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1 README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
4 The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5 from:
7 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
11 There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
13 pcre-dev@exim.org
15 Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16 The contents of this README file are:
18 The PCRE APIs
19 Documentation for PCRE
20 Contributions by users of PCRE
21 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
22 Building PCRE without using autotools
23 Building PCRE using autotools
24 Retrieving configuration information
25 Shared libraries
26 Cross-compiling using autotools
27 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
28 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
29 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
30 Using PCRE from MySQL
31 Making new tarballs
32 Testing PCRE
33 Character tables
34 File manifest
37 The PCRE APIs
38 -------------
40 PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of
41 functions, one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for
42 the 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the
43 32-bit library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
44 includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
45 courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
46 C++.
48 In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
49 library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
50 man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
51 provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
52 still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
53 not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
55 The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
56 official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
57 with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
58 an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
59 renamed or pointed at by a link.
61 If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
62 library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
63 file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
64 ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
65 up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
67 One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
68 -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
69 compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
70 effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
71 you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
72 new names.
75 Documentation for PCRE
76 ----------------------
78 If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
79 with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
80 called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
81 documentation is supplied in two other forms:
83 1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
84 doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
85 concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
86 those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
87 forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
88 These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
89 similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
90 <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
92 2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
93 in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
94 doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
96 Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
97 releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
98 site (see next section).
101 Contributions by users of PCRE
102 ------------------------------
104 You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
106 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
108 There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
109 complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
110 Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
111 contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
112 Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
113 in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
116 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
117 --------------------------------------
119 For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
120 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
121 "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
122 many Unix-like systems.
124 PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
125 cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
126 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
128 PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
129 straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
130 library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
133 Building PCRE without using autotools
134 -------------------------------------
136 The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
137 environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
138 file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
141 Building PCRE using autotools
142 -----------------------------
144 If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
145 in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
147 The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
148 make install" (autotools) process.
150 To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
151 command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
152 to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
153 standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
154 are supplied in the file INSTALL.
156 Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
157 this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
158 the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
160 CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
162 This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
163 -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
164 under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
166 If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
167 directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
168 into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
170 cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
171 /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
173 PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
174 possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
175 does not have any features to support this.
177 There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
178 library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
180 . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
181 by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
183 --disable-shared
184 --disable-static
186 (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
188 . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
189 the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
190 --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
191 If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
192 building the 8-bit library.
194 . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
195 the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
196 command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
197 try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
198 try to build the C++ wrapper.
200 . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
201 large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
202 "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
203 architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
204 will be a compile time error.
206 . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
207 you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
209 . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
210 the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
211 or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
212 --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
213 UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
214 when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
215 enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
216 input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
217 platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
218 the same time.
220 . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
221 independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
222 UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
223 --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
224 that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
225 --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
226 and the other without in the same configuration.
228 . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
229 include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
230 character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
231 "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
232 form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
233 are supported.
235 . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
236 of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
237 end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
238 of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
239 is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
240 newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
241 or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
242 --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
244 If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
245 the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
246 LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
247 to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
248 --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
249 failures.
251 . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
252 sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
253 be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
254 to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
255 --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
257 . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
258 storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
259 them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
261 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
263 on the "configure" command.
265 . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
266 If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
267 million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
269 --with-match-limit=500000
271 on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
272 pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
273 pcreapi man page.
275 . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
276 during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
277 essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
279 --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
281 Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
282 cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
283 sizes in the pcrestack man page.
285 . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
286 this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
287 library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
288 parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
289 the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
290 offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
291 library, the only supported link size is 4.
293 . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
294 pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
295 obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
296 pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
297 build PCRE like this, use
299 --disable-stack-for-recursion
301 on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
302 necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
303 normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
304 successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
305 pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
306 discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
308 . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
309 whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
310 tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
312 --enable-rebuild-chartables
314 a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
315 you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
316 not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
317 pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
319 . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
320 character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
322 --enable-ebcdic
324 This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
325 when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
326 both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
327 which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
328 instead of the default 0x15.
