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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5    from:
7    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8    Makefile          for building PCRE    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    Performance       notes on performance    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    README            this file  
11    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    pcre.3            man page for the functions  pcre-dev@exim.org. You can access the archives and subscribe or manage your
13    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  subscription here:
14    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
15    study.c           ) source of     https://lists.exim.org/mailman/listinfo/pcre-dev
16    pcre.c            )   the functions  
17    pcreposix.c       )  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
18    pcre.h            header for the external API  The contents of this README file are:
19    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API  
20    internal.h        header for internal use    The PCRE APIs
21    pcretest.c        test program    Documentation for PCRE
22    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Contributions by users of PCRE
23    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
24    perltest          Perl test program    Building PCRE without using autotools
25    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl    Building PCRE using autotools
26    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Retrieving configuration information
27    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput    Shared libraries
28    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2    Cross-compiling using autotools
29      Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
30  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)    Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
31  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
32  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.    Using PCRE from MySQL
33      Making new tarballs
34  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with    Testing PCRE
35  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:    Character tables
36      File manifest
37    pcretest testinput /tmp/anything  
38    diff /tmp/anything testoutput  
39    The PCRE APIs
40  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  -------------
41  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.  
42    PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of
43    pcretest -i testinput2 /tmp/anything  functions, one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for
44    diff /tmp/anything testoutput2  the 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the
45    32-bit library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
46  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
47  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set  courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
48  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  C++.
49  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  
50    In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
51  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
52  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
53  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
54  /usr/local/man/man3).  still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
55    not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
56  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
57  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
58  /usr/local/man/man1).  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
59    with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
60  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
61  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  renamed or pointed at by a link.
62  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  
63  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
64  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
65  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
66  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
67  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
69    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
70    -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
71    compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
72    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
73    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
74    new names.
77    Documentation for PCRE
78    ----------------------
80    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
81    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
82    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
83    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
85      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
86         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
87         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
88         the listing of pcredemo.c and those that summarize individual functions.
89         The other two are the text forms of the section 1 man pages for the
90         pcregrep and pcretest commands. These text forms are provided for ease of
91         scanning with text editors or similar tools. They are installed in
92         <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where <prefix> is the installation prefix
93         (defaulting to /usr/local).
95      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
96         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
97         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
99    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
100    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
101    site (see next section).
104    Contributions by users of PCRE
105    ------------------------------
107    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
109      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
111    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
112    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
113    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
114    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
115    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
116    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
118    A PCRE user maintains downloadable Windows binaries of the pcregrep and
119    pcretest programs here:
121      http://www.rexegg.com/pcregrep-pcretest.html
124    Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
125    --------------------------------------
127    For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
128    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
129    "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
130    many Unix-like systems.
132    PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
133    cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
134    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
136    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
137    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
138    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
141    Building PCRE without using autotools
142    -------------------------------------
144    The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
145    environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
146    file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
149    Building PCRE using autotools
150    -----------------------------
152    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
153    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
155    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
156    make install" (autotools) process.
158    To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
159    command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
160    to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
161    standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
162    are supplied in the file INSTALL.
164    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
165    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
166    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
168    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
170    This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
171    -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
172    under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
174    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
175    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
176    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
178    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
179    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
181    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
182    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
183    does not have any features to support this.
185    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
186    library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
188    . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
189      by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
191      --disable-shared
192      --disable-static
194      (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
196    . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
197      the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
198      --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
199      If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
200      building the 8-bit library.
202    . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
203      the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
204      command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
205      try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
206      try to build the C++ wrapper.
208    . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
209      large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
210      "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
211      architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
212      will be a compile time error.
214    . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
215      you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
217    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
218      the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
219      or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
220      --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
221      UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
222      when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
223      enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
224      input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
225      platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
226      the same time.
228    . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
229      independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
230      UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
231      --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
232      that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
233      --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
234      and the other without in the same configuration.
236    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
237      include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
238      character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
239      "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
240      form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
241      are supported.
243    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
244      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
245      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
246      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
247      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
248      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
249      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
250      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
252      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
253      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
254      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
255      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
256      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
257      failures.
259    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
260      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
261      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
262      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
263      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
265    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
266      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
267      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
269      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
271      on the "configure" command.
273    . PCRE has a counter that limits the depth of nesting of parentheses in a
274      pattern. This limits the amount of system stack that a pattern uses when it
275      is compiled. The default is 250, but you can change it by setting, for
276      example,
278      --with-parens-nest-limit=500
280    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses
281      when matching a pattern. If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match
282      fails. The default is ten million. You can change the default by setting, for
283      example,
285      --with-match-limit=500000
287      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
288      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
289      pcreapi man page.
