19. There was a typo in the file ucpinternal.h where f0_rangeflag was defined
217        as 0x00f00000 instead of 0x00800000. Luckily, this would not have caused
218        any errors with the current Unicode tables. Thanks to Peter Kankowski for
219        spotting this.
222    Version 7.6 28-Jan-08
223    ---------------------
225    1.  A character class containing a very large number of characters with
226        codepoints greater than 255 (in UTF-8 mode, of course) caused a buffer
227        overflow.
229    2.  Patch to cut out the "long long" test in pcrecpp_unittest when
230        HAVE_LONG_LONG is not defined.
232    3.  Applied Christian Ehrlicher's patch to update the CMake build files to
233        bring them up to date and include new features. This patch includes:
235        - Fixed PH's badly added libz and libbz2 support.
236        - Fixed a problem with static linking.
237        - Added pcredemo. [But later removed - see 7 below.]
238        - Fixed dftables problem and added an option.
239        - Added a number of HAVE_XXX tests, including HAVE_WINDOWS_H and
240            HAVE_LONG_LONG.
241        - Added readline support for pcretest.
242        - Added an listing of the option settings after cmake has run.
244    4.  A user submitted a patch to Makefile that makes it easy to create
245        "pcre.dll" under mingw when using Configure/Make. I added stuff to
246        Makefile.am that cause it to include this special target, without
247        affecting anything else. Note that the same mingw target plus all
248        the other distribution libraries and programs are now supported
249        when configuring with CMake (see 6 below) instead of with
250        Configure/Make.
252    5.  Applied Craig's patch that moves no_arg into the RE class in the C++ code.
253        This is an attempt to solve the reported problem "pcrecpp::no_arg is not
254        exported in the Windows port". It has not yet been confirmed that the patch
255        solves the problem, but it does no harm.
257    6.  Applied Sheri's patch to CMakeLists.txt to add NON_STANDARD_LIB_PREFIX and
258        NON_STANDARD_LIB_SUFFIX for dll names built with mingw when configured
259        with CMake, and also correct the comment about stack recursion.
261    7.  Remove the automatic building of pcredemo from the ./configure system and
262        from CMakeLists.txt. The whole idea of pcredemo.c is that it is an example
263        of a program that users should build themselves after PCRE is installed, so
264        building it automatically is not really right. What is more, it gave
265        trouble in some build environments.
267    8.  Further tidies to CMakeLists.txt from Sheri and Christian.
270    Version 7.5 10-Jan-08
271    ---------------------
273    1.  Applied a patch from Craig: "This patch makes it possible to 'ignore'
274        values in parens when parsing an RE using the C++ wrapper."
276    2.  Negative specials like \S did not work in character classes in UTF-8 mode.
277        Characters greater than 255 were excluded from the class instead of being
278        included.
280    3.  The same bug as (2) above applied to negated POSIX classes such as
281        [:^space:].
283    4.  PCRECPP_STATIC was referenced in pcrecpp_internal.h, but nowhere was it
284        defined or documented. It seems to have been a typo for PCRE_STATIC, so
285        I have changed it.
287    5.  The construct (?&) was not diagnosed as a syntax error (it referenced the
288        first named subpattern) and a construct such as (?&a) would reference the
289        first named subpattern whose name started with "a" (in other words, the
290        length check was missing). Both these problems are fixed. "Subpattern name
291        expected" is now given for (?&) (a zero-length name), and this patch also
292        makes it give the same error for \k'' (previously it complained that that
293        was a reference to a non-existent subpattern).
295    6.  The erroneous patterns (?+-a) and (?-+a) give different error messages;
296        this is right because (?- can be followed by option settings as well as by
297        digits. I have, however, made the messages clearer.
299    7.  Patterns such as (?(1)a|b) (a pattern that contains fewer subpatterns
300        than the number used in the conditional) now cause a compile-time error.
301        This is actually not compatible with Perl, which accepts such patterns, but
302        treats the conditional as always being FALSE (as PCRE used to), but it
303        seems to me that giving a diagnostic is better.
305    8.  Change "alphameric" to the more common word "alphanumeric" in comments
306        and messages.
308    9.  Fix two occurrences of "backslash" in comments that should have been
309        "backspace".
311    10. Remove two redundant lines of code that can never be obeyed (their function
312        was moved elsewhere).
314    11. The program that makes PCRE's Unicode character property table had a bug
315        which caused it to generate incorrect table entries for sequences of
316        characters that have the same character type, but are in different scripts.
317        It amalgamated them into a single range, with the script of the first of
318        them. In other words, some characters were in the wrong script. There were
319        thirteen such cases, affecting characters in the following ranges:
321          U+002b0 - U+002c1
322          U+0060c - U+0060d
323          U+0061e - U+00612
324          U+0064b - U+0065e
325          U+0074d - U+0076d
326          U+01800 - U+01805
327          U+01d00 - U+01d77
328          U+01d9b - U+01dbf
329          U+0200b - U+0200f
330          U+030fc - U+030fe
331          U+03260 - U+0327f
332          U+0fb46 - U+0fbb1
333          U+10450 - U+1049d
335    12. The -o option (show only the matching part of a line) for pcregrep was not
336        compatible with GNU grep in that, if there was more than one match in a
337        line, it showed only the first of them. It now behaves in the same way as
338        GNU grep.
340    13. If the -o and -v options were combined for pcregrep, it printed a blank
341        line for every non-matching line. GNU grep prints nothing, and pcregrep now
342        does the same. The return code can be used to tell if there were any
343        non-matching lines.
