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1 README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
4 The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5 from:
7 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
11 There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
13 pcre-dev@exim.org
15 Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16 The contents of this README file are:
18 The PCRE APIs
19 Documentation for PCRE
20 Contributions by users of PCRE
21 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
22 Building PCRE without using autotools
23 Building PCRE using autotools
24 Retrieving configuration information
25 Shared libraries
26 Cross-compiling using autotools
27 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
28 Using PCRE from MySQL
29 Making new tarballs
30 Testing PCRE
31 Character tables
32 File manifest
35 The PCRE APIs
36 -------------
38 PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are two sets of functions,
39 one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, and one for the
40 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values. The distribution also
41 includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
42 courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
43 C++.
45 In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
46 library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
47 man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
48 provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
49 still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
50 not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
52 The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
53 official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
54 with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
55 an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
56 renamed or pointed at by a link.
58 If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
59 library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
60 file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
61 ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
62 up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
64 One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
65 -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
66 compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
67 effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
68 you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
69 new names.
72 Documentation for PCRE
73 ----------------------
75 If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
76 with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
77 called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
78 documentation is supplied in two other forms:
80 1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
81 doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
82 concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
83 those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
84 forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
85 These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
86 similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
87 <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
89 2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
90 in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
91 doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
93 Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
94 releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
95 site (see next section).
98 Contributions by users of PCRE
99 ------------------------------
101 You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
103 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
105 There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
106 complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
107 Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
108 contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
109 Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
110 in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
113 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
114 --------------------------------------
116 For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
117 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
118 "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
119 many Unix-like systems.
121 PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
122 cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
123 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
125 PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
126 straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
127 library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
130 Building PCRE without using autotools
131 -------------------------------------
133 The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
134 environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
135 file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
138 Building PCRE using autotools
139 -----------------------------
141 If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
142 in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
144 The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
145 make install" (autotools) process.
147 To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
148 command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
149 to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
150 standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
151 are supplied in the file INSTALL.
153 Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
154 this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
155 the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
157 CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
159 This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
160 -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
161 under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
163 If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
164 directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
165 into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
167 cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
168 /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
170 PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
171 possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
172 does not have any features to support this.
174 There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
175 library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
177 . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
178 by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
180 --disable-shared
181 --disable-static
183 (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
185 . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
186 the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you want only
187 the 16-bit library, use "./configure --enable-pcre16 --disable-pcre8".
189 . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
190 the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
191 command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
192 try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
193 try to build the C++ wrapper.
195 . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
196 large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
197 "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
198 architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
199 will be a compile time error.
201 . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
202 you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
204 . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
205 the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
206 you must add --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
207 for handling UTF-8 and UTF-16 is not included in the relevant library. Even
208 when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
209 enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
210 input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16, even when running on EBCDIC
211 platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
212 the same time.
214 . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8 and UTF-16 independently
215 because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting UTF-16
216 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
217 --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
218 that did not support 16-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
219 --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
220 and the other without in the same configuration.
222 . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16 character strings, you want to
223 include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
224 character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
225 "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
226 form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
227 are supported.
229 . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
230 of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
231 end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
232 of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
233 is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
234 newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
235 or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
236 --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
238 If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
239 the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
240 LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
241 to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
242 --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
243 failures.
245 . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
246 sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
247 be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
248 to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
249 --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
251 . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
252 storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
253 them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
255 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
257 on the "configure" command.
259 . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
260 If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
261 million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
263 --with-match-limit=500000
265 on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
266 pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
267 pcreapi man page.
269 . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
270 during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
271 essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
273 --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
275 Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
276 cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
277 sizes in the pcrestack man page.
279 . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
280 this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
281 library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
282 parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
283 the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
284 offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance.
286 . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
287 pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
288 obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
289 pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
290 build PCRE like this, use
292 --disable-stack-for-recursion
294 on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
295 necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
296 normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
297 successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
298 pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
299 discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
301 . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
302 whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
303 tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
305 --enable-rebuild-chartables
307 a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
308 you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
309 not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
310 pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
312 . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
313 character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
315 --enable-ebcdic
317 This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
318 when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
319 both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16.
321 . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
322 requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
323 libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
324 specifying one or both of
326 --enable-pcregrep-libz
327 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
329 Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
331 . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
332 example:
334 --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
336 The default value is 20K.
338 . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
339 or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
341 --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
343 If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
344 the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
345 Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
346 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
347 avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
349 Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
350 build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
351 library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
352 unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
353 to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
354 the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
355 with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
356 with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
357 messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
358 this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
360 The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
362 . Makefile the makefile that builds the library
363 . config.h build-time configuration options for the library
364 . pcre.h the public PCRE header file
365 . pcre-config script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
366 that were set for "configure"
367 . libpcre.pc ) data for the pkg-config command
368 . libpcre16.pc )
369 . libpcreposix.pc )
370 . libtool script that builds shared and/or static libraries
372 Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
373 names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
374 have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
375 or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
377 When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
378 files are also built:
380 . libpcrecpp.pc data for the pkg-config command
381 . pcrecpparg.h header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
382 . pcre_stringpiece.h header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
384 The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
385 script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
386 contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
388 Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds either or both of the
389 libraries libpcre and libpcre16, and a test program called pcretest. If you
390 enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
391 built as well.
