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Final source tidies for 8.45 release.
1 README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
4 NOTE: This set of files relates to PCRE releases that use the original API,
5 with library names libpcre, libpcre16, and libpcre32. January 2015 saw the
6 first release of a new API, known as PCRE2, with release numbers starting at
7 10.00 and library names libpcre2-8, libpcre2-16, and libpcre2-32. The old
8 libraries (now called PCRE1) are now at end of life, and 8.45 is the final
9 release. New projects are advised to use the new PCRE2 libraries.
12 The latest release of PCRE1 is always available in three alternative formats
13 from:
15 https://ftp.pcre.org/pub/pcre/pcre-x.xx.tar.gz
16 https://ftp.pcre.org/pub/pcre/pcre-x.xx.tar.bz2
17 https://ftp.pcre.org/pub/pcre/pcre-x.xx.tar.zip
20 There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
21 pcre-dev@exim.org. You can access the archives and subscribe or manage your
22 subscription here:
24 https://lists.exim.org/mailman/listinfo/pcre-dev
26 Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
27 The contents of this README file are:
29 The PCRE APIs
30 Documentation for PCRE
31 Contributions by users of PCRE
32 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
33 Building PCRE without using autotools
34 Building PCRE using autotools
35 Retrieving configuration information
36 Shared libraries
37 Cross-compiling using autotools
38 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
39 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
40 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
41 Using PCRE from MySQL
42 Making new tarballs
43 Testing PCRE
44 Character tables
45 File manifest
48 The PCRE APIs
49 -------------
51 PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of
52 functions, one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for
53 the 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the
54 32-bit library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
55 includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
56 courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
57 C++. Other C++ wrappers have been created from time to time. See, for example:
58 https://github.com/YasserAsmi/regexp, which aims to be simple and similar in
59 style to the C API.
61 The distribution also contains a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for
62 the 8-bit library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the
63 pcreposix man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that
64 this just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions
65 themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted,
66 and does not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
68 The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
69 official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
70 with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
71 an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
72 renamed or pointed at by a link.
74 If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
75 library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
76 file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
77 ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
78 up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
80 One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
81 -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
82 compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
83 effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
84 you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
85 new names.
88 Documentation for PCRE
89 ----------------------
91 If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
92 with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
93 called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
94 documentation is supplied in two other forms:
96 1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
97 doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
98 concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
99 the listing of pcredemo.c and those that summarize individual functions.
100 The other two are the text forms of the section 1 man pages for the
101 pcregrep and pcretest commands. These text forms are provided for ease of
102 scanning with text editors or similar tools. They are installed in
103 <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where <prefix> is the installation prefix
104 (defaulting to /usr/local).
106 2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
107 in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
108 doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
110 Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
111 releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
112 site (see next section).
115 Contributions by users of PCRE
116 ------------------------------
118 You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
120 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
122 There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
123 complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
124 Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
125 contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
126 Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
127 in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
129 A PCRE user maintains downloadable Windows binaries of the pcregrep and
130 pcretest programs here:
132 http://www.rexegg.com/pcregrep-pcretest.html
135 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
136 --------------------------------------
138 For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
139 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
140 "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
141 many Unix-like systems.
143 PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
144 cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
145 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
147 PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
148 straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
149 library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
152 Building PCRE without using autotools
153 -------------------------------------
155 The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
156 environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
157 file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
160 Building PCRE using autotools
161 -----------------------------
163 If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
164 in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
166 The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
167 make install" (autotools) process.
169 To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
170 command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
171 to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
172 standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
173 are supplied in the file INSTALL.
175 Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
176 this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
177 the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
179 CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
181 This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
182 -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
183 under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
185 If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
186 directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
187 into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
189 cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
190 /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
192 PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
193 possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
194 does not have any features to support this.
196 There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
197 library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
199 . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
200 by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
202 --disable-shared
203 --disable-static
205 (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
207 . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
208 the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
209 --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
210 If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
211 building the 8-bit library.
213 . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
214 the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
215 command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
216 try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
217 try to build the C++ wrapper.
219 . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
220 large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
221 "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
222 architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
223 will be a compile time error.
225 . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
226 you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
228 . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
229 the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
230 or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
231 --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
232 UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
233 when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
234 enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
235 input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
236 platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
237 the same time.
239 . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
240 independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
241 UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
242 --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
243 that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
244 --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
245 and the other without in the same configuration.
247 . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
248 include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
249 character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
250 "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
251 form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
252 are supported.
