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1 README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
4 The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5 from:
7 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
11 There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12 pcre-dev@exim.org. You can access the archives and subscribe or manage your
13 subscription here:
15 https://lists.exim.org/mailman/listinfo/pcre-dev
17 Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
18 The contents of this README file are:
20 The PCRE APIs
21 Documentation for PCRE
22 Contributions by users of PCRE
23 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
24 Building PCRE without using autotools
25 Building PCRE using autotools
26 Retrieving configuration information
27 Shared libraries
28 Cross-compiling using autotools
29 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
30 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
31 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
32 Using PCRE from MySQL
33 Making new tarballs
34 Testing PCRE
35 Character tables
36 File manifest
39 The PCRE APIs
40 -------------
42 PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of
43 functions, one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for
44 the 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the
45 32-bit library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
46 includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
47 courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
48 C++. Other C++ wrappers have been created from time to time. See, for example:
49 https://github.com/YasserAsmi/regexp, which aims to be simple and similar in
50 style to the C API.
52 The distribution also contains a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for
53 the 8-bit library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the
54 pcreposix man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that
55 this just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions
56 themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted,
57 and does not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
59 The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
60 official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
61 with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
62 an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
63 renamed or pointed at by a link.
65 If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
66 library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
67 file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
68 ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
69 up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
71 One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
72 -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
73 compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
74 effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
75 you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
76 new names.
79 Documentation for PCRE
80 ----------------------
82 If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
83 with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
84 called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
85 documentation is supplied in two other forms:
87 1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
88 doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
89 concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
90 the listing of pcredemo.c and those that summarize individual functions.
91 The other two are the text forms of the section 1 man pages for the
92 pcregrep and pcretest commands. These text forms are provided for ease of
93 scanning with text editors or similar tools. They are installed in
94 <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where <prefix> is the installation prefix
95 (defaulting to /usr/local).
97 2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
98 in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
99 doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
101 Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
102 releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
103 site (see next section).
106 Contributions by users of PCRE
107 ------------------------------
109 You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
111 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
113 There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
114 complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
115 Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
116 contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
117 Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
118 in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
120 A PCRE user maintains downloadable Windows binaries of the pcregrep and
121 pcretest programs here:
123 http://www.rexegg.com/pcregrep-pcretest.html
126 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
127 --------------------------------------
129 For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
130 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
131 "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
132 many Unix-like systems.
134 PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
135 cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
136 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
138 PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
139 straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
140 library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
143 Building PCRE without using autotools
144 -------------------------------------
146 The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
147 environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
148 file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
151 Building PCRE using autotools
152 -----------------------------
154 If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
155 in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
157 The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
158 make install" (autotools) process.
160 To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
161 command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
162 to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
163 standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
164 are supplied in the file INSTALL.
166 Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
167 this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
168 the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
170 CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
172 This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
173 -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
174 under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
176 If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
177 directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
178 into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
180 cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
181 /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
183 PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
184 possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
185 does not have any features to support this.
187 There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
188 library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
190 . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
191 by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
193 --disable-shared
194 --disable-static
196 (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
198 . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
199 the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
200 --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
201 If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
202 building the 8-bit library.
204 . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
205 the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
206 command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
207 try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
208 try to build the C++ wrapper.
210 . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
211 large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
212 "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
213 architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
214 will be a compile time error.
216 . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
217 you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
219 . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
220 the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
221 or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
222 --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
223 UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
224 when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
225 enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
226 input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
227 platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
228 the same time.
230 . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
231 independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
232 UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
233 --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
234 that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
235 --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
236 and the other without in the same configuration.
238 . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
239 include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
240 character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
241 "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
242 form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
243 are supported.
245 . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
246 of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
247 end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
248 of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
249 is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
250 newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
251 or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
252 --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
254 If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
255 the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
256 LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
257 to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
258 --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
259 failures.
261 . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
262 sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
263 be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
264 to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
265 --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
267 . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
268 storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
269 them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
271 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
273 on the "configure" command.
275 . PCRE has a counter that limits the depth of nesting of parentheses in a
276 pattern. This limits the amount of system stack that a pattern uses when it
277 is compiled. The default is 250, but you can change it by setting, for
278 example,
280 --with-parens-nest-limit=500
282 . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses
283 when matching a pattern. If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match
284 fails. The default is ten million. You can change the default by setting, for
285 example,
287 --with-match-limit=500000
289 on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
290 pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
291 pcreapi man page.