330 . In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
332 --enable-valgrind
334 PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
335 unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
336 mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
338 . In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
339 is installed, if you specify
341 --enable-coverage
343 the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
344 report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
345 your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
346 You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
347 running "make" to build PCRE.
349 . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
350 requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
351 libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
352 specifying one or both of
354 --enable-pcregrep-libz
355 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
357 Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
359 . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
360 example:
362 --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
364 The default value is 20K.
366 . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
367 or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
369 --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
371 If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
372 the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
373 Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
374 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
375 avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
377 Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
378 build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
379 library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
380 unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
381 to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
382 the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
383 with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
384 with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
385 messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
386 this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
388 The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
390 . Makefile the makefile that builds the library
391 . config.h build-time configuration options for the library
392 . pcre.h the public PCRE header file
393 . pcre-config script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
394 that were set for "configure"
395 . libpcre.pc ) data for the pkg-config command
396 . libpcre16.pc )
397 . libpcre32.pc )
398 . libpcreposix.pc )
399 . libtool script that builds shared and/or static libraries
401 Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
402 names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
403 have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
404 or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
406 When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
407 files are also built:
409 . libpcrecpp.pc data for the pkg-config command
410 . pcrecpparg.h header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
411 . pcre_stringpiece.h header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
413 The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
414 script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
415 contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
417 Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
418 libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
419 enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
420 built as well.
422 If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
423 built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
424 it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
425 libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
426 pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
428 The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
429 tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
431 You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
432 system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
433 <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
435 Commands (bin):
436 pcretest
437 pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
438 pcre-config
440 Libraries (lib):
441 libpcre16 (if 16-bit support is enabled)
442 libpcre32 (if 32-bit support is enabled)
443 libpcre (if 8-bit support is enabled)
444 libpcreposix (if 8-bit support is enabled)
445 libpcrecpp (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
447 Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
448 libpcre16.pc
449 libpcre32.pc
450 libpcre.pc
451 libpcreposix.pc
452 libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
454 Header files (include):
455 pcre.h
456 pcreposix.h
457 pcre_scanner.h )
458 pcre_stringpiece.h ) if C++ support is enabled
459 pcrecpp.h )
460 pcrecpparg.h )
462 Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
463 pcregrep.1
464 pcretest.1
465 pcre-config.1
466 pcre.3
467 pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
469 HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
470 index.html
471 *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
473 Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
476 ChangeLog
478 NEWS
480 pcre.txt (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
481 pcretest.txt the pcretest man page
482 pcregrep.txt the pcregrep man page
483 pcre-config.txt the pcre-config man page
485 If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
486 This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
487 remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
490 Retrieving configuration information
491 ------------------------------------
493 Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
494 recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
496 pcre-config --version
498 prints the version number, and
500 pcre-config --libs
502 outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
503 included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
504 having to remember too many details.
506 The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
507 about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
508 single command is used. For example:
510 pkg-config --cflags pcre
512 The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
513 <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
516 Shared libraries
517 ----------------
519 The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
520 as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
521 support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
522 "configure" process.
524 The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
525 libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
526 built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
527 libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
528 you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
529 automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
530 installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
531 use the uninstalled libraries.
533 To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
534 configuring it. For example:
536 ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
538 Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
539 build only shared libraries.
542 Cross-compiling using autotools
543 -------------------------------
545 You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
546 order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
547 specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
548 file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
549 character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
550 because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
551 compiler.
553 When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
554 by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
555 that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
556 a problem.
558 If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
559 move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
560 run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
561 Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
564 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
565 ----------------------------------
567 Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
568 "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
569 environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
571 Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
572 needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
573 option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
574 use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
575 running the "configure" script:
577 CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
580 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
581 -----------------------------------------
583 The following error may occur when compiling with native compilers in the Tru64
584 operating system:
586 CXX libpcrecpp_la-pcrecpp.lo
587 cxx: Error: /usr/lib/cmplrs/cxx/V7.1-006/include/cxx/iosfwd, line 58: #error
588 directive: "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to
589 override default - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
590 #error "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to override default
591 - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
593 This may be followed by other errors, complaining that 'namespace "std" has no
594 member'. The solution to this is to add the line
596 #define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM 1
598 to the config.h file.