345    14. Added --file-offsets and --line-offsets to pcregrep.
347    15. The pattern (?=something)(?R) was not being diagnosed as a potentially
348        infinitely looping recursion. The bug was that positive lookaheads were not
349        being skipped when checking for a possible empty match (negative lookaheads
350        and both kinds of lookbehind were skipped).
352    16. Fixed two typos in the Windows-only code in pcregrep.c, and moved the
353        inclusion of <windows.h> to before rather than after the definition of
354        INVALID_FILE_ATTRIBUTES (patch from David Byron).
356    17. Specifying a possessive quantifier with a specific limit for a Unicode
357        character property caused pcre_compile() to compile bad code, which led at
358        runtime to PCRE_ERROR_INTERNAL (-14). Examples of patterns that caused this
359        are: /\p{Zl}{2,3}+/8 and /\p{Cc}{2}+/8. It was the possessive "+" that
360        caused the error; without that there was no problem.
362    18. Added --enable-pcregrep-libz and --enable-pcregrep-libbz2.
364    19. Added --enable-pcretest-libreadline.
366    20. In pcrecpp.cc, the variable 'count' was incremented twice in
367        RE::GlobalReplace(). As a result, the number of replacements returned was
368        double what it should be. I removed one of the increments, but Craig sent a
369        later patch that removed the other one (the right fix) and added unit tests
370        that check the return values (which was not done before).
372    21. Several CMake things:
374        (1) Arranged that, when cmake is used on Unix, the libraries end up with
375            the names libpcre and libpcreposix, not just pcre and pcreposix.
377        (2) The above change means that pcretest and pcregrep are now correctly
378            linked with the newly-built libraries, not previously installed ones.
382    22. In UTF-8 mode, with newline set to "any", a pattern such as .*a.*=.b.*
383        crashed when matching a string such as a\x{2029}b (note that \x{2029} is a
384        UTF-8 newline character). The key issue is that the pattern starts .*;
385        this means that the match must be either at the beginning, or after a
386        newline. The bug was in the code for advancing after a failed match and
387        checking that the new position followed a newline. It was not taking
388        account of UTF-8 characters correctly.
390    23. PCRE was behaving differently from Perl in the way it recognized POSIX
391        character classes. PCRE was not treating the sequence [:...:] as a
392        character class unless the ... were all letters. Perl, however, seems to
393        allow any characters between [: and :], though of course it rejects as
394        unknown any "names" that contain non-letters, because all the known class
395        names consist only of letters. Thus, Perl gives an error for [[:1234:]],
396        for example, whereas PCRE did not - it did not recognize a POSIX character
397        class. This seemed a bit dangerous, so the code has been changed to be
398        closer to Perl. The behaviour is not identical to Perl, because PCRE will
399        diagnose an unknown class for, for example, [[:l\ower:]] where Perl will
400        treat it as [[:lower:]]. However, PCRE does now give "unknown" errors where
401        Perl does, and where it didn't before.
403    24. Rewrite so as to remove the single use of %n from pcregrep because in some
404        Windows environments %n is disabled by default.
407    Version 7.4 21-Sep-07
408    ---------------------
410    1.  Change 7.3/28 was implemented for classes by looking at the bitmap. This
411        means that a class such as [\s] counted as "explicit reference to CR or
412        LF". That isn't really right - the whole point of the change was to try to
413        help when there was an actual mention of one of the two characters. So now
414        the change happens only if \r or \n (or a literal CR or LF) character is
415        encountered.
417    2.  The 32-bit options word was also used for 6 internal flags, but the numbers
418        of both had grown to the point where there were only 3 bits left.
419        Fortunately, there was spare space in the data structure, and so I have
420        moved the internal flags into a new 16-bit field to free up more option
421        bits.
423    3.  The appearance of (?J) at the start of a pattern set the DUPNAMES option,
424        but did not set the internal JCHANGED flag - either of these is enough to
425        control the way the "get" function works - but the PCRE_INFO_JCHANGED
426        facility is supposed to tell if (?J) was ever used, so now (?J) at the
427        start sets both bits.
429    4.  Added options (at build time, compile time, exec time) to change \R from
430        matching any Unicode line ending sequence to just matching CR, LF, or CRLF.
432    5.  doc/pcresyntax.html was missing from the distribution.
434    6.  Put back the definition of PCRE_ERROR_NULLWSLIMIT, for backward
435        compatibility, even though it is no longer used.
437    7.  Added macro for snprintf to pcrecpp_unittest.cc and also for strtoll and
438        strtoull to pcrecpp.cc to select the available functions in WIN32 when the
439        windows.h file is present (where different names are used). [This was
440        reversed later after testing - see 16 below.]
442    8.  Changed all #include <config.h> to #include "config.h". There were also
443        some further <pcre.h> cases that I changed to "pcre.h".
445    9.  When pcregrep was used with the --colour option, it missed the line ending
446        sequence off the lines that it output.
