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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5    from:
7    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8    Makefile          for building PCRE    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    Performance       notes on performance    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    README            this file  
11    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    pcre.3            man page for the functions  
13    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
15    study.c           ) source of  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    pcre.c            )   the functions  The contents of this README file are:
17    pcreposix.c       )  
18    pcre.h            header for the external API    The PCRE APIs
19    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Documentation for PCRE
20    internal.h        header for internal use    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcretest.c        test program    Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
22    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Building PCRE without using autotools
23    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Building PCRE using autotools
24    perltest          Perl test program    Retrieving configuration information
25    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl    Shared libraries
26    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Cross-compiling using autotools
27    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
28    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2    Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
29      Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
30  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)    Using PCRE from MySQL
31  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,    Making new tarballs
32  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.    Testing PCRE
33      Character tables
34  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with    File manifest
35  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:  
37    pcretest testinput /tmp/anything  The PCRE APIs
38    diff /tmp/anything testoutput  -------------
40  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of
41  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.  functions, one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for
42    the 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the
43    pcretest -i testinput2 /tmp/anything  32-bit library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
44    diff /tmp/anything testoutput2  includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
45    courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
46  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  C++.
47  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set  
48  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
49  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
50    man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
51  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
52  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
53  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
54  /usr/local/man/man3).  
55    The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
56  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
57  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
58  /usr/local/man/man1).  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
59    renamed or pointed at by a link.
60  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  
61  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
62  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
63  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
64  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
65  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
66  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  
67  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
68    -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
69    compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
70    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
71    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
72    new names.
75    Documentation for PCRE
76    ----------------------
78    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
79    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
80    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
81    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
83      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
84         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
85         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
86         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
87         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
88         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
89         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
90         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
92      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
93         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
94         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
96    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
97    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
98    site (see next section).
101    Contributions by users of PCRE
102    ------------------------------
104    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
106      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
108    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
109    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
110    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
111    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
112    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
113    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
116    Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
117    --------------------------------------
119    For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
120    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
121    "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
122    many Unix-like systems.
124    PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
125    cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
126    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
128    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
129    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
130    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
133    Building PCRE without using autotools
134    -------------------------------------
136    The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
137    environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
138    file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
141    Building PCRE using autotools
142    -----------------------------
144    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
145    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
147    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
148    make install" (autotools) process.
150    To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
151    command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
152    to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
153    standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
154    are supplied in the file INSTALL.
156    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
157    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
158    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
160    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
162    This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
163    -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
164    under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
166    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
167    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
168    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
170    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
171    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
173    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
174    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
175    does not have any features to support this.
177    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
178    library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
180    . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
181      by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
183      --disable-shared
184      --disable-static
186      (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
188    . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
189      the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
190      --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
191      If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
192      building the 8-bit library.
194    . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
195      the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
196      command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
197      try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
198      try to build the C++ wrapper.
200    . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
201      large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
202      "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
203      architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
204      will be a compile time error.
206    . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
207      you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
209    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
210      the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
211      or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
212      --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
213      UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
214      when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
215      enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
216      input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
217      platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
218      the same time.
220    . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
221      independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
222      UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
223      --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
224      that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
225      --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
226      and the other without in the same configuration.
228    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
229      include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
230      character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
231      "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
232      form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
233      are supported.
235    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
236      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
237      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
238      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
239      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
240      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
241      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
242      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
244      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
245      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
246      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
247      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
248      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
249      failures.
251    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
252      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
253      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
254      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
255      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
257    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
258      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
259      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
261      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
263      on the "configure" command.
265    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
266      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
267      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
269      --with-match-limit=500000
271      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
272      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
273      pcreapi man page.
275    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
276      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
277      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
279      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
281      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
282      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
283      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
285    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
286      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
287      library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
288      parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
289      the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
290      offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
291      library, the only supported link size is 4.
293    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
294      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
295      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
296      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
297      build PCRE like this, use
299      --disable-stack-for-recursion
301      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
302      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
303      normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
304      successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
305      pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
306      discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
308    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
309      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
310      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
312      --enable-rebuild-chartables
314      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
315      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
316      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
317      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
319    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
320      character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
322      --enable-ebcdic
324      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
325      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
326      both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
327      which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
328      instead of the default 0x15.
