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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5    from:
7    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8    Makefile          for building PCRE    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    Performance       notes on performance    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    README            this file  
11    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    pcre.3            man page for the functions  pcre-dev@exim.org. You can access the archives and subscribe or manage your
13    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  subscription here:
14    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
15    study.c           ) source of     https://lists.exim.org/mailman/listinfo/pcre-dev
16    pcre.c            )   the functions  
17    pcreposix.c       )  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
18    pcre.h            header for the external API  The contents of this README file are:
19    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API  
20    internal.h        header for internal use    The PCRE APIs
21    pcretest.c        test program    Documentation for PCRE
22    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Contributions by users of PCRE
23    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
24    perltest          Perl test program    Building PCRE without using autotools
25    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl    Building PCRE using autotools
26    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Retrieving configuration information
27    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput    Shared libraries
28    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2    Cross-compiling using autotools
29      Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
30  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)    Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
31  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
32  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.    Using PCRE from MySQL
33      Making new tarballs
34  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with    Testing PCRE
35  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:    Character tables
36      File manifest
37    pcretest testinput /tmp/anything  
38    diff /tmp/anything testoutput  
39    The PCRE APIs
40  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  -------------
41  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.  
42    PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of
43    pcretest -i testinput2 /tmp/anything  functions, one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for
44    diff /tmp/anything testoutput2  the 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the
45    32-bit library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
46  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
47  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set  courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
48  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  C++. Other C++ wrappers have been created from time to time. See, for example:
49  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  https://github.com/YasserAsmi/regexp, which aims to be simple and similar in
50    style to the C API.
51  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  
52  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  The distribution also contains a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for
53  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  the 8-bit library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the
54  /usr/local/man/man3).  pcreposix man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that
55    this just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions
56  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted,
57  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  and does not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
58  /usr/local/man/man1).  
59    The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
60  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
61  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
62  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
63  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  renamed or pointed at by a link.
64  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  
65  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
66  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
67  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
68    ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
69    up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
71    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
72    -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
73    compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
74    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
75    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
76    new names.
79    Documentation for PCRE
80    ----------------------
82    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
83    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
84    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
85    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
87      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
88         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
89         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
90         the listing of pcredemo.c and those that summarize individual functions.
91         The other two are the text forms of the section 1 man pages for the
92         pcregrep and pcretest commands. These text forms are provided for ease of
93         scanning with text editors or similar tools. They are installed in
94         <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where <prefix> is the installation prefix
95         (defaulting to /usr/local).
97      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
98         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
99         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
101    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
102    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
103    site (see next section).
106    Contributions by users of PCRE
107    ------------------------------
109    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
111      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
113    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
114    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
115    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
116    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
117    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
118    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
120    A PCRE user maintains downloadable Windows binaries of the pcregrep and
121    pcretest programs here:
123      http://www.rexegg.com/pcregrep-pcretest.html
126    Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
127    --------------------------------------
129    For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
130    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
131    "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
132    many Unix-like systems.
134    PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
135    cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
136    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
138    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
139    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
140    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
143    Building PCRE without using autotools
144    -------------------------------------
146    The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
147    environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
148    file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
151    Building PCRE using autotools
152    -----------------------------
154    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
155    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
157    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
158    make install" (autotools) process.
160    To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
161    command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
162    to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
163    standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
164    are supplied in the file INSTALL.
166    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
167    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
168    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
170    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
172    This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
173    -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
174    under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
176    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
177    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
178    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
180    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
181    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
183    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
184    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
185    does not have any features to support this.
187    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
188    library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
190    . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
191      by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
193      --disable-shared
194      --disable-static
196      (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
198    . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
199      the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
200      --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
201      If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
202      building the 8-bit library.
204    . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
205      the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
206      command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
207      try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
208      try to build the C++ wrapper.
210    . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
211      large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
212      "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
213      architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
214      will be a compile time error.
216    . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
217      you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
219    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
220      the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
221      or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
222      --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
223      UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
224      when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
225      enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
226      input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
227      platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
228      the same time.
230    . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
231      independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
232      UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
233      --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
234      that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
235      --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
236      and the other without in the same configuration.
238    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
239      include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
240      character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
241      "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
242      form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
243      are supported.
245    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
246      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
247      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
248      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
249      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
250      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
251      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
252      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
254      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
255      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
256      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
257      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
258      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
259      failures.
261    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
262      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
263      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
264      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
265      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
267    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
268      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
269      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
271      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
273      on the "configure" command.
275    . PCRE has a counter that limits the depth of nesting of parentheses in a
276      pattern. This limits the amount of system stack that a pattern uses when it
277      is compiled. The default is 250, but you can change it by setting, for
278      example,
280      --with-parens-nest-limit=500
282    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses
283      when matching a pattern. If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match
284      fails. The default is ten million. You can change the default by setting, for
285      example,
287      --with-match-limit=500000
289      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
290      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
291      pcreapi man page.