448    10. It was pointed out to me that arrays of string pointers cause lots of
449        relocations when a shared library is dynamically loaded. A technique of
450        using a single long string with a table of offsets can drastically reduce
451        these. I have refactored PCRE in four places to do this. The result is
452        dramatic:
454          Originally:                          290
455          After changing UCP table:            187
456          After changing error message table:   43
457          After changing table of "verbs"       36
458          After changing table of Posix names   22
460        Thanks to the folks working on Gregex for glib for this insight.
462    11. --disable-stack-for-recursion caused compiling to fail unless -enable-
463        unicode-properties was also set.
465    12. Updated the tests so that they work when \R is defaulted to ANYCRLF.
467    13. Added checks for ANY and ANYCRLF to pcrecpp.cc where it previously
468        checked only for CRLF.
470    14. Added casts to pcretest.c to avoid compiler warnings.
472    15. Added Craig's patch to various pcrecpp modules to avoid compiler warnings.
474    16. Added Craig's patch to remove the WINDOWS_H tests, that were not working,
475        and instead check for _strtoi64 explicitly, and avoid the use of snprintf()
476        entirely. This removes changes made in 7 above.
478    17. The CMake files have been updated, and there is now more information about
479        building with CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE document.
482    Version 7.3 28-Aug-07
483    ---------------------
485     1. In the rejigging of the build system that eventually resulted in 7.1, the
486        line "#include <pcre.h>" was included in pcre_internal.h. The use of angle
487        brackets there is not right, since it causes compilers to look for an
488        installed pcre.h, not the version that is in the source that is being
489        compiled (which of course may be different). I have changed it back to:
491          #include "pcre.h"
493        I have a vague recollection that the change was concerned with compiling in
494        different directories, but in the new build system, that is taken care of
495        by the VPATH setting the Makefile.
497     2. The pattern .*$ when run in not-DOTALL UTF-8 mode with newline=any failed
498        when the subject happened to end in the byte 0x85 (e.g. if the last
499        character was \x{1ec5}). *Character* 0x85 is one of the "any" newline
500        characters but of course it shouldn't be taken as a newline when it is part
501        of another character. The bug was that, for an unlimited repeat of . in
502        not-DOTALL UTF-8 mode, PCRE was advancing by bytes rather than by
503        characters when looking for a newline.
505     3. A small performance improvement in the DOTALL UTF-8 mode .* case.
507     4. Debugging: adjusted the names of opcodes for different kinds of parentheses
508        in debug output.
510     5. Arrange to use "%I64d" instead of "%lld" and "%I64u" instead of "%llu" for
511        long printing in the pcrecpp unittest when running under MinGW.
513     6. ESC_K was left out of the EBCDIC table.
515     7. Change 7.0/38 introduced a new limit on the number of nested non-capturing
516        parentheses; I made it 1000, which seemed large enough. Unfortunately, the
517        limit also applies to "virtual nesting" when a pattern is recursive, and in
518        this case 1000 isn't so big. I have been able to remove this limit at the
519        expense of backing off one optimization in certain circumstances. Normally,
520        when pcre_exec() would call its internal match() function recursively and
521        immediately return the result unconditionally, it uses a "tail recursion"
522        feature to save stack. However, when a subpattern that can match an empty
523        string has an unlimited repetition quantifier, it no longer makes this
524        optimization. That gives it a stack frame in which to save the data for
525        checking that an empty string has been matched. Previously this was taken
526        from the 1000-entry workspace that had been reserved. So now there is no
527        explicit limit, but more stack is used.
529     8. Applied Daniel's patches to solve problems with the import/export magic
530        syntax that is required for Windows, and which was going wrong for the
531        pcreposix and pcrecpp parts of the library. These were overlooked when this
532        problem was solved for the main library.
534     9. There were some crude static tests to avoid integer overflow when computing
535        the size of patterns that contain repeated groups with explicit upper
536        limits. As the maximum quantifier is 65535, the maximum group length was
537        set at 30,000 so that the product of these two numbers did not overflow a
538        32-bit integer. However, it turns out that people want to use groups that
539        are longer than 30,000 bytes (though not repeat them that many times).
540        Change 7.0/17 (the refactoring of the way the pattern size is computed) has
541        made it possible to implement the integer overflow checks in a much more
542        dynamic way, which I have now done. The artificial limitation on group
543        length has been removed - we now have only the limit on the total length of
544        the compiled pattern, which depends on the LINK_SIZE setting.
546    10. Fixed a bug in the documentation for get/copy named substring when
547        duplicate names are permitted. If none of the named substrings are set, the
548        functions return PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (7); the doc said they returned an
549        empty string.
551    11. Because Perl interprets \Q...\E at a high level, and ignores orphan \E
552        instances, patterns such as [\Q\E] or [\E] or even [^\E] cause an error,
553        because the ] is interpreted as the first data character and the
554        terminating ] is not found. PCRE has been made compatible with Perl in this
555        regard. Previously, it interpreted [\Q\E] as an empty class, and [\E] could
556        cause memory overwriting.
558    10. Like Perl, PCRE automatically breaks an unlimited repeat after an empty
559        string has been matched (to stop an infinite loop). It was not recognizing
560        a conditional subpattern that could match an empty string if that
561        subpattern was within another subpattern. For example, it looped when
562        trying to match  (((?(1)X|))*)  but it was OK with  ((?(1)X|)*)  where the
563        condition was not nested. This bug has been fixed.
565    12. A pattern like \X?\d or \P{L}?\d in non-UTF-8 mode could cause a backtrack
566        past the start of the subject in the presence of bytes with the top bit
567        set, for example "\x8aBCD".