291    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
292      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
293      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
295      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
297      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
298      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
299      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
301    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
302      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
303      library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
304      parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
305      the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
306      offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
307      library, the only supported link size is 4.
309    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
310      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
311      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
312      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
313      build PCRE like this, use
315      --disable-stack-for-recursion
317      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
318      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
319      normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
320      successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
321      pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
322      discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
324    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
325      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
326      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
328      --enable-rebuild-chartables
330      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
331      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
332      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
333      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
335    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
336      character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
338      --enable-ebcdic
340      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
341      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
342      both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
343      which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
344      instead of the default 0x15.
346    . In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
348      --enable-valgrind
350      PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
351      unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
352      mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
354    . In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
355      is installed, if you specify
357      --enable-coverage
359      the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
360      report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
361      your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
362      You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
363      running "make" to build PCRE. There is more information about coverage
364      reporting in the "pcrebuild" documentation.
366    . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
367      requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
368      libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
369      specifying one or both of
371      --enable-pcregrep-libz
372      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
374      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
376    . The default size (in bytes) of the internal buffer used by pcregrep can be
377      set by, for example:
379      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=51200
381      The value must be a plain integer. The default is 20480.
383    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
384      or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
386      --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
388      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
389      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
390      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
391      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
392      avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
394      Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
395      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
396      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
397      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
398      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
399      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
400      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
401      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
402      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
403      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
405    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
407    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
408    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
409    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
410    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
411                             that were set for "configure"
412    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
413    . libpcre16.pc       )
414    . libpcre32.pc       )
415    . libpcreposix.pc    )
416    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
418    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
419    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
420    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
421    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
423    When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
424    files are also built:
426    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
427    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
428    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
430    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
431    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
432    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
434    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
435    libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
436    enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
437    built as well.
439    If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
440    built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
441    it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
442    libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
443    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
445    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
446    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
448    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
449    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
450    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
452      Commands (bin):
453        pcretest
454        pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
455        pcre-config
457      Libraries (lib):
458        libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
459        libpcre32     (if 32-bit support is enabled)
460        libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
461        libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
462        libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
464      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
465        libpcre16.pc
466        libpcre32.pc
467        libpcre.pc
468        libpcreposix.pc
469        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
471      Header files (include):
472        pcre.h
473        pcreposix.h
474        pcre_scanner.h      )
475        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
476        pcrecpp.h           )
477        pcrecpparg.h        )
479      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
480        pcregrep.1
481        pcretest.1
482        pcre-config.1
483        pcre.3
484        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
486      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
487        index.html
488        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
490      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
491        AUTHORS
492        COPYING
493        ChangeLog
494        LICENCE
495        NEWS
496        README
497        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
498        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
499        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
500        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
502    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
503    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
504    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
507    Retrieving configuration information
508    ------------------------------------
510    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
511    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
513      pcre-config --version
515    prints the version number, and
517      pcre-config --libs
519    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
520    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
521    having to remember too many details.
523    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
524    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
525    single command is used. For example:
527      pkg-config --cflags pcre
529    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
530    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
533    Shared libraries
534    ----------------
536    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
537    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
538    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
539    "configure" process.
541    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
542    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
543    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
544    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
545    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
546    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
547    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
548    use the uninstalled libraries.
550    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
551    configuring it. For example:
553    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
555    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
556    build only shared libraries.
559    Cross-compiling using autotools
560    -------------------------------
562    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
563    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
564    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
565    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
566    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
567    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
568    compiler.
570    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
571    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
572    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
573    a problem.
575    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
576    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
577    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
578    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
581    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
582    ----------------------------------
584    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
585    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
586    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
588    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
589    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
590    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
591    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
592    running the "configure" script:
594      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
597    Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
598    -----------------------------------------
600    The following error may occur when compiling with native compilers in the Tru64
601    operating system:
603      CXX    libpcrecpp_la-pcrecpp.lo
604    cxx: Error: /usr/lib/cmplrs/cxx/V7.1-006/include/cxx/iosfwd, line 58: #error
605              directive: "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to
606              override default - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
607    #error "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to override default
608    - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
610    This may be followed by other errors, complaining that 'namespace "std" has no
611    member'. The solution to this is to add the line
613    #define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM 1
615    to the config.h file.
618    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
619    ---------------------------------
621    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
622    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
624      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
625      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
628    Using PCRE from MySQL
629    ---------------------
631    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
632    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
633    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
635      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
638    Making new tarballs
639    -------------------
641    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
642    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
643    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
645    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
646    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
647    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
650    Testing PCRE
651    ------------
653    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
654    There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
655    pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
656    called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
657    are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
658    pcre_jit_test is built.
660    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
661    "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
664    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
665    own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
666    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
667    testoutput files. RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output
668    from pcretest. Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working
669    files in some tests.