601 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
602 ---------------------------------
604 A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
605 Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
607 Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
608 Solaris 9 x86: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
611 Using PCRE from MySQL
612 ---------------------
614 On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
615 of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
616 There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
618 http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
621 Making new tarballs
622 -------------------
624 The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
625 zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
626 build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
628 If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
629 should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
630 script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
633 Testing PCRE
634 ------------
636 To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
637 There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
638 pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
639 called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
640 are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
641 pcre_jit_test is built.
643 Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
644 "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
647 The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
648 own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
649 directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
650 testoutput files. RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output
651 from pcretest. Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working
652 files in some tests.
654 Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options were selected. For
655 example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if --enable-utf was
656 used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
658 Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
659 run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
660 tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
661 done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
662 this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
663 This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
665 The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
666 libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
667 RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
669 If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
670 on the RunTest command line. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test
671 files, give their numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
673 RunTest 2 7 11
675 You can also specify ranges of tests such as 3-6 or 3- (meaning 3 to the
676 end), or a number preceded by ~ to exclude a test. For example:
678 Runtest 3-15 ~10
680 This runs tests 3 to 15, excluding test 10, and just ~13 runs all the tests
681 except test 13. Whatever order the arguments are in, the tests are always run
682 in numerical order.
684 You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
685 a list of tests.
687 The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
688 that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
689 first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
691 The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
692 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
693 detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
694 wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
695 pcre_compile().
697 If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
698 character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
699 cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
700 isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
701 [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
702 this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
703 listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
704 test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
705 bug in PCRE.
707 The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
708 set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
709 default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
710 running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
711 the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
712 in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
713 is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
715 ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
717 in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
718 despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
720 [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
721 work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
722 RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
723 Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
724 document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
726 The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
727 internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
728 sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
730 The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
731 matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
732 mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
734 The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
735 run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
736 change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
738 The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
739 test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
740 features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
742 The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
743 the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit
744 mode. These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are
745 for general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support,
746 respectively.
748 The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
749 16/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
751 The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when
752 the link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading
753 pre-compiled patterns.
755 The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are
756 for general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
758 The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are
759 for general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
762 Character tables
763 ----------------
765 For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
766 whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
767 pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
768 concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
769 of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
770 passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
772 The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
773 default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
774 tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
775 for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
776 program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
777 handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
778 build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
779 your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
780 the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
781 you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
782 automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
783 pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
784 tables.
786 When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
787 it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
788 attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
789 system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
790 set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
791 locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
792 program by hand with the -L option. For example:
794 ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
796 The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
797 respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
798 digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
799 building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
800 than 256.
802 The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
803 follows:
805 1 white space character
806 2 letter
807 4 decimal digit
808 8 hexadecimal digit
809 16 alphanumeric or '_'
810 128 regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
812 You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
813 will cause PCRE to malfunction.