393 If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
394 built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
395 it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
396 libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
397 pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
399 The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
400 tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
402 You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
403 system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
404 <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
406 Commands (bin):
407 pcretest
408 pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
409 pcre-config
411 Libraries (lib):
412 libpcre16 (if 16-bit support is enabled)
413 libpcre (if 8-bit support is enabled)
414 libpcreposix (if 8-bit support is enabled)
415 libpcrecpp (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
417 Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
418 libpcre16.pc
419 libpcre.pc
420 libpcreposix.pc
421 libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
423 Header files (include):
424 pcre.h
425 pcreposix.h
426 pcre_scanner.h )
427 pcre_stringpiece.h ) if C++ support is enabled
428 pcrecpp.h )
429 pcrecpparg.h )
431 Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
432 pcregrep.1
433 pcretest.1
434 pcre-config.1
435 pcre.3
436 pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
438 HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
439 index.html
440 *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
442 Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
445 ChangeLog
447 NEWS
449 pcre.txt (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
450 pcretest.txt the pcretest man page
451 pcregrep.txt the pcregrep man page
452 pcre-config.txt the pcre-config man page
454 If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
455 This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
456 remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
459 Retrieving configuration information
460 ------------------------------------
462 Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
463 recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
465 pcre-config --version
467 prints the version number, and
469 pcre-config --libs
471 outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
472 included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
473 having to remember too many details.
475 The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
476 about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
477 single command is used. For example:
479 pkg-config --cflags pcre
481 The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
482 <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
485 Shared libraries
486 ----------------
488 The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
489 as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
490 support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
491 "configure" process.
493 The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
494 libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
495 built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
496 libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
497 you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
498 automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
499 installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
500 use the uninstalled libraries.
502 To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
503 configuring it. For example:
505 ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
507 Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
508 build only shared libraries.
511 Cross-compiling using autotools
512 -------------------------------
514 You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
515 order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
516 specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
517 file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
518 character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
519 because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
520 compiler.
522 When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
523 by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
524 that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
525 a problem.
527 If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
528 move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
529 run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
530 Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
533 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
534 ----------------------------------
536 Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
537 "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
538 environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
540 Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
541 needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
542 option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
543 use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
544 running the "configure" script:
546 CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
549 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
550 ---------------------------------
552 A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
553 Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
555 Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
556 Solaris 9 x86: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
559 Using PCRE from MySQL
560 ---------------------
562 On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
563 of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
564 There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
566 http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
569 Making new tarballs
570 -------------------
572 The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
573 zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
574 build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
576 If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
577 should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
578 script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
581 Testing PCRE
582 ------------
584 To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
585 There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
586 pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
587 called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
588 are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
589 pcre_jit_test is built.
591 Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
592 "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
595 The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
596 own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
597 directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
598 testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
599 were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8/16 support are run only if
600 --enable-utf was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
602 Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
603 run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
604 tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
605 done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
606 this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
608 When both 8-bit and 16-bit support is enabled, the entire set of tests is run
609 twice, once for each library. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
610 RunTest with either the -8 or -16 option.
612 RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest.
613 Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working files in some
614 tests. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test files, give their
615 numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
617 RunTest 2 7 11
619 You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
620 a list of tests.
622 The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
623 that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
624 first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
626 The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
627 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
628 detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
629 wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
630 pcre_compile().
632 If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
633 character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
634 cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
635 isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
636 [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
637 this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
638 listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
639 test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
640 bug in PCRE.
642 The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
643 set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
644 default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
645 running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
646 the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
647 in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
648 is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
650 ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
652 in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
653 despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
655 [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
656 work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
657 RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
658 Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
659 document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
661 The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16 support and error handling and
662 internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
663 sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
665 The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
666 matching function, in non-UTF-8/16 mode, UTF-8/16 mode, and UTF-8/16 mode with
667 Unicode property support, respectively.
669 The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
670 run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
671 change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
673 The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
674 test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
675 features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
677 The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
678 the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16-bit mode.
679 These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are for
680 general cases, UTF-8/16 support, and Unicode property support, respectively.
682 The twentieth test is run only in 16-bit mode. It tests some specific 16-bit
683 features of the DFA matching engine.
685 The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16-bit mode, when the
686 link size is set to 2. They test reloading pre-compiled patterns.
689 Character tables
690 ----------------
692 For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
693 whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
694 pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
695 concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
696 of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
697 passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
699 The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
700 default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
701 tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
702 for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
703 program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
704 handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
705 build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
706 your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
707 the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
708 you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
709 automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
710 pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
711 tables.
713 When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
714 it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
715 attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
716 system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
717 set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
718 locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
719 program by hand with the -L option. For example:
721 ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
723 The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
724 respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
725 digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
726 building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
727 than 256.
