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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5    from:
7    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8    Makefile          for building PCRE    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    Performance       notes on performance    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    README            this file  
11    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    pcre.3            man page for the functions  
13    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
15    study.c           ) source of  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    pcre.c            )   the functions  The contents of this README file are:
17    pcreposix.c       )  
18    pcre.h            header for the external API    The PCRE APIs
19    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Documentation for PCRE
20    internal.h        header for internal use    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcretest.c        test program    Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
22    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Building PCRE without using autotools
23    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Building PCRE using autotools
24    perltest          Perl test program    Retrieving configuration information
25    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl    Shared libraries
26    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Cross-compiling using autotools
27    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
28    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2    Using PCRE from MySQL
29      Making new tarballs
30  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)    Testing PCRE
31  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,    Character tables
32  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.    File manifest
34  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with  
35  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:  The PCRE APIs
36    -------------
37    pcretest testinput /tmp/anything  
38    diff /tmp/anything testoutput  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of functions,
39    one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for the
40  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the 32-bit
41  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.  library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
42    includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
43    pcretest -i testinput2 /tmp/anything  courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
44    diff /tmp/anything testoutput2  C++.
46  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
47  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set  library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
48  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
49  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
50    still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
51  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
52  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  
53  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
54  /usr/local/man/man3).  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
55    with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
56  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
57  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  renamed or pointed at by a link.
58  /usr/local/man/man1).  
59    If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
60  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
61  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
62  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
63  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
64  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  
65  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
66  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
67  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
68    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
69    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
70    new names.
73    Documentation for PCRE
74    ----------------------
76    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
77    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
78    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
79    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
81      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
82         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
83         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
84         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
85         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
86         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
87         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
88         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
90      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
91         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
92         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
94    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
95    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
96    site (see next section).
99    Contributions by users of PCRE
100    ------------------------------
102    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
104      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
106    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
107    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
108    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
109    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
110    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
111    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
114    Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
115    --------------------------------------
117    For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
118    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
119    "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
120    many Unix-like systems.
122    PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
123    cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
124    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
126    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
127    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
128    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
131    Building PCRE without using autotools
132    -------------------------------------
134    The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
135    environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
136    file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
139    Building PCRE using autotools
140    -----------------------------
142    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
143    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
145    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
146    make install" (autotools) process.
148    To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
149    command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
150    to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
151    standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
152    are supplied in the file INSTALL.
154    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
155    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
156    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
158    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
160    This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
161    -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
162    under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
164    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
165    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
166    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
168    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
169    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
171    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
172    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
173    does not have any features to support this.
175    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
176    library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
178    . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
179      by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
181      --disable-shared
182      --disable-static
184      (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
186    . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
187      the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
188      --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
189      If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
190      building the 8-bit library.
192    . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
193      the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
194      command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
195      try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
196      try to build the C++ wrapper.
198    . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
199      large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
200      "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
201      architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
202      will be a compile time error.
204    . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
205      you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
207    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
208      the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
209      or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
210      --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
211      UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
212      when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
213      enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
214      input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
215      platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
216      the same time.
218    . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
219      independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
220      UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
221      --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
222      that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
223      --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
224      and the other without in the same configuration.
226    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
227      include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
228      character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
229      "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
230      form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
231      are supported.
233    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
234      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
235      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
236      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
237      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
238      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
239      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
240      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
242      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
243      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
244      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
245      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
246      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
247      failures.
249    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
250      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
251      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
252      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
253      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
255    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
256      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
257      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
259      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
261      on the "configure" command.
263    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
264      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
265      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
267      --with-match-limit=500000
269      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
270      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
271      pcreapi man page.
273    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
274      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
275      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
277      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
279      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
280      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
281      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
283    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
284      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
285      library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
286      parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
287      the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
288      offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
289      library, the only supported link size is 4.
291    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
292      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
293      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
294      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
295      build PCRE like this, use
297      --disable-stack-for-recursion
299      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
300      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
301      normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
302      successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
303      pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
304      discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
306    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
307      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
308      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
310      --enable-rebuild-chartables
312      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
313      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
314      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
315      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
317    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
318      character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
320      --enable-ebcdic
322      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
323      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
324      both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
325      which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
326      instead of the default 0x15.