671    Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options were selected. For
672    example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if --enable-utf was
673    used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
675    Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
676    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
677    tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
678    done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
679    this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
680    This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
682    The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
683    libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
684    RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
686    If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
687    on the RunTest command line. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test
688    files, give their numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
690      RunTest 2 7 11
692    You can also specify ranges of tests such as 3-6 or 3- (meaning 3 to the
693    end), or a number preceded by ~ to exclude a test. For example:
695      Runtest 3-15 ~10
697    This runs tests 3 to 15, excluding test 10, and just ~13 runs all the tests
698    except test 13. Whatever order the arguments are in, the tests are always run
699    in numerical order.
701    You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
702    a list of tests.
704    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
705    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
706    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
708    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
709    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
710    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
711    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
712    pcre_compile().
714    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
715    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
716    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
717    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
718    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
719    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
720    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
721    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
722    bug in PCRE.
724    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
725    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
726    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
727    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
728    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
729    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
730    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
732      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
734    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
735    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
737    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
738    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
739    RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
740    Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
741    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
743    The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
744    internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
745    sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
747    The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
748    matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
749    mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
751    The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
752    run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
753    change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
755    The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
756    test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
757    features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
759    The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
760    the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit
761    mode. These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are
762    for general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support,
763    respectively.
765    The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
766    16/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
768    The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when
769    the link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading
770    pre-compiled patterns.
772    The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are
773    for general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
775    The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are
776    for general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
779  Character tables  Character tables
780  ----------------  ----------------
782  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
783  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
784  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
785  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
786  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
787  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
788  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
789  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
790  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
791    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
792  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
793  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
794  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
795  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
796  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
797    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
798    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
799    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
800    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
801    tables.
803    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
804    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
805    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
806    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
807    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
808    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
809    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
811      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
813    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
814    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
815    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
816    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
817    than 256.
819  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
820  follows:  follows:
822      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 99  You should not alter the set of characte Line 830  You should not alter the set of characte
830  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
833  The pcretest program  File manifest
834  --------------------  -------------
 This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
 If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
836  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
837  October 1997  given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
838    pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
840    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
842      dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
843                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
845      pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
846                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
847                              specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
849      pcreposix.c                )
850      pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c   )
851      pcre[16|32]_compile.c      )
852      pcre[16|32]_config.c       )
853      pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c     )
854      pcre[16|32]_exec.c         )
855      pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c     )
856      pcre[16|32]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
857      pcre[16|32]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
858      pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c  )
859      pcre[16|32]_maketables.c   )
860      pcre[16|32]_newline.c      )
861      pcre[16|32]_refcount.c     )
862      pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
863      pcre[16|32]_study.c        )
864      pcre[16|32]_tables.c       )
865      pcre[16|32]_ucd.c          )
866      pcre[16|32]_version.c      )
867      pcre[16|32]_xclass.c       )
868      pcre_ord2utf8.c            )
869      pcre_valid_utf8.c          )
870      pcre16_ord2utf16.c         )
871      pcre16_utf16_utils.c       )
872      pcre16_valid_utf16.c       )
873      pcre32_utf32_utils.c       )
874      pcre32_valid_utf32.c       )
876      pcre[16|32]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
877                                 )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
879      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
880      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
881      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
882      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
883      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
885      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
887      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
888      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
889      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
890      pcrecpp.cc              )
891      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
893      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
894                                C++ stringpiece functions
895      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
897    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
899      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
900      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
901      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
903    (C) Auxiliary files:
905      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
906      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
907      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
908      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
909      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
910      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
911      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
912      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
913      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
914      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
915                              )   "configure"
916      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
917                              )   Makefile.in
918      NEWS                    important changes in this release
919      NON-UNIX-USE            the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
920      NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD     notes on building PCRE without using autotools
921      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
922      README                  this file
923      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
924      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
925      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
926      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
927      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
928      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
929      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
930                              )   "configure" and config.h
931      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
932                              )   automake
933      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
934      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
935      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
936      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
937      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
938      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
939      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
940      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
941      libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
942      libpcre32.pc.in         template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
943      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
944      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
945      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
946      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
947      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
948                              )   installing, generated by automake
949      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
950      perltest.pl             Perl test program
951      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
952      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
953      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
954      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
955      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
956      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
957      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
958      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
959      testdata/*              other supporting test files
961    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
964      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
965      cmake/FindEditline.cmake
966      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
967      CMakeLists.txt
968      config-cmake.h.in
970    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
972      makevp.bat
973      makevp_c.txt
974      makevp_l.txt
975      pcregexp.pas
977    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
979      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
980                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
981      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
982                              )   environments
984    (F) Miscellaneous
986      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
988    Philip Hazel
989    Email local part: ph10
990    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
991    Last updated: 17 January 2014

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