569    13. Added Perl 5.10 experimental backtracking controls (*FAIL), (*F), (*PRUNE),
570        (*SKIP), (*THEN), (*COMMIT), and (*ACCEPT).
572    14. Optimized (?!) to (*FAIL).
574    15. Updated the test for a valid UTF-8 string to conform to the later RFC 3629.
575        This restricts code points to be within the range 0 to 0x10FFFF, excluding
576        the "low surrogate" sequence 0xD800 to 0xDFFF. Previously, PCRE allowed the
577        full range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF, as defined by RFC 2279. Internally, it still
578        does: it's just the validity check that is more restrictive.
580    16. Inserted checks for integer overflows during escape sequence (backslash)
581        processing, and also fixed erroneous offset values for syntax errors during
582        backslash processing.
584    17. Fixed another case of looking too far back in non-UTF-8 mode (cf 12 above)
585        for patterns like [\PPP\x8a]{1,}\x80 with the subject "A\x80".
587    18. An unterminated class in a pattern like (?1)\c[ with a "forward reference"
588        caused an overrun.
590    19. A pattern like (?:[\PPa*]*){8,} which had an "extended class" (one with
591        something other than just ASCII characters) inside a group that had an
592        unlimited repeat caused a loop at compile time (while checking to see
593        whether the group could match an empty string).
595    20. Debugging a pattern containing \p or \P could cause a crash. For example,
596        [\P{Any}] did so. (Error in the code for printing property names.)
598    21. An orphan \E inside a character class could cause a crash.
600    22. A repeated capturing bracket such as (A)? could cause a wild memory
601        reference during compilation.
603    23. There are several functions in pcre_compile() that scan along a compiled
604        expression for various reasons (e.g. to see if it's fixed length for look
605        behind). There were bugs in these functions when a repeated \p or \P was
606        present in the pattern. These operators have additional parameters compared
607        with \d, etc, and these were not being taken into account when moving along
608        the compiled data. Specifically:
610        (a) A item such as \p{Yi}{3} in a lookbehind was not treated as fixed
611            length.
613        (b) An item such as \pL+ within a repeated group could cause crashes or
614            loops.
616        (c) A pattern such as \p{Yi}+(\P{Yi}+)(?1) could give an incorrect
617            "reference to non-existent subpattern" error.
619        (d) A pattern like (\P{Yi}{2}\277)? could loop at compile time.
621    24. A repeated \S or \W in UTF-8 mode could give wrong answers when multibyte
622        characters were involved (for example /\S{2}/8g with "A\x{a3}BC").
624    25. Using pcregrep in multiline, inverted mode (-Mv) caused it to loop.
626    26. Patterns such as [\P{Yi}A] which include \p or \P and just one other
627        character were causing crashes (broken optimization).
629    27. Patterns such as (\P{Yi}*\277)* (group with possible zero repeat containing
630        \p or \P) caused a compile-time loop.
632    28. More problems have arisen in unanchored patterns when CRLF is a valid line
633        break. For example, the unstudied pattern [\r\n]A does not match the string
634        "\r\nA" because change 7.0/46 below moves the current point on by two
635        characters after failing to match at the start. However, the pattern \nA
636        *does* match, because it doesn't start till \n, and if [\r\n]A is studied,
637        the same is true. There doesn't seem any very clean way out of this, but
638        what I have chosen to do makes the common cases work: PCRE now takes note
639        of whether there can be an explicit match for \r or \n anywhere in the
640        pattern, and if so, 7.0/46 no longer applies. As part of this change,
641        there's a new PCRE_INFO_HASCRORLF option for finding out whether a compiled
642        pattern has explicit CR or LF references.
644    29. Added (*CR) etc for changing newline setting at start of pattern.
647    Version 7.2 19-Jun-07
648    ---------------------
650     1. If the fr_FR locale cannot be found for test 3, try the "french" locale,
651        which is apparently normally available under Windows.
653     2. Re-jig the pcregrep tests with different newline settings in an attempt
654        to make them independent of the local environment's newline setting.
656     3. Add code to configure.ac to remove -g from the CFLAGS default settings.
658     4. Some of the "internals" tests were previously cut out when the link size
659        was not 2, because the output contained actual offsets. The recent new
660        "Z" feature of pcretest means that these can be cut out, making the tests
661        usable with all link sizes.
663     5. Implemented Stan Switzer's goto replacement for longjmp() when not using
664        stack recursion. This gives a massive performance boost under BSD, but just
665        a small improvement under Linux. However, it saves one field in the frame
666        in all cases.
668     6. Added more features from the forthcoming Perl 5.10:
670        (a) (?-n) (where n is a string of digits) is a relative subroutine or
671            recursion call. It refers to the nth most recently opened parentheses.
673        (b) (?+n) is also a relative subroutine call; it refers to the nth next
674            to be opened parentheses.
676        (c) Conditions that refer to capturing parentheses can be specified
677            relatively, for example, (?(-2)... or (?(+3)...
679        (d) \K resets the start of the current match so that everything before
680            is not part of it.
682        (e) \k{name} is synonymous with \k<name> and \k'name' (.NET compatible).
684        (f) \g{name} is another synonym - part of Perl 5.10's unification of
685            reference syntax.
687        (g) (?| introduces a group in which the numbering of parentheses in each
688            alternative starts with the same number.
690        (h) \h, \H, \v, and \V match horizontal and vertical whitespace.