328    . In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
330      --enable-valgrind
332      PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
333      unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
334      mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
336    . In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
337      is installed, if you specify
339      --enable-coverage
341      the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
342      report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
343      your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
344      You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
345      running "make" to build PCRE.
347    . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
348      requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
349      libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
350      specifying one or both of
352      --enable-pcregrep-libz
353      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
355      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
357    . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
358      example:
360      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
362      The default value is 20K.
364    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
365      or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
367      --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
369      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
370      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
371      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
372      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
373      avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
375      Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
376      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
377      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
378      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
379      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
380      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
381      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
382      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
383      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
384      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
386    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
388    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
389    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
390    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
391    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
392                             that were set for "configure"
393    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
394    . libpcre16.pc       )
395    . libpcre32.pc       )
396    . libpcreposix.pc    )
397    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
399    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
400    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
401    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
402    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
404    When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
405    files are also built:
407    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
408    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
409    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
411    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
412    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
413    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
415    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
416    libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
417    enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
418    built as well.
420    If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
421    built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
422    it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
423    libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
424    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
426    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
427    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
429    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
430    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
431    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
433      Commands (bin):
434        pcretest
435        pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
436        pcre-config
438      Libraries (lib):
439        libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
440        libpcre32     (if 32-bit support is enabled)
441        libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
442        libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
443        libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
445      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
446        libpcre16.pc
447        libpcre32.pc
448        libpcre.pc
449        libpcreposix.pc
450        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
452      Header files (include):
453        pcre.h
454        pcreposix.h
455        pcre_scanner.h      )
456        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
457        pcrecpp.h           )
458        pcrecpparg.h        )
460      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
461        pcregrep.1
462        pcretest.1
463        pcre-config.1
464        pcre.3
465        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
467      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
468        index.html
469        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
471      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
472        AUTHORS
473        COPYING
474        ChangeLog
475        LICENCE
476        NEWS
477        README
478        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
479        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
480        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
481        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
483    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
484    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
485    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
488    Retrieving configuration information
489    ------------------------------------
491    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
492    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
494      pcre-config --version
496    prints the version number, and
498      pcre-config --libs
500    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
501    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
502    having to remember too many details.
504    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
505    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
506    single command is used. For example:
508      pkg-config --cflags pcre
510    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
511    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
514    Shared libraries
515    ----------------
517    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
518    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
519    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
520    "configure" process.
522    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
523    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
524    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
525    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
526    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
527    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
528    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
529    use the uninstalled libraries.
531    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
532    configuring it. For example:
534    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
536    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
537    build only shared libraries.
540    Cross-compiling using autotools
541    -------------------------------
543    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
544    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
545    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
546    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
547    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
548    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
549    compiler.
551    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
552    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
553    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
554    a problem.
556    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
557    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
558    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
559    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
562    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
563    ----------------------------------
565    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
566    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
567    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
569    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
570    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
571    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
572    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
573    running the "configure" script:
575      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
578    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
579    ---------------------------------
581    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
582    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
584      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
585      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
588    Using PCRE from MySQL
589    ---------------------
591    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
592    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
593    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
595      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
598    Making new tarballs
599    -------------------
601    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
602    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
603    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
605    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
606    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
607    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
610    Testing PCRE
611    ------------
613    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
614    There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
615    pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
616    called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
617    are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
618    pcre_jit_test is built.
620    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
621    "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
624    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
625    own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
626    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
627    testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
628    were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if
629    --enable-utf was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
631    Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
632    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
633    tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
634    done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
635    this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
636    This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
638    The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
639    libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
640    RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
642    If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
643    on the RunTest command line.
645    RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest.
646    Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working files in some
647    tests. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test files, give their
648    numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
650      RunTest 2 7 11
652    You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
653    a list of tests.
655    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
656    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
657    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
659    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
660    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
661    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
662    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
663    pcre_compile().