254 . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
255 of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
256 end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
257 of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
258 is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
259 newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
260 or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
261 --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
263 If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
264 the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
265 LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
266 to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
267 --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
268 failures.
270 . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
271 sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
272 be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
273 to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
274 --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
276 . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
277 storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
278 them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
280 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
282 on the "configure" command.
284 . PCRE has a counter that limits the depth of nesting of parentheses in a
285 pattern. This limits the amount of system stack that a pattern uses when it
286 is compiled. The default is 250, but you can change it by setting, for
287 example,
289 --with-parens-nest-limit=500
291 . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses
292 when matching a pattern. If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match
293 fails. The default is ten million. You can change the default by setting, for
294 example,
296 --with-match-limit=500000
298 on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
299 pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
300 pcreapi man page.
302 . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
303 during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
304 essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
306 --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
308 Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
309 cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
310 sizes in the pcrestack man page.
312 . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
313 this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
314 library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
315 parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
316 the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
317 offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
318 library, the only supported link size is 4.
320 . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
321 pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
322 obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
323 pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
324 build PCRE like this, use
326 --disable-stack-for-recursion
328 on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
329 necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
330 normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
331 successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
332 pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
333 discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
335 . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
336 whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
337 tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
339 --enable-rebuild-chartables
341 a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
342 you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
343 not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
344 pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
346 . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
347 character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
349 --enable-ebcdic
351 This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
352 when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
353 both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
354 which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
355 instead of the default 0x15.
357 . In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
359 --enable-valgrind
361 PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
362 unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
363 mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
365 . In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
366 is installed, if you specify
368 --enable-coverage
370 the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
371 report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
372 your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
373 You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
374 running "make" to build PCRE. There is more information about coverage
375 reporting in the "pcrebuild" documentation.
377 . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
378 requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
379 libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
380 specifying one or both of
382 --enable-pcregrep-libz
383 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
385 Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
387 . The default size (in bytes) of the internal buffer used by pcregrep can be
388 set by, for example:
390 --with-pcregrep-bufsize=51200
392 The value must be a plain integer. The default is 20480.
394 . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
395 or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
397 --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
399 If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
400 the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
401 Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
402 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
403 avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
405 Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
406 build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
407 library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
408 unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
409 to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
410 the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
411 with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
412 with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
413 messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
414 this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
416 The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
418 . Makefile the makefile that builds the library
419 . config.h build-time configuration options for the library
420 . pcre.h the public PCRE header file
421 . pcre-config script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
422 that were set for "configure"
423 . libpcre.pc ) data for the pkg-config command
424 . libpcre16.pc )
425 . libpcre32.pc )
426 . libpcreposix.pc )
427 . libtool script that builds shared and/or static libraries
429 Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
430 names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
431 have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
432 or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
434 When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
435 files are also built:
437 . libpcrecpp.pc data for the pkg-config command
438 . pcrecpparg.h header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
439 . pcre_stringpiece.h header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
441 The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
442 script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
443 contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
445 Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
446 libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
447 enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
448 built as well.
450 If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
451 built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
452 it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
453 libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
454 pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
456 The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
457 tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
459 You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
460 system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
461 <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
463 Commands (bin):
464 pcretest
465 pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
466 pcre-config
468 Libraries (lib):
469 libpcre16 (if 16-bit support is enabled)
470 libpcre32 (if 32-bit support is enabled)
471 libpcre (if 8-bit support is enabled)
472 libpcreposix (if 8-bit support is enabled)
473 libpcrecpp (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
475 Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
476 libpcre16.pc
477 libpcre32.pc
478 libpcre.pc
479 libpcreposix.pc
480 libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
482 Header files (include):
483 pcre.h
484 pcreposix.h
485 pcre_scanner.h )
486 pcre_stringpiece.h ) if C++ support is enabled
487 pcrecpp.h )
488 pcrecpparg.h )
490 Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
491 pcregrep.1
492 pcretest.1
493 pcre-config.1
494 pcre.3
495 pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
497 HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
498 index.html
499 *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
501 Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
504 ChangeLog
506 NEWS
508 pcre.txt (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
509 pcretest.txt the pcretest man page
510 pcregrep.txt the pcregrep man page
511 pcre-config.txt the pcre-config man page
513 If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
514 This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
515 remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
518 Retrieving configuration information
519 ------------------------------------
521 Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
522 recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
524 pcre-config --version
526 prints the version number, and
528 pcre-config --libs
530 outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
531 included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
532 having to remember too many details.