816 File manifest
817 -------------
819 The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
820 given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
821 pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
823 (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
825 dftables.c auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
826 when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
828 pcre_chartables.c.dist a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
829 coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
830 specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
832 pcreposix.c )
833 pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c )
834 pcre[16|32]_compile.c )
835 pcre[16|32]_config.c )
836 pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c )
837 pcre[16|32]_exec.c )
838 pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c )
839 pcre[16|32]_get.c ) sources for the functions in the library,
840 pcre[16|32]_globals.c ) and some internal functions that they use
841 pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c )
842 pcre[16|32]_maketables.c )
843 pcre[16|32]_newline.c )
844 pcre[16|32]_refcount.c )
845 pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
846 pcre[16|32]_study.c )
847 pcre[16|32]_tables.c )
848 pcre[16|32]_ucd.c )
849 pcre[16|32]_version.c )
850 pcre[16|32]_xclass.c )
851 pcre_ord2utf8.c )
852 pcre_valid_utf8.c )
853 pcre16_ord2utf16.c )
854 pcre16_utf16_utils.c )
855 pcre16_valid_utf16.c )
856 pcre32_utf32_utils.c )
857 pcre32_valid_utf32.c )
859 pcre[16|32]_printint.c ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
860 ) and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
862 pcre.h.in template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
863 pcreposix.h header for the external POSIX wrapper API
864 pcre_internal.h header for internal use
865 sljit/* 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
866 ucp.h header for Unicode property handling
868 config.h.in template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
870 pcrecpp.h public header file for the C++ wrapper
871 pcrecpparg.h.in template for another C++ header file
872 pcre_scanner.h public header file for C++ scanner functions
873 pcrecpp.cc )
874 pcre_scanner.cc ) source for the C++ wrapper library
876 pcre_stringpiece.h.in template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
877 C++ stringpiece functions
878 pcre_stringpiece.cc source for the C++ stringpiece functions
880 (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
882 pcredemo.c simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
883 pcregrep.c source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
884 pcretest.c comprehensive test program
886 (C) Auxiliary files:
888 132html script to turn "man" pages into HTML
889 AUTHORS information about the author of PCRE
890 ChangeLog log of changes to the code
891 CleanTxt script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
892 Detrail script to remove trailing spaces
893 HACKING some notes about the internals of PCRE
894 INSTALL generic installation instructions
895 LICENCE conditions for the use of PCRE
896 COPYING the same, using GNU's standard name
897 Makefile.in ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
898 ) "configure"
899 Makefile.am ) the automake input that was used to create
900 ) Makefile.in
901 NEWS important changes in this release
902 NON-UNIX-USE the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
903 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD notes on building PCRE without using autotools
904 PrepareRelease script to make preparations for "make dist"
905 README this file
906 RunTest a Unix shell script for running tests
907 RunGrepTest a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
908 aclocal.m4 m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
909 config.guess ) files used by libtool,
910 config.sub ) used only when building a shared library
911 configure a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
912 configure.ac ) the autoconf input that was used to build
913 ) "configure" and config.h
914 depcomp ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
915 ) automake
916 doc/*.3 man page sources for PCRE
917 doc/*.1 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
918 doc/index.html.src the base HTML page
919 doc/html/* HTML documentation
920 doc/pcre.txt plain text version of the man pages
921 doc/pcretest.txt plain text documentation of test program
922 doc/perltest.txt plain text documentation of Perl test program
923 install-sh a shell script for installing files
924 libpcre16.pc.in template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
925 libpcre32.pc.in template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
926 libpcre.pc.in template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
927 libpcreposix.pc.in template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
928 libpcrecpp.pc.in template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
929 ltmain.sh file used to build a libtool script
930 missing ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
931 ) installing, generated by automake
932 mkinstalldirs script for making install directories
933 perltest.pl Perl test program
934 pcre-config.in source of script which retains PCRE information
935 pcre_jit_test.c test program for the JIT compiler
936 pcrecpp_unittest.cc )
937 pcre_scanner_unittest.cc ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
938 pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
939 testdata/testinput* test data for main library tests
940 testdata/testoutput* expected test results
941 testdata/grep* input and output for pcregrep tests
942 testdata/* other supporting test files
944 (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
947 cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
948 cmake/FindEditline.cmake
949 cmake/FindReadline.cmake
950 CMakeLists.txt
951 config-cmake.h.in
953 (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
955 makevp.bat
956 makevp_c.txt
957 makevp_l.txt
958 pcregexp.pas
960 (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
962 pcre.h.generic ) a version of the public PCRE header file
963 ) for use in non-"configure" environments
964 config.h.generic ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
965 ) environments
967 (F) Miscellaneous
969 RunTest.bat a script for running tests under Windows
971 Philip Hazel
972 Email local part: ph10
973 Email domain: cam.ac.uk
974 Last updated: 28 April 2013


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