293    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
294      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
295      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
297      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
299      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
300      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
301      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
303    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
304      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
305      library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
306      parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
307      the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
308      offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
309      library, the only supported link size is 4.
311    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
312      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
313      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
314      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
315      build PCRE like this, use
317      --disable-stack-for-recursion
319      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
320      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
321      normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
322      successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
323      pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
324      discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
326    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
327      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
328      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
330      --enable-rebuild-chartables
332      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
333      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
334      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
335      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
337    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
338      character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
340      --enable-ebcdic
342      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
343      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
344      both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
345      which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
346      instead of the default 0x15.
348    . In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
350      --enable-valgrind
352      PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
353      unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
354      mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
356    . In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
357      is installed, if you specify
359      --enable-coverage
361      the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
362      report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
363      your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
364      You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
365      running "make" to build PCRE. There is more information about coverage
366      reporting in the "pcrebuild" documentation.
368    . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
369      requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
370      libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
371      specifying one or both of
373      --enable-pcregrep-libz
374      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
376      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
378    . The default size (in bytes) of the internal buffer used by pcregrep can be
379      set by, for example:
381      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=51200
383      The value must be a plain integer. The default is 20480.
385    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
386      or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
388      --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
390      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
391      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
392      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
393      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
394      avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
396      Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
397      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
398      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
399      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
400      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
401      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
402      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
403      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
404      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
405      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
407    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
409    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
410    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
411    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
412    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
413                             that were set for "configure"
414    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
415    . libpcre16.pc       )
416    . libpcre32.pc       )
417    . libpcreposix.pc    )
418    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
420    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
421    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
422    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
423    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
425    When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
426    files are also built:
428    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
429    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
430    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
432    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
433    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
434    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
436    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
437    libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
438    enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
439    built as well.
441    If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
442    built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
443    it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
444    libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
445    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
447    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
448    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
450    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
451    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
452    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
454      Commands (bin):
455        pcretest
456        pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
457        pcre-config
459      Libraries (lib):
460        libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
461        libpcre32     (if 32-bit support is enabled)
462        libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
463        libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
464        libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
466      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
467        libpcre16.pc
468        libpcre32.pc
469        libpcre.pc
470        libpcreposix.pc
471        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
473      Header files (include):
474        pcre.h
475        pcreposix.h
476        pcre_scanner.h      )
477        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
478        pcrecpp.h           )
479        pcrecpparg.h        )
481      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
482        pcregrep.1
483        pcretest.1
484        pcre-config.1
485        pcre.3
486        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
488      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
489        index.html
490        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
492      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
493        AUTHORS
494        COPYING
495        ChangeLog
496        LICENCE
497        NEWS
498        README
499        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
500        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
501        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
502        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
504    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
505    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
506    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
509    Retrieving configuration information
510    ------------------------------------
512    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
513    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
515      pcre-config --version
517    prints the version number, and
519      pcre-config --libs
521    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
522    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
523    having to remember too many details.
525    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
526    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
527    single command is used. For example:
529      pkg-config --cflags pcre
531    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
532    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
535    Shared libraries
536    ----------------
538    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
539    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
540    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
541    "configure" process.
543    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
544    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
545    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
546    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
547    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
548    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
549    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
550    use the uninstalled libraries.
552    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
553    configuring it. For example:
555    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
557    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
558    build only shared libraries.
561    Cross-compiling using autotools
562    -------------------------------
564    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
565    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
566    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
567    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
568    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
569    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
570    compiler.
572    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
573    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
574    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
575    a problem.
577    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
578    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
579    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
580    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
583    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
584    ----------------------------------
586    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
587    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
588    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
590    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
591    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
592    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
593    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
594    running the "configure" script:
596      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
599    Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
600    -----------------------------------------
602    The following error may occur when compiling with native compilers in the Tru64
603    operating system:
605      CXX    libpcrecpp_la-pcrecpp.lo
606    cxx: Error: /usr/lib/cmplrs/cxx/V7.1-006/include/cxx/iosfwd, line 58: #error
607              directive: "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to
608              override default - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
609    #error "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to override default
610    - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
612    This may be followed by other errors, complaining that 'namespace "std" has no
613    member'. The solution to this is to add the line
615    #define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM 1
617    to the config.h file.
620    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
621    ---------------------------------
623    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
624    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
626      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
627      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
630    Using PCRE from MySQL
631    ---------------------
633    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
634    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
635    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
637      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
640    Making new tarballs
641    -------------------
643    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
644    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
645    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
647    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
648    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
649    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
652    Testing PCRE
653    ------------
655    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
656    There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
657    pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
658    called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
659    are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
660    pcre_jit_test is built.
662    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
663    "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
666    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
667    own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
668    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
669    testoutput files. RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output
670    from pcretest. Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working
671    files in some tests.