729 The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
730 follows:
732 1 white space character
733 2 letter
734 4 decimal digit
735 8 hexadecimal digit
736 16 alphanumeric or '_'
737 128 regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
739 You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
740 will cause PCRE to malfunction.
743 File manifest
744 -------------
746 The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
747 given as pcre[16]_xxx it means that there are two files, one with the name
748 pcre_xxx and the other with the name pcre16_xxx.
750 (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
752 dftables.c auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
753 when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
755 pcre_chartables.c.dist a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
756 coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
757 specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
759 pcreposix.c )
760 pcre[16]_byte_order.c )
761 pcre[16]_compile.c )
762 pcre[16]_config.c )
763 pcre[16]_dfa_exec.c )
764 pcre[16]_exec.c )
765 pcre[16]_fullinfo.c )
766 pcre[16]_get.c ) sources for the functions in the library,
767 pcre[16]_globals.c ) and some internal functions that they use
768 pcre[16]_jit_compile.c )
769 pcre[16]_maketables.c )
770 pcre[16]_newline.c )
771 pcre[16]_refcount.c )
772 pcre[16]_string_utils.c )
773 pcre[16]_study.c )
774 pcre[16]_tables.c )
775 pcre[16]_ucd.c )
776 pcre[16]_version.c )
777 pcre[16]_xclass.c )
778 pcre_ord2utf8.c )
779 pcre_valid_utf8.c )
780 pcre16_ord2utf16.c )
781 pcre16_utf16_utils.c )
782 pcre16_valid_utf16.c )
784 pcre[16]_printint.c ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
785 ) and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
787 pcre.h.in template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
788 pcreposix.h header for the external POSIX wrapper API
789 pcre_internal.h header for internal use
790 sljit/* 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
791 ucp.h header for Unicode property handling
793 config.h.in template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
795 pcrecpp.h public header file for the C++ wrapper
796 pcrecpparg.h.in template for another C++ header file
797 pcre_scanner.h public header file for C++ scanner functions
798 pcrecpp.cc )
799 pcre_scanner.cc ) source for the C++ wrapper library
801 pcre_stringpiece.h.in template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
802 C++ stringpiece functions
803 pcre_stringpiece.cc source for the C++ stringpiece functions
805 (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
807 pcredemo.c simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
808 pcregrep.c source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
809 pcretest.c comprehensive test program
811 (C) Auxiliary files:
813 132html script to turn "man" pages into HTML
814 AUTHORS information about the author of PCRE
815 ChangeLog log of changes to the code
816 CleanTxt script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
817 Detrail script to remove trailing spaces
818 HACKING some notes about the internals of PCRE
819 INSTALL generic installation instructions
820 LICENCE conditions for the use of PCRE
821 COPYING the same, using GNU's standard name
822 Makefile.in ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
823 ) "configure"
824 Makefile.am ) the automake input that was used to create
825 ) Makefile.in
826 NEWS important changes in this release
827 NON-UNIX-USE the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
828 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD notes on building PCRE without using autotools
829 PrepareRelease script to make preparations for "make dist"
830 README this file
831 RunTest a Unix shell script for running tests
832 RunGrepTest a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
833 aclocal.m4 m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
834 config.guess ) files used by libtool,
835 config.sub ) used only when building a shared library
836 configure a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
837 configure.ac ) the autoconf input that was used to build
838 ) "configure" and config.h
839 depcomp ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
840 ) automake
841 doc/*.3 man page sources for PCRE
842 doc/*.1 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
843 doc/index.html.src the base HTML page
844 doc/html/* HTML documentation
845 doc/pcre.txt plain text version of the man pages
846 doc/pcretest.txt plain text documentation of test program
847 doc/perltest.txt plain text documentation of Perl test program
848 install-sh a shell script for installing files
849 libpcre16.pc.in template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
850 libpcre.pc.in template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
851 libpcreposix.pc.in template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
852 libpcrecpp.pc.in template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
853 ltmain.sh file used to build a libtool script
854 missing ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
855 ) installing, generated by automake
856 mkinstalldirs script for making install directories
857 perltest.pl Perl test program
858 pcre-config.in source of script which retains PCRE information
859 pcre_jit_test.c test program for the JIT compiler
860 pcrecpp_unittest.cc )
861 pcre_scanner_unittest.cc ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
862 pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
863 testdata/testinput* test data for main library tests
864 testdata/testoutput* expected test results
865 testdata/grep* input and output for pcregrep tests
866 testdata/* other supporting test files
868 (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
871 cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
872 cmake/FindEditline.cmake
873 cmake/FindReadline.cmake
874 CMakeLists.txt
875 config-cmake.h.in
877 (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
879 makevp.bat
880 makevp_c.txt
881 makevp_l.txt
882 pcregexp.pas
884 (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
886 pcre.h.generic ) a version of the public PCRE header file
887 ) for use in non-"configure" environments
888 config.h.generic ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
889 ) environments
891 (F) Miscellaneous
893 RunTest.bat a script for running tests under Windows
895 Philip Hazel
896 Email local part: ph10
897 Email domain: cam.ac.uk
898 Last updated: 18 June 2012


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