692     7. Added two new calls to pcre_fullinfo(): PCRE_INFO_OKPARTIAL and
695     8. A pattern such as  (.*(.)?)*  caused pcre_exec() to fail by either not
696        terminating or by crashing. Diagnosed by Viktor Griph; it was in the code
697        for detecting groups that can match an empty string.
699     9. A pattern with a very large number of alternatives (more than several
700        hundred) was running out of internal workspace during the pre-compile
701        phase, where pcre_compile() figures out how much memory will be needed. A
702        bit of new cunning has reduced the workspace needed for groups with
703        alternatives. The 1000-alternative test pattern now uses 12 bytes of
704        workspace instead of running out of the 4096 that are available.
706    10. Inserted some missing (unsigned int) casts to get rid of compiler warnings.
708    11. Applied patch from Google to remove an optimization that didn't quite work.
709        The report of the bug said:
711          pcrecpp::RE("a*").FullMatch("aaa") matches, while
712          pcrecpp::RE("a*?").FullMatch("aaa") does not, and
713          pcrecpp::RE("a*?\\z").FullMatch("aaa") does again.
715    12. If \p or \P was used in non-UTF-8 mode on a character greater than 127
716        it matched the wrong number of bytes.
719    Version 7.1 24-Apr-07
720    ---------------------
722     1. Applied Bob Rossi and Daniel G's patches to convert the build system to one
723        that is more "standard", making use of automake and other Autotools. There
724        is some re-arrangement of the files and adjustment of comments consequent
725        on this.
727     2. Part of the patch fixed a problem with the pcregrep tests. The test of -r
728        for recursive directory scanning broke on some systems because the files
729        are not scanned in any specific order and on different systems the order
730        was different. A call to "sort" has been inserted into RunGrepTest for the
731        approprate test as a short-term fix. In the longer term there may be an
732        alternative.
734     3. I had an email from Eric Raymond about problems translating some of PCRE's
735        man pages to HTML (despite the fact that I distribute HTML pages, some
736        people do their own conversions for various reasons). The problems
737        concerned the use of low-level troff macros .br and .in. I have therefore
738        removed all such uses from the man pages (some were redundant, some could
739        be replaced by .nf/.fi pairs). The 132html script that I use to generate
740        HTML has been updated to handle .nf/.fi and to complain if it encounters
741        .br or .in.
743     4. Updated comments in configure.ac that get placed in config.h.in and also
744        arranged for config.h to be included in the distribution, with the name
745        config.h.generic, for the benefit of those who have to compile without
746        Autotools (compare pcre.h, which is now distributed as pcre.h.generic).
748     5. Updated the support (such as it is) for Virtual Pascal, thanks to Stefan
749        Weber: (1) pcre_internal.h was missing some function renames; (2) updated
750        makevp.bat for the current PCRE, using the additional files
751        makevp_c.txt, makevp_l.txt, and pcregexp.pas.
753     6. A Windows user reported a minor discrepancy with test 2, which turned out
754        to be caused by a trailing space on an input line that had got lost in his
755        copy. The trailing space was an accident, so I've just removed it.
757     7. Add -Wl,-R... flags in pcre-config.in for *BSD* systems, as I'm told
758        that is needed.
760     8. Mark ucp_table (in ucptable.h) and ucp_gentype (in pcre_ucp_searchfuncs.c)
761        as "const" (a) because they are and (b) because it helps the PHP
762        maintainers who have recently made a script to detect big data structures
763        in the php code that should be moved to the .rodata section. I remembered
764        to update Builducptable as well, so it won't revert if ucptable.h is ever
765        re-created.
767     9. Added some extra #ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8 conditionals into pcretest.c,
768        pcre_printint.src, pcre_compile.c, pcre_study.c, and pcre_tables.c, in
769        order to be able to cut out the UTF-8 tables in the latter when UTF-8
770        support is not required. This saves 1.5-2K of code, which is important in
771        some applications.
773        Later: more #ifdefs are needed in pcre_ord2utf8.c and pcre_valid_utf8.c
774        so as not to refer to the tables, even though these functions will never be
775        called when UTF-8 support is disabled. Otherwise there are problems with a
776        shared library.
778    10. Fixed two bugs in the emulated memmove() function in pcre_internal.h:
780        (a) It was defining its arguments as char * instead of void *.
782        (b) It was assuming that all moves were upwards in memory; this was true
783            a long time ago when I wrote it, but is no longer the case.
785        The emulated memove() is provided for those environments that have neither
786        memmove() nor bcopy(). I didn't think anyone used it these days, but that
787        is clearly not the case, as these two bugs were recently reported.
789    11. The script PrepareRelease is now distributed: it calls 132html, CleanTxt,
790        and Detrail to create the HTML documentation, the .txt form of the man
791        pages, and it removes trailing spaces from listed files. It also creates
792        pcre.h.generic and config.h.generic from pcre.h and config.h. In the latter
793        case, it wraps all the #defines with #ifndefs. This script should be run
794        before "make dist".
796    12. Fixed two fairly obscure bugs concerned with quantified caseless matching
797        with Unicode property support.
799        (a) For a maximizing quantifier, if the two different cases of the
800            character were of different lengths in their UTF-8 codings (there are
801            some cases like this - I found 11), and the matching function had to
802            back up over a mixture of the two cases, it incorrectly assumed they
803            were both the same length.