665    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
666    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
667    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
668    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
669    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
670    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
671    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
672    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
673    bug in PCRE.
675    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
676    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
677    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
678    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
679    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
680    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
681    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
683      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
685    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
686    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
688    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
689    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
690    RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
691    Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
692    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
694    The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
695    internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
696    sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
698    The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
699    matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
700    mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
702    The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
703    run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
704    change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
706    The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
707    test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
708    features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
710    The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
711    the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode.
712    These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are for
713    general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support, respectively.
715    The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
716    16/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
718    The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when the
719    link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading pre-compiled patterns.
721    The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are for
722    general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
724    The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are for
725    general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
727  Character tables  Character tables
728  ----------------  ----------------
730  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
731  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
732  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
733  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
734  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
735  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
736  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
737  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
738  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
739    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
740  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
741  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
742  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
743  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
744  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
745    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
746    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
747    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
748    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
749    tables.
751    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
752    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
753    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
754    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
755    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
756    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
757    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
759      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
761    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
762    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
763    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
764    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
765    than 256.
767  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
768  follows:  follows:
770      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 99  You should not alter the set of characte Line 778  You should not alter the set of characte
778  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
781  The pcretest program  File manifest
782  --------------------  -------------
 This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
 If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
784  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
785  October 1997  given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
786    pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
788    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
790      dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
791                                when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
793      pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
794                                coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
795                                specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
797      pcreposix.c                )
798      pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c   )
799      pcre[16|32]_compile.c      )
800      pcre[16|32]_config.c       )
801      pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c     )
802      pcre[16|32]_exec.c         )
803      pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c     )
804      pcre[16|32]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
805      pcre[16|32]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
806      pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c  )
807      pcre[16|32]_maketables.c   )
808      pcre[16|32]_newline.c      )
809      pcre[16|32]_refcount.c     )
810      pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
811      pcre[16|32]_study.c        )
812      pcre[16|32]_tables.c       )
813      pcre[16|32]_ucd.c          )
814      pcre[16|32]_version.c      )
815      pcre[16|32]_xclass.c       )
816      pcre_ord2utf8.c            )
817      pcre_valid_utf8.c          )
818      pcre16_ord2utf16.c         )
819      pcre16_utf16_utils.c       )
820      pcre16_valid_utf16.c       )
821      pcre32_utf32_utils.c       )
822      pcre32_valid_utf32.c       )
824      pcre[16|32]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
825                                 )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
827      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
828      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
829      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
830      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
831      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
833      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
835      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
836      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
837      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
838      pcrecpp.cc              )
839      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
841      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
842                                C++ stringpiece functions
843      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
845    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
847      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
848      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
849      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
851    (C) Auxiliary files:
853      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
854      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
855      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
856      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
857      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
858      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
859      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
860      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
861      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
862      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
863                              )   "configure"
864      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
865                              )   Makefile.in
866      NEWS                    important changes in this release
867      NON-UNIX-USE            the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
868      NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD     notes on building PCRE without using autotools
869      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
870      README                  this file
871      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
872      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
873      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
874      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
875      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
876      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
877      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
878                              )   "configure" and config.h
879      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
880                              )   automake
881      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
882      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
883      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
884      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
885      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
886      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
887      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
888      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
889      libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
890      libpcre32.pc.in         template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
891      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
892      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
893      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
894      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
895      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
896                              )   installing, generated by automake
897      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
898      perltest.pl             Perl test program
899      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
900      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
901      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
902      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
903      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
904      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
905      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
906      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
907      testdata/*              other supporting test files
909    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
912      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
913      cmake/FindEditline.cmake
914      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
915      CMakeLists.txt
916      config-cmake.h.in
918    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
920      makevp.bat
921      makevp_c.txt
922      makevp_l.txt
923      pcregexp.pas
925    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
927      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
928                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
929      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
930                              )   environments
932    (F) Miscellaneous
934      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
936    Philip Hazel
937    Email local part: ph10
938    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
939    Last updated: 20 February 2013

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