293 . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
294 during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
295 essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
297 --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
299 Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
300 cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
301 sizes in the pcrestack man page.
303 . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
304 this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
305 library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
306 parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
307 the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
308 offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
309 library, the only supported link size is 4.
311 . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
312 pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
313 obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
314 pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
315 build PCRE like this, use
317 --disable-stack-for-recursion
319 on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
320 necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
321 normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
322 successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
323 pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
324 discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
326 . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
327 whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
328 tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
330 --enable-rebuild-chartables
332 a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
333 you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
334 not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
335 pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
337 . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
338 character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
340 --enable-ebcdic
342 This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
343 when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
344 both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
345 which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
346 instead of the default 0x15.
348 . In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
350 --enable-valgrind
352 PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
353 unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
354 mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
356 . In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
357 is installed, if you specify
359 --enable-coverage
361 the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
362 report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
363 your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
364 You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
365 running "make" to build PCRE. There is more information about coverage
366 reporting in the "pcrebuild" documentation.
368 . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
369 requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
370 libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
371 specifying one or both of
373 --enable-pcregrep-libz
374 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
376 Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
378 . The default size (in bytes) of the internal buffer used by pcregrep can be
379 set by, for example:
381 --with-pcregrep-bufsize=51200
383 The value must be a plain integer. The default is 20480.
385 . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
386 or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
388 --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
390 If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
391 the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
392 Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
393 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
394 avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
396 Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
397 build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
398 library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
399 unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
400 to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
401 the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
402 with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
403 with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
404 messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
405 this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
407 The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
409 . Makefile the makefile that builds the library
410 . config.h build-time configuration options for the library
411 . pcre.h the public PCRE header file
412 . pcre-config script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
413 that were set for "configure"
414 . libpcre.pc ) data for the pkg-config command
415 . libpcre16.pc )
416 . libpcre32.pc )
417 . libpcreposix.pc )
418 . libtool script that builds shared and/or static libraries
420 Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
421 names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
422 have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
423 or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
425 When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
426 files are also built:
428 . libpcrecpp.pc data for the pkg-config command
429 . pcrecpparg.h header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
430 . pcre_stringpiece.h header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
432 The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
433 script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
434 contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
436 Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
437 libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
438 enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
439 built as well.
441 If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
442 built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
443 it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
444 libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
445 pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
447 The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
448 tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
450 You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
451 system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
452 <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
454 Commands (bin):
455 pcretest
456 pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
457 pcre-config
459 Libraries (lib):
460 libpcre16 (if 16-bit support is enabled)
461 libpcre32 (if 32-bit support is enabled)
462 libpcre (if 8-bit support is enabled)
463 libpcreposix (if 8-bit support is enabled)
464 libpcrecpp (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
466 Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
467 libpcre16.pc
468 libpcre32.pc
469 libpcre.pc
470 libpcreposix.pc
471 libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
473 Header files (include):
474 pcre.h
475 pcreposix.h
476 pcre_scanner.h )
477 pcre_stringpiece.h ) if C++ support is enabled
478 pcrecpp.h )
479 pcrecpparg.h )
481 Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
482 pcregrep.1
483 pcretest.1
484 pcre-config.1
485 pcre.3
486 pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
488 HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
489 index.html
490 *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
492 Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
495 ChangeLog
497 NEWS
499 pcre.txt (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
500 pcretest.txt the pcretest man page
501 pcregrep.txt the pcregrep man page
502 pcre-config.txt the pcre-config man page
504 If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
505 This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
506 remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
509 Retrieving configuration information
510 ------------------------------------
512 Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
513 recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
515 pcre-config --version
517 prints the version number, and
519 pcre-config --libs
521 outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
522 included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
523 having to remember too many details.
525 The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
526 about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
527 single command is used. For example:
529 pkg-config --cflags pcre
531 The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
532 <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
535 Shared libraries
536 ----------------
538 The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
539 as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
540 support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
541 "configure" process.
543 The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
544 libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
545 built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
546 libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
547 you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
548 automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
549 installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
550 use the uninstalled libraries.
552 To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
553 configuring it. For example:
555 ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
557 Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
558 build only shared libraries.