805        (b) When PCRE was configured to use the heap rather than the stack for
806            recursion during matching, it was not correctly preserving the data for
807            the other case of a UTF-8 character when checking ahead for a match
808            while processing a minimizing repeat. If the check also involved
809            matching a wide character, but failed, corruption could cause an
810            erroneous result when trying to check for a repeat of the original
811            character.
813    13. Some tidying changes to the testing mechanism:
815        (a) The RunTest script now detects the internal link size and whether there
816            is UTF-8 and UCP support by running ./pcretest -C instead of relying on
817            values substituted by "configure". (The RunGrepTest script already did
818            this for UTF-8.) The configure.ac script no longer substitutes the
819            relevant variables.
821        (b) The debugging options /B and /D in pcretest show the compiled bytecode
822            with length and offset values. This means that the output is different
823            for different internal link sizes. Test 2 is skipped for link sizes
824            other than 2 because of this, bypassing the problem. Unfortunately,
825            there was also a test in test 3 (the locale tests) that used /B and
826            failed for link sizes other than 2. Rather than cut the whole test out,
827            I have added a new /Z option to pcretest that replaces the length and
828            offset values with spaces. This is now used to make test 3 independent
829            of link size. (Test 2 will be tidied up later.)
831    14. If erroroffset was passed as NULL to pcre_compile, it provoked a
832        segmentation fault instead of returning the appropriate error message.
834    15. In multiline mode when the newline sequence was set to "any", the pattern
835        ^$ would give a match between the \r and \n of a subject such as "A\r\nB".
836        This doesn't seem right; it now treats the CRLF combination as the line
837        ending, and so does not match in that case. It's only a pattern such as ^$
838        that would hit this one: something like ^ABC$ would have failed after \r
839        and then tried again after \r\n.
841    16. Changed the comparison command for RunGrepTest from "diff -u" to "diff -ub"
842        in an attempt to make files that differ only in their line terminators
843        compare equal. This works on Linux.
845    17. Under certain error circumstances pcregrep might try to free random memory
846        as it exited. This is now fixed, thanks to valgrind.
848    19. In pcretest, if the pattern /(?m)^$/g<any> was matched against the string
849        "abc\r\n\r\n", it found an unwanted second match after the second \r. This
850        was because its rules for how to advance for /g after matching an empty
851        string at the end of a line did not allow for this case. They now check for
852        it specially.
854    20. pcretest is supposed to handle patterns and data of any length, by
855        extending its buffers when necessary. It was getting this wrong when the
856        buffer for a data line had to be extended.
858    21. Added PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF which is like ANY, but matches only CR, LF, or
859        CRLF as a newline sequence.
861    22. Code for handling Unicode properties in pcre_dfa_exec() wasn't being cut
862        out by #ifdef SUPPORT_UCP. This did no harm, as it could never be used, but
863        I have nevertheless tidied it up.
865    23. Added some casts to kill warnings from HP-UX ia64 compiler.
867    24. Added a man page for pcre-config.
870    Version 7.0 19-Dec-06
871    ---------------------
873     1. Fixed a signed/unsigned compiler warning in pcre_compile.c, shown up by
874        moving to gcc 4.1.1.
876     2. The -S option for pcretest uses setrlimit(); I had omitted to #include
877        sys/time.h, which is documented as needed for this function. It doesn't
878        seem to matter on Linux, but it showed up on some releases of OS X.
880     3. It seems that there are systems where bytes whose values are greater than
881        127 match isprint() in the "C" locale. The "C" locale should be the
882        default when a C program starts up. In most systems, only ASCII printing
883        characters match isprint(). This difference caused the output from pcretest
884        to vary, making some of the tests fail. I have changed pcretest so that:
886        (a) When it is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern, bytes
887            other than 32-126 are always shown as hex escapes.
889        (b) When it is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject string,
890            it does the same, unless a different locale has been set for the match
891            (using the /L modifier). In this case, it uses isprint() to decide.
893     4. Fixed a major bug that caused incorrect computation of the amount of memory
894        required for a compiled pattern when options that changed within the
895        pattern affected the logic of the preliminary scan that determines the
896        length. The relevant options are -x, and -i in UTF-8 mode. The result was
897        that the computed length was too small. The symptoms of this bug were
898        either the PCRE error "internal error: code overflow" from pcre_compile(),
899        or a glibc crash with a message such as "pcretest: free(): invalid next
900        size (fast)". Examples of patterns that provoked this bug (shown in
901        pcretest format) are:
903          /(?-x: )/x
904          /(?x)(?-x: \s*#\s*)/
905          /((?i)[\x{c0}])/8
906          /(?i:[\x{c0}])/8
908        HOWEVER: Change 17 below makes this fix obsolete as the memory computation
909        is now done differently.
911     5. Applied patches from Google to: (a) add a QuoteMeta function to the C++
912        wrapper classes; (b) implement a new function in the C++ scanner that is
913        more efficient than the old way of doing things because it avoids levels of
914        recursion in the regex matching; (c) add a paragraph to the documentation
915        for the FullMatch() function.
917     6. The escape sequence \n was being treated as whatever was defined as
918        "newline". Not only was this contrary to the documentation, which states
919        that \n is character 10 (hex 0A), but it also went horribly wrong when
920        "newline" was defined as CRLF. This has been fixed.