330    . In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
332      --enable-valgrind
334      PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
335      unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
336      mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
338    . In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
339      is installed, if you specify
341      --enable-coverage
343      the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
344      report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
345      your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
346      You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
347      running "make" to build PCRE. There is more information about coverage
348      reporting in the "pcrebuild" documentation.
350    . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
351      requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
352      libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
353      specifying one or both of
355      --enable-pcregrep-libz
356      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
358      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
360    . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
361      example:
363      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
365      The default value is 20K.
367    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
368      or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
370      --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
372      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
373      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
374      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
375      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
376      avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
378      Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
379      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
380      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
381      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
382      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
383      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
384      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
385      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
386      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
387      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
389    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
391    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
392    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
393    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
394    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
395                             that were set for "configure"
396    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
397    . libpcre16.pc       )
398    . libpcre32.pc       )
399    . libpcreposix.pc    )
400    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
402    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
403    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
404    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
405    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
407    When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
408    files are also built:
410    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
411    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
412    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
414    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
415    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
416    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
418    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
419    libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
420    enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
421    built as well.
423    If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
424    built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
425    it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
426    libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
427    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
429    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
430    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
432    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
433    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
434    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
436      Commands (bin):
437        pcretest
438        pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
439        pcre-config
441      Libraries (lib):
442        libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
443        libpcre32     (if 32-bit support is enabled)
444        libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
445        libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
446        libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
448      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
449        libpcre16.pc
450        libpcre32.pc
451        libpcre.pc
452        libpcreposix.pc
453        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
455      Header files (include):
456        pcre.h
457        pcreposix.h
458        pcre_scanner.h      )
459        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
460        pcrecpp.h           )
461        pcrecpparg.h        )
463      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
464        pcregrep.1
465        pcretest.1
466        pcre-config.1
467        pcre.3
468        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
470      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
471        index.html
472        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
474      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
475        AUTHORS
476        COPYING
477        ChangeLog
478        LICENCE
479        NEWS
480        README
481        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
482        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
483        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
484        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
486    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
487    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
488    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
491    Retrieving configuration information
492    ------------------------------------
494    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
495    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
497      pcre-config --version
499    prints the version number, and
501      pcre-config --libs
503    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
504    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
505    having to remember too many details.
507    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
508    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
509    single command is used. For example:
511      pkg-config --cflags pcre
513    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
514    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
517    Shared libraries
518    ----------------
520    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
521    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
522    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
523    "configure" process.
525    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
526    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
527    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
528    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
529    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
530    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
531    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
532    use the uninstalled libraries.
534    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
535    configuring it. For example:
537    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
539    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
540    build only shared libraries.
543    Cross-compiling using autotools
544    -------------------------------
546    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
547    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
548    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
549    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
550    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
551    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
552    compiler.
554    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
555    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
556    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
557    a problem.
559    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
560    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
561    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
562    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
565    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
566    ----------------------------------
568    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
569    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
570    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
572    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
573    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
574    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
575    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
576    running the "configure" script:
578      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
581    Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
582    -----------------------------------------
584    The following error may occur when compiling with native compilers in the Tru64
585    operating system:
587      CXX    libpcrecpp_la-pcrecpp.lo
588    cxx: Error: /usr/lib/cmplrs/cxx/V7.1-006/include/cxx/iosfwd, line 58: #error
589              directive: "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to
590              override default - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
591    #error "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to override default
592    - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
594    This may be followed by other errors, complaining that 'namespace "std" has no
595    member'. The solution to this is to add the line
597    #define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM 1
599    to the config.h file.
602    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
603    ---------------------------------
605    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
606    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
608      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
609      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
612    Using PCRE from MySQL
613    ---------------------
615    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
616    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
617    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
619      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
622    Making new tarballs
623    -------------------
625    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
626    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
627    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
629    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
630    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
631    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
634    Testing PCRE
635    ------------
637    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
638    There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
639    pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
640    called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
641    are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
642    pcre_jit_test is built.
644    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
645    "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
648    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
649    own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
650    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
651    testoutput files. RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output
652    from pcretest. Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working
653    files in some tests.
655    Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options were selected. For
656    example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if --enable-utf was
657    used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
659    Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
660    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
661    tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
662    done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
663    this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
664    This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
666    The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
667    libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
668    RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
670    If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
671    on the RunTest command line. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test
672    files, give their numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
674      RunTest 2 7 11
676    You can also specify ranges of tests such as 3-6 or 3- (meaning 3 to the
677    end), or a number preceded by ~ to exclude a test. For example:
679      Runtest 3-15 ~10
681    This runs tests 3 to 15, excluding test 10, and just ~13 runs all the tests
682    except test 13. Whatever order the arguments are in, the tests are always run
683    in numerical order.