561 Cross-compiling using autotools
562 -------------------------------
564 You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
565 order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
566 specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
567 file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
568 character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
569 because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
570 compiler.
572 When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
573 by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
574 that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
575 a problem.
577 If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
578 move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
579 run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
580 Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
583 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
584 ----------------------------------
586 Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
587 "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
588 environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
590 Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
591 needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
592 option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
593 use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
594 running the "configure" script:
596 CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
599 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
600 -----------------------------------------
602 The following error may occur when compiling with native compilers in the Tru64
603 operating system:
605 CXX libpcrecpp_la-pcrecpp.lo
606 cxx: Error: /usr/lib/cmplrs/cxx/V7.1-006/include/cxx/iosfwd, line 58: #error
607 directive: "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to
608 override default - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
609 #error "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to override default
610 - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
612 This may be followed by other errors, complaining that 'namespace "std" has no
613 member'. The solution to this is to add the line
615 #define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM 1
617 to the config.h file.
620 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
621 ---------------------------------
623 A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
624 Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
626 Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
627 Solaris 9 x86: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
630 Using PCRE from MySQL
631 ---------------------
633 On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
634 of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
635 There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
637 http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
640 Making new tarballs
641 -------------------
643 The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
644 zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
645 build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
647 If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
648 should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
649 script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
652 Testing PCRE
653 ------------
655 To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
656 There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
657 pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
658 called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
659 are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
660 pcre_jit_test is built.
662 Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
663 "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
666 The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
667 own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
668 directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
669 testoutput files. RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output
670 from pcretest. Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working
671 files in some tests.
673 Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options were selected. For
674 example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if --enable-utf was
675 used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
677 Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
678 run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
679 tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
680 done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
681 this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
682 This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
684 The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
685 libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
686 RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
688 If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
689 on the RunTest command line. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test
690 files, give their numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
692 RunTest 2 7 11
694 You can also specify ranges of tests such as 3-6 or 3- (meaning 3 to the
695 end), or a number preceded by ~ to exclude a test. For example:
697 Runtest 3-15 ~10
699 This runs tests 3 to 15, excluding test 10, and just ~13 runs all the tests
700 except test 13. Whatever order the arguments are in, the tests are always run
701 in numerical order.
703 You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
704 a list of tests.
706 The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
707 that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
708 first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
710 The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
711 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
712 detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
713 wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
714 pcre_compile().
716 If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
717 character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
718 cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
719 isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
720 [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
721 this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
722 listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
723 test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
724 bug in PCRE.
726 The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
727 set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
728 default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
729 running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
730 the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
731 in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
732 is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
734 ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
736 in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
737 despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
739 [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
740 work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
741 RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
742 Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
743 document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
745 The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
746 internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
747 sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
749 The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
750 matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
751 mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
753 The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
754 run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
755 change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
757 The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
758 test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
759 features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
761 The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
762 the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit
763 mode. These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are
764 for general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support,
765 respectively.
767 The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
768 16/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
770 The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when
771 the link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading
772 pre-compiled patterns.
774 The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are
775 for general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
777 The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are
778 for general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
781 Character tables
782 ----------------
784 For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
785 whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
786 pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
787 concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
788 of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
789 passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
791 The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
792 default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
793 tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
794 for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
795 program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
796 handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
797 build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
798 your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
799 the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
800 you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
801 automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
802 pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
803 tables.
805 When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
806 it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
807 attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
808 system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
809 set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
810 locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
811 program by hand with the -L option. For example:
813 ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
815 The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
816 respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
817 digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
818 building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
819 than 256.
821 The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
822 follows:
824 1 white space character
825 2 letter
826 4 decimal digit
827 8 hexadecimal digit
828 16 alphanumeric or '_'
829 128 regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
831 You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
832 will cause PCRE to malfunction.