534 The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
535 about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
536 single command is used. For example:
538 pkg-config --cflags pcre
540 The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
541 <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
544 Shared libraries
545 ----------------
547 The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
548 as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
549 support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
550 "configure" process.
552 The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
553 libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
554 built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
555 libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
556 you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
557 automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
558 installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
559 use the uninstalled libraries.
561 To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
562 configuring it. For example:
564 ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
566 Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
567 build only shared libraries.
570 Cross-compiling using autotools
571 -------------------------------
573 You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
574 order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
575 specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
576 file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
577 character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
578 because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
579 compiler.
581 When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
582 by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
583 that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
584 a problem.
586 If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
587 move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
588 run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
589 Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
592 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
593 ----------------------------------
595 Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
596 "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
597 environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
599 Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
600 needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
601 option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
602 use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
603 running the "configure" script:
605 CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
608 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
609 -----------------------------------------
611 The following error may occur when compiling with native compilers in the Tru64
612 operating system:
614 CXX libpcrecpp_la-pcrecpp.lo
615 cxx: Error: /usr/lib/cmplrs/cxx/V7.1-006/include/cxx/iosfwd, line 58: #error
616 directive: "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to
617 override default - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
618 #error "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to override default
619 - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
621 This may be followed by other errors, complaining that 'namespace "std" has no
622 member'. The solution to this is to add the line
624 #define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM 1
626 to the config.h file.
629 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
630 ---------------------------------
632 A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
633 Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
635 Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
636 Solaris 9 x86: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
639 Using PCRE from MySQL
640 ---------------------
642 On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
643 of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
644 There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
646 http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
649 Making new tarballs
650 -------------------
652 The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
653 zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
654 build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
656 If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
657 should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
658 script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
661 Testing PCRE
662 ------------
664 To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
665 There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
666 pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
667 called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
668 are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
669 pcre_jit_test is built.
671 Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
672 "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
675 The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
676 own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
677 directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
678 testoutput files. RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output
679 from pcretest. Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working
680 files in some tests.
682 Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options were selected. For
683 example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if --enable-utf was
684 used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
686 Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
687 run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
688 tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
689 done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
690 this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
691 This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
693 The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
694 libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
695 RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
697 If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
698 on the RunTest command line. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test
699 files, give their numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
701 RunTest 2 7 11
703 You can also specify ranges of tests such as 3-6 or 3- (meaning 3 to the
704 end), or a number preceded by ~ to exclude a test. For example:
706 Runtest 3-15 ~10
708 This runs tests 3 to 15, excluding test 10, and just ~13 runs all the tests
709 except test 13. Whatever order the arguments are in, the tests are always run
710 in numerical order.
712 You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
713 a list of tests.
715 The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
716 that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
717 first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
719 The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
720 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
721 detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
722 wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
723 pcre_compile().
725 If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
726 character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
727 cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
728 isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
729 [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
730 this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
731 listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
732 test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
733 bug in PCRE.
735 The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
736 set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
737 default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
738 running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
739 the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
740 in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
741 is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
743 ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
745 in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
746 despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
748 [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
749 work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
750 RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
751 Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
752 document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
754 The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
755 internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
756 sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
758 The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
759 matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
760 mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
762 The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
763 run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
764 change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
766 The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
767 test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
768 features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
770 The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
771 the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit
772 mode. These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are
773 for general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support,
774 respectively.
776 The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
777 16/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
779 The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when
780 the link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading
781 pre-compiled patterns.
783 The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are
784 for general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
786 The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are
787 for general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
790 Character tables
791 ----------------
793 For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
794 whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
795 pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
796 concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
797 of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
798 passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
800 The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
801 default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
802 tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
803 for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
804 program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
805 handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
806 build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
807 your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
808 the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
809 you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
810 automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
811 pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
812 tables.
814 When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
815 it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
816 attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
817 system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
818 set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
819 locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
820 program by hand with the -L option. For example:
822 ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
824 The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
825 respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
826 digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
827 building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
828 than 256.
830 The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
831 follows:
833 1 white space character
834 2 letter
835 4 decimal digit
836 8 hexadecimal digit
837 16 alphanumeric or '_'
838 128 regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
840 You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
841 will cause PCRE to malfunction.