922     7. In pcre_dfa_exec.c the value of an unsigned integer (the variable called c)
923        was being set to -1 for the "end of line" case (supposedly a value that no
924        character can have). Though this value is never used (the check for end of
925        line is "zero bytes in current character"), it caused compiler complaints.
926        I've changed it to 0xffffffff.
928     8. In pcre_version.c, the version string was being built by a sequence of
929        C macros that, in the event of PCRE_PRERELEASE being defined as an empty
930        string (as it is for production releases) called a macro with an empty
931        argument. The C standard says the result of this is undefined. The gcc
932        compiler treats it as an empty string (which was what was wanted) but it is
933        reported that Visual C gives an error. The source has been hacked around to
934        avoid this problem.
936     9. On the advice of a Windows user, included <io.h> and <fcntl.h> in Windows
937        builds of pcretest, and changed the call to _setmode() to use _O_BINARY
938        instead of 0x8000. Made all the #ifdefs test both _WIN32 and WIN32 (not all
939        of them did).
941    10. Originally, pcretest opened its input and output without "b"; then I was
942        told that "b" was needed in some environments, so it was added for release
943        5.0 to both the input and output. (It makes no difference on Unix-like
944        systems.) Later I was told that it is wrong for the input on Windows. I've
945        now abstracted the modes into two macros, to make it easier to fiddle with
946        them, and removed "b" from the input mode under Windows.
948    11. Added pkgconfig support for the C++ wrapper library, libpcrecpp.
950    12. Added -help and --help to pcretest as an official way of being reminded
951        of the options.
953    13. Removed some redundant semicolons after macro calls in pcrecpparg.h.in
954        and pcrecpp.cc because they annoy compilers at high warning levels.
956    14. A bit of tidying/refactoring in pcre_exec.c in the main bumpalong loop.
958    15. Fixed an occurrence of == in configure.ac that should have been = (shell
959        scripts are not C programs :-) and which was not noticed because it works
960        on Linux.
962    16. pcretest is supposed to handle any length of pattern and data line (as one
963        line or as a continued sequence of lines) by extending its input buffer if
964        necessary. This feature was broken for very long pattern lines, leading to
965        a string of junk being passed to pcre_compile() if the pattern was longer
966        than about 50K.
968    17. I have done a major re-factoring of the way pcre_compile() computes the
969        amount of memory needed for a compiled pattern. Previously, there was code
970        that made a preliminary scan of the pattern in order to do this. That was
971        OK when PCRE was new, but as the facilities have expanded, it has become
972        harder and harder to keep it in step with the real compile phase, and there
973        have been a number of bugs (see for example, 4 above). I have now found a
974        cunning way of running the real compile function in a "fake" mode that
975        enables it to compute how much memory it would need, while actually only
976        ever using a few hundred bytes of working memory and without too many
977        tests of the mode. This should make future maintenance and development
978        easier. A side effect of this work is that the limit of 200 on the nesting
979        depth of parentheses has been removed (though this was never a serious
980        limitation, I suspect). However, there is a downside: pcre_compile() now
981        runs more slowly than before (30% or more, depending on the pattern). I
982        hope this isn't a big issue. There is no effect on runtime performance.
984    18. Fixed a minor bug in pcretest: if a pattern line was not terminated by a
985        newline (only possible for the last line of a file) and it was a
986        pattern that set a locale (followed by /Lsomething), pcretest crashed.
988    19. Added additional timing features to pcretest. (1) The -tm option now times
989        matching only, not compiling. (2) Both -t and -tm can be followed, as a
990        separate command line item, by a number that specifies the number of
991        repeats to use when timing. The default is 50000; this gives better
992        precision, but takes uncomfortably long for very large patterns.
994    20. Extended pcre_study() to be more clever in cases where a branch of a
995        subpattern has no definite first character. For example, (a*|b*)[cd] would
996        previously give no result from pcre_study(). Now it recognizes that the
997        first character must be a, b, c, or d.
999    21. There was an incorrect error "recursive call could loop indefinitely" if
1000        a subpattern (or the entire pattern) that was being tested for matching an
1001        empty string contained only one non-empty item after a nested subpattern.
1002        For example, the pattern (?>\x{100}*)\d(?R) provoked this error
1003        incorrectly, because the \d was being skipped in the check.
1005    22. The pcretest program now has a new pattern option /B and a command line
1006        option -b, which is equivalent to adding /B to every pattern. This causes
1007        it to show the compiled bytecode, without the additional information that
1008        -d shows. The effect of -d is now the same as -b with -i (and similarly, /D
1009        is the same as /B/I).
1011    23. A new optimization is now able automatically to treat some sequences such
1012        as a*b as a*+b. More specifically, if something simple (such as a character
1013        or a simple class like \d) has an unlimited quantifier, and is followed by
1014        something that cannot possibly match the quantified thing, the quantifier
1015        is automatically "possessified".
1017    24. A recursive reference to a subpattern whose number was greater than 39
1018        went wrong under certain circumstances in UTF-8 mode. This bug could also
1019        have affected the operation of pcre_study().
1021    25. Realized that a little bit of performance could be had by replacing
1022        (c & 0xc0) == 0xc0 with c >= 0xc0 when processing UTF-8 characters.
1024    26. Timing data from pcretest is now shown to 4 decimal places instead of 3.
1026    27. Possessive quantifiers such as a++ were previously implemented by turning
1027        them into atomic groups such as ($>a+). Now they have their own opcodes,
1028        which improves performance. This includes the automatically created ones
1029        from 23 above.