685    You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
686    a list of tests.
688    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
689    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
690    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
692    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
693    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
694    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
695    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
696    pcre_compile().
698    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
699    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
700    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
701    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
702    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
703    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
704    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
705    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
706    bug in PCRE.
708    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
709    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
710    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
711    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
712    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
713    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
714    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
716      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
718    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
719    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
721    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
722    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
723    RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
724    Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
725    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
727    The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
728    internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
729    sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
731    The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
732    matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
733    mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
735    The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
736    run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
737    change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
739    The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
740    test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
741    features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
743    The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
744    the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit
745    mode. These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are
746    for general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support,
747    respectively.
749    The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
750    16/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
752    The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when
753    the link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading
754    pre-compiled patterns.
756    The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are
757    for general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
759    The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are
760    for general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
763  Character tables  Character tables
764  ----------------  ----------------
766  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
767  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
768  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
769  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
770  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
771  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
772  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
773  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
774  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
775    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
776  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
777  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
778  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
779  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
780  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
781    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
782    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
783    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
784    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
785    tables.
787    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
788    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
789    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
790    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
791    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
792    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
793    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
795      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
797    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
798    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
799    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
800    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
801    than 256.
803  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
804  follows:  follows:
806      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 99  You should not alter the set of characte Line 814  You should not alter the set of characte
814  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
817  The pcretest program  File manifest
818  --------------------  -------------
 This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
 If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
820  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
821  October 1997  given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
822    pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
824    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
826      dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
827                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
829      pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
830                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
831                              specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
833      pcreposix.c                )
834      pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c   )
835      pcre[16|32]_compile.c      )
836      pcre[16|32]_config.c       )
837      pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c     )
838      pcre[16|32]_exec.c         )
839      pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c     )
840      pcre[16|32]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
841      pcre[16|32]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
842      pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c  )
843      pcre[16|32]_maketables.c   )
844      pcre[16|32]_newline.c      )
845      pcre[16|32]_refcount.c     )
846      pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
847      pcre[16|32]_study.c        )
848      pcre[16|32]_tables.c       )
849      pcre[16|32]_ucd.c          )
850      pcre[16|32]_version.c      )
851      pcre[16|32]_xclass.c       )
852      pcre_ord2utf8.c            )
853      pcre_valid_utf8.c          )
854      pcre16_ord2utf16.c         )
855      pcre16_utf16_utils.c       )
856      pcre16_valid_utf16.c       )
857      pcre32_utf32_utils.c       )
858      pcre32_valid_utf32.c       )
860      pcre[16|32]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
861                                 )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
863      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
864      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
865      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
866      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
867      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
869      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
871      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
872      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
873      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
874      pcrecpp.cc              )
875      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
877      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
878                                C++ stringpiece functions
879      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
881    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
883      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
884      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
885      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
887    (C) Auxiliary files:
889      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
890      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
891      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
892      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
893      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
894      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
895      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
896      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
897      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
898      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
899                              )   "configure"
900      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
901                              )   Makefile.in
902      NEWS                    important changes in this release
903      NON-UNIX-USE            the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
904      NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD     notes on building PCRE without using autotools
905      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
906      README                  this file
907      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
908      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
909      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
910      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
911      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
912      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
913      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
914                              )   "configure" and config.h
915      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
916                              )   automake
917      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
918      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
919      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
920      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
921      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
922      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
923      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
924      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
925      libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
926      libpcre32.pc.in         template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
927      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
928      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
929      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
930      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
931      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
932                              )   installing, generated by automake
933      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
934      perltest.pl             Perl test program
935      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
936      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
937      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
938      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
939      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
940      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
941      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
942      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
943      testdata/*              other supporting test files
945    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
948      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
949      cmake/FindEditline.cmake
950      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
951      CMakeLists.txt
952      config-cmake.h.in
954    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
956      makevp.bat
957      makevp_c.txt
958      makevp_l.txt
959      pcregexp.pas
961    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
963      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
964                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
965      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
966                              )   environments
968    (F) Miscellaneous
970      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
972    Philip Hazel
973    Email local part: ph10
974    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
975    Last updated: 01 July 2013

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