844 File manifest
845 -------------
847 The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
848 given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
849 pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
851 (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
853 dftables.c auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
854 when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
856 pcre_chartables.c.dist a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
857 coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
858 specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
860 pcreposix.c )
861 pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c )
862 pcre[16|32]_compile.c )
863 pcre[16|32]_config.c )
864 pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c )
865 pcre[16|32]_exec.c )
866 pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c )
867 pcre[16|32]_get.c ) sources for the functions in the library,
868 pcre[16|32]_globals.c ) and some internal functions that they use
869 pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c )
870 pcre[16|32]_maketables.c )
871 pcre[16|32]_newline.c )
872 pcre[16|32]_refcount.c )
873 pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
874 pcre[16|32]_study.c )
875 pcre[16|32]_tables.c )
876 pcre[16|32]_ucd.c )
877 pcre[16|32]_version.c )
878 pcre[16|32]_xclass.c )
879 pcre_ord2utf8.c )
880 pcre_valid_utf8.c )
881 pcre16_ord2utf16.c )
882 pcre16_utf16_utils.c )
883 pcre16_valid_utf16.c )
884 pcre32_utf32_utils.c )
885 pcre32_valid_utf32.c )
887 pcre[16|32]_printint.c ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
888 ) and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
890 pcre.h.in template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
891 pcreposix.h header for the external POSIX wrapper API
892 pcre_internal.h header for internal use
893 sljit/* 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
894 ucp.h header for Unicode property handling
896 config.h.in template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
898 pcrecpp.h public header file for the C++ wrapper
899 pcrecpparg.h.in template for another C++ header file
900 pcre_scanner.h public header file for C++ scanner functions
901 pcrecpp.cc )
902 pcre_scanner.cc ) source for the C++ wrapper library
904 pcre_stringpiece.h.in template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
905 C++ stringpiece functions
906 pcre_stringpiece.cc source for the C++ stringpiece functions
908 (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
910 pcredemo.c simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
911 pcregrep.c source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
912 pcretest.c comprehensive test program
914 (C) Auxiliary files:
916 132html script to turn "man" pages into HTML
917 AUTHORS information about the author of PCRE
918 ChangeLog log of changes to the code
919 CleanTxt script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
920 Detrail script to remove trailing spaces
921 HACKING some notes about the internals of PCRE
922 INSTALL generic installation instructions
923 LICENCE conditions for the use of PCRE
924 COPYING the same, using GNU's standard name
925 Makefile.in ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
926 ) "configure"
927 Makefile.am ) the automake input that was used to create
928 ) Makefile.in
929 NEWS important changes in this release
930 NON-UNIX-USE the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
931 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD notes on building PCRE without using autotools
932 PrepareRelease script to make preparations for "make dist"
933 README this file
934 RunTest a Unix shell script for running tests
935 RunGrepTest a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
936 aclocal.m4 m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
937 config.guess ) files used by libtool,
938 config.sub ) used only when building a shared library
939 configure a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
940 configure.ac ) the autoconf input that was used to build
941 ) "configure" and config.h
942 depcomp ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
943 ) automake
944 doc/*.3 man page sources for PCRE
945 doc/*.1 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
946 doc/index.html.src the base HTML page
947 doc/html/* HTML documentation
948 doc/pcre.txt plain text version of the man pages
949 doc/pcretest.txt plain text documentation of test program
950 doc/perltest.txt plain text documentation of Perl test program
951 install-sh a shell script for installing files
952 libpcre16.pc.in template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
953 libpcre32.pc.in template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
954 libpcre.pc.in template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
955 libpcreposix.pc.in template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
956 libpcrecpp.pc.in template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
957 ltmain.sh file used to build a libtool script
958 missing ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
959 ) installing, generated by automake
960 mkinstalldirs script for making install directories
961 perltest.pl Perl test program
962 pcre-config.in source of script which retains PCRE information
963 pcre_jit_test.c test program for the JIT compiler
964 pcrecpp_unittest.cc )
965 pcre_scanner_unittest.cc ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
966 pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
967 testdata/testinput* test data for main library tests
968 testdata/testoutput* expected test results
969 testdata/grep* input and output for pcregrep tests
970 testdata/* other supporting test files
972 (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
975 cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
976 cmake/FindEditline.cmake
977 cmake/FindReadline.cmake
978 CMakeLists.txt
979 config-cmake.h.in
981 (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
983 makevp.bat
984 makevp_c.txt
985 makevp_l.txt
986 pcregexp.pas
988 (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
990 pcre.h.generic ) a version of the public PCRE header file
991 ) for use in non-"configure" environments
992 config.h.generic ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
993 ) environments
995 (F) Miscellaneous
997 RunTest.bat a script for running tests under Windows
999 Philip Hazel
1000 Email local part: Philip.Hazel
1001 Email domain: gmail.com
1002 Last updated: 15 June 2021


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