1031    28. A pattern such as (?=(\w+))\1: which simulates an atomic group using a
1032        lookahead was broken if it was not anchored. PCRE was mistakenly expecting
1033        the first matched character to be a colon. This applied both to named and
1034        numbered groups.
1036    29. The ucpinternal.h header file was missing its idempotency #ifdef.
1038    30. I was sent a "project" file called libpcre.a.dev which I understand makes
1039        building PCRE on Windows easier, so I have included it in the distribution.
1041    31. There is now a check in pcretest against a ridiculously large number being
1042        returned by pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). If this happens in a /g or /G
1043        loop, the loop is abandoned.
1045    32. Forward references to subpatterns in conditions such as (?(2)...) where
1046        subpattern 2 is defined later cause pcre_compile() to search forwards in
1047        the pattern for the relevant set of parentheses. This search went wrong
1048        when there were unescaped parentheses in a character class, parentheses
1049        escaped with \Q...\E, or parentheses in a #-comment in /x mode.
1051    33. "Subroutine" calls and backreferences were previously restricted to
1052        referencing subpatterns earlier in the regex. This restriction has now
1053        been removed.
1055    34. Added a number of extra features that are going to be in Perl 5.10. On the
1056        whole, these are just syntactic alternatives for features that PCRE had
1057        previously implemented using the Python syntax or my own invention. The
1058        other formats are all retained for compatibility.
1060        (a) Named groups can now be defined as (?<name>...) or (?'name'...) as well
1061            as (?P<name>...). The new forms, as well as being in Perl 5.10, are
1062            also .NET compatible.
1064        (b) A recursion or subroutine call to a named group can now be defined as
1065            (?&name) as well as (?P>name).
1067        (c) A backreference to a named group can now be defined as \k<name> or
1068            \k'name' as well as (?P=name). The new forms, as well as being in Perl
1069            5.10, are also .NET compatible.
1071        (d) A conditional reference to a named group can now use the syntax
1072            (?(<name>) or (?('name') as well as (?(name).
1074        (e) A "conditional group" of the form (?(DEFINE)...) can be used to define
1075            groups (named and numbered) that are never evaluated inline, but can be
1076            called as "subroutines" from elsewhere. In effect, the DEFINE condition
1077            is always false. There may be only one alternative in such a group.
1079        (f) A test for recursion can be given as (?(R1).. or (?(R&name)... as well
1080            as the simple (?(R). The condition is true only if the most recent
1081            recursion is that of the given number or name. It does not search out
1082            through the entire recursion stack.
1084        (g) The escape \gN or \g{N} has been added, where N is a positive or
1085            negative number, specifying an absolute or relative reference.
1087    35. Tidied to get rid of some further signed/unsigned compiler warnings and
1088        some "unreachable code" warnings.
1090    36. Updated the Unicode property tables to Unicode version 5.0.0. Amongst other
1091        things, this adds five new scripts.
1093    37. Perl ignores orphaned \E escapes completely. PCRE now does the same.
1094        There were also incompatibilities regarding the handling of \Q..\E inside
1095        character classes, for example with patterns like [\Qa\E-\Qz\E] where the
1096        hyphen was adjacent to \Q or \E. I hope I've cleared all this up now.
1098    38. Like Perl, PCRE detects when an indefinitely repeated parenthesized group
1099        matches an empty string, and forcibly breaks the loop. There were bugs in
1100        this code in non-simple cases. For a pattern such as  ^(a()*)*  matched
1101        against  aaaa  the result was just "a" rather than "aaaa", for example. Two
1102        separate and independent bugs (that affected different cases) have been
1103        fixed.
1105    39. Refactored the code to abolish the use of different opcodes for small
1106        capturing bracket numbers. This is a tidy that I avoided doing when I
1107        removed the limit on the number of capturing brackets for 3.5 back in 2001.
1108        The new approach is not only tidier, it makes it possible to reduce the
1109        memory needed to fix the previous bug (38).
1111    40. Implemented PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY to recognize any of the Unicode newline
1112        sequences (http://unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr18/) as "newline" when
1113        processing dot, circumflex, or dollar metacharacters, or #-comments in /x
1114        mode.
1116    41. Add \R to match any Unicode newline sequence, as suggested in the Unicode
1117        report.
1119    42. Applied patch, originally from Ari Pollak, modified by Google, to allow
1120        copy construction and assignment in the C++ wrapper.
1122    43. Updated pcregrep to support "--newline=any". In the process, I fixed a
1123        couple of bugs that could have given wrong results in the "--newline=crlf"
1124        case.
1126    44. Added a number of casts and did some reorganization of signed/unsigned int
1127        variables following suggestions from Dair Grant. Also renamed the variable
1128        "this" as "item" because it is a C++ keyword.
1130    45. Arranged for dftables to add
1132          #include "pcre_internal.h"
1134        to pcre_chartables.c because without it, gcc 4.x may remove the array
1135        definition from the final binary if PCRE is built into a static library and
1136        dead code stripping is activated.
1138    46. For an unanchored pattern, if a match attempt fails at the start of a
1139        newline sequence, and the newline setting is CRLF or ANY, and the next two
1140        characters are CRLF, advance by two characters instead of one.
1143  Version 6.7 04-Jul-06  Version 6.7 04-Jul-06
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