673    Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options were selected. For
674    example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if --enable-utf was
675    used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
677    Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
678    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
679    tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
680    done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
681    this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
682    This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
684    The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
685    libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
686    RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
688    If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
689    on the RunTest command line. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test
690    files, give their numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
692      RunTest 2 7 11
694    You can also specify ranges of tests such as 3-6 or 3- (meaning 3 to the
695    end), or a number preceded by ~ to exclude a test. For example:
697      Runtest 3-15 ~10
699    This runs tests 3 to 15, excluding test 10, and just ~13 runs all the tests
700    except test 13. Whatever order the arguments are in, the tests are always run
701    in numerical order.
703    You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
704    a list of tests.
706    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
707    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
708    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
710    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
711    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
712    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
713    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
714    pcre_compile().
716    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
717    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
718    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
719    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
720    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
721    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
722    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
723    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
724    bug in PCRE.
726    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
727    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
728    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
729    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
730    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
731    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
732    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
734      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
736    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
737    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
739    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
740    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
741    RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
742    Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
743    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
745    The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
746    internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
747    sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
749    The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
750    matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
751    mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
753    The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
754    run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
755    change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
757    The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
758    test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
759    features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
761    The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
762    the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit
763    mode. These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are
764    for general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support,
765    respectively.
767    The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
768    16/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
770    The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when
771    the link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading
772    pre-compiled patterns.
774    The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are
775    for general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
777    The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are
778    for general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
781  Character tables  Character tables
782  ----------------  ----------------
784  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
785  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
786  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
787  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
788  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
789  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
790  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
791  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
792  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
793    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
794  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
795  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
796  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
797  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
798  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
799    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
800    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
801    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
802    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
803    tables.
805    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
806    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
807    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
808    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
809    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
810    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
811    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
813      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
815    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
816    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
817    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
818    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
819    than 256.
821  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
822  follows:  follows:
824      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 99  You should not alter the set of characte Line 832  You should not alter the set of characte
832  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
835  The pcretest program  File manifest
836  --------------------  -------------
 This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
 If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
838  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
839  October 1997  given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
840    pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
842    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
844      dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
845                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
847      pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
848                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
849                              specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
851      pcreposix.c                )
852      pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c   )
853      pcre[16|32]_compile.c      )
854      pcre[16|32]_config.c       )
855      pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c     )
856      pcre[16|32]_exec.c         )
857      pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c     )
858      pcre[16|32]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
859      pcre[16|32]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
860      pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c  )
861      pcre[16|32]_maketables.c   )
862      pcre[16|32]_newline.c      )
863      pcre[16|32]_refcount.c     )
864      pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
865      pcre[16|32]_study.c        )
866      pcre[16|32]_tables.c       )
867      pcre[16|32]_ucd.c          )
868      pcre[16|32]_version.c      )
869      pcre[16|32]_xclass.c       )
870      pcre_ord2utf8.c            )
871      pcre_valid_utf8.c          )
872      pcre16_ord2utf16.c         )
873      pcre16_utf16_utils.c       )
874      pcre16_valid_utf16.c       )
875      pcre32_utf32_utils.c       )
876      pcre32_valid_utf32.c       )
878      pcre[16|32]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
879                                 )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
881      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
882      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
883      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
884      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
885      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
887      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
889      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
890      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
891      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
892      pcrecpp.cc              )
893      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
895      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
896                                C++ stringpiece functions
897      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
899    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
901      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
902      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
903      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
905    (C) Auxiliary files:
907      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
908      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
909      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
910      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
911      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
912      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
913      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
914      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
915      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
916      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
917                              )   "configure"
918      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
919                              )   Makefile.in
920      NEWS                    important changes in this release
921      NON-UNIX-USE            the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
922      NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD     notes on building PCRE without using autotools
923      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
924      README                  this file
925      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
926      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
927      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
928      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
929      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
930      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
931      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
932                              )   "configure" and config.h
933      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
934                              )   automake
935      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
936      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
937      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
938      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
939      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
940      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
941      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
942      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
943      libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
944      libpcre32.pc.in         template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
945      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
946      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
947      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
948      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
949      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
950                              )   installing, generated by automake
951      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
952      perltest.pl             Perl test program
953      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
954      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
955      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
956      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
957      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
958      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
959      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
960      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
961      testdata/*              other supporting test files
963    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
966      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
967      cmake/FindEditline.cmake
968      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
969      CMakeLists.txt
970      config-cmake.h.in
972    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
974      makevp.bat
975      makevp_c.txt
976      makevp_l.txt
977      pcregexp.pas
979    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
981      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
982                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
983      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
984                              )   environments
986    (F) Miscellaneous
988      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
990    Philip Hazel
991    Email local part: ph10
992    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
993    Last updated: 24 October 2014

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