835 File manifest
836 -------------
838 The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
839 given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
840 pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
842 (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
844 dftables.c auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
845 when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
847 pcre_chartables.c.dist a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
848 coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
849 specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
851 pcreposix.c )
852 pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c )
853 pcre[16|32]_compile.c )
854 pcre[16|32]_config.c )
855 pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c )
856 pcre[16|32]_exec.c )
857 pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c )
858 pcre[16|32]_get.c ) sources for the functions in the library,
859 pcre[16|32]_globals.c ) and some internal functions that they use
860 pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c )
861 pcre[16|32]_maketables.c )
862 pcre[16|32]_newline.c )
863 pcre[16|32]_refcount.c )
864 pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
865 pcre[16|32]_study.c )
866 pcre[16|32]_tables.c )
867 pcre[16|32]_ucd.c )
868 pcre[16|32]_version.c )
869 pcre[16|32]_xclass.c )
870 pcre_ord2utf8.c )
871 pcre_valid_utf8.c )
872 pcre16_ord2utf16.c )
873 pcre16_utf16_utils.c )
874 pcre16_valid_utf16.c )
875 pcre32_utf32_utils.c )
876 pcre32_valid_utf32.c )
878 pcre[16|32]_printint.c ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
879 ) and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
881 pcre.h.in template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
882 pcreposix.h header for the external POSIX wrapper API
883 pcre_internal.h header for internal use
884 sljit/* 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
885 ucp.h header for Unicode property handling
887 config.h.in template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
889 pcrecpp.h public header file for the C++ wrapper
890 pcrecpparg.h.in template for another C++ header file
891 pcre_scanner.h public header file for C++ scanner functions
892 pcrecpp.cc )
893 pcre_scanner.cc ) source for the C++ wrapper library
895 pcre_stringpiece.h.in template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
896 C++ stringpiece functions
897 pcre_stringpiece.cc source for the C++ stringpiece functions
899 (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
901 pcredemo.c simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
902 pcregrep.c source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
903 pcretest.c comprehensive test program
905 (C) Auxiliary files:
907 132html script to turn "man" pages into HTML
908 AUTHORS information about the author of PCRE
909 ChangeLog log of changes to the code
910 CleanTxt script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
911 Detrail script to remove trailing spaces
912 HACKING some notes about the internals of PCRE
913 INSTALL generic installation instructions
914 LICENCE conditions for the use of PCRE
915 COPYING the same, using GNU's standard name
916 Makefile.in ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
917 ) "configure"
918 Makefile.am ) the automake input that was used to create
919 ) Makefile.in
920 NEWS important changes in this release
921 NON-UNIX-USE the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
922 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD notes on building PCRE without using autotools
923 PrepareRelease script to make preparations for "make dist"
924 README this file
925 RunTest a Unix shell script for running tests
926 RunGrepTest a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
927 aclocal.m4 m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
928 config.guess ) files used by libtool,
929 config.sub ) used only when building a shared library
930 configure a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
931 configure.ac ) the autoconf input that was used to build
932 ) "configure" and config.h
933 depcomp ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
934 ) automake
935 doc/*.3 man page sources for PCRE
936 doc/*.1 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
937 doc/index.html.src the base HTML page
938 doc/html/* HTML documentation
939 doc/pcre.txt plain text version of the man pages
940 doc/pcretest.txt plain text documentation of test program
941 doc/perltest.txt plain text documentation of Perl test program
942 install-sh a shell script for installing files
943 libpcre16.pc.in template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
944 libpcre32.pc.in template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
945 libpcre.pc.in template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
946 libpcreposix.pc.in template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
947 libpcrecpp.pc.in template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
948 ltmain.sh file used to build a libtool script
949 missing ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
950 ) installing, generated by automake
951 mkinstalldirs script for making install directories
952 perltest.pl Perl test program
953 pcre-config.in source of script which retains PCRE information
954 pcre_jit_test.c test program for the JIT compiler
955 pcrecpp_unittest.cc )
956 pcre_scanner_unittest.cc ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
957 pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
958 testdata/testinput* test data for main library tests
959 testdata/testoutput* expected test results
960 testdata/grep* input and output for pcregrep tests
961 testdata/* other supporting test files
963 (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
966 cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
967 cmake/FindEditline.cmake
968 cmake/FindReadline.cmake
969 CMakeLists.txt
970 config-cmake.h.in
972 (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
974 makevp.bat
975 makevp_c.txt
976 makevp_l.txt
977 pcregexp.pas
979 (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
981 pcre.h.generic ) a version of the public PCRE header file
982 ) for use in non-"configure" environments
983 config.h.generic ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
984 ) environments
986 (F) Miscellaneous
988 RunTest.bat a script for running tests under Windows
990 Philip Hazel
991 Email local part: ph10
992 Email domain: cam.ac.uk
993 Last updated: 24 October 2014


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