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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5    from:
7    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8    Makefile          for building PCRE    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    Performance       notes on performance    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    README            this file  
11    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    pcre.3            man page for the functions  
13    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
15    study.c           ) source of  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    pcre.c            )   the functions  The contents of this README file are:
17    pcreposix.c       )  
18    pcre.h            header for the external API    The PCRE APIs
19    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Documentation for PCRE
20    internal.h        header for internal use    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcretest.c        test program    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24    perltest          Perl test program    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput    Using PCRE from MySQL
28    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2    Making new tarballs
29      Testing PCRE
30  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)    Character tables
31  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,    File manifest
32  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.  
34  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with  The PCRE APIs
35  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:  -------------
37    pcretest testinput /tmp/anything  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
38    diff /tmp/anything testoutput  set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
39    of Google Inc.
40  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  
41  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
42    regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
43    pcretest -i testinput2 /tmp/anything  library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
44    diff /tmp/anything testoutput2  interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
45    and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
46  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  all of PCRE's facilities.
47  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set  
48  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
49  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
50    with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
51  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
52  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  renamed or pointed at by a link.
53  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  
54  /usr/local/man/man3).  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
55    library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
56  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
57  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
58  /usr/local/man/man1).  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
60  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
61  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
62  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
63  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
64  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
65  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  new names.
66  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  
67  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  
68    Documentation for PCRE
69    ----------------------
71    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
72    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
73    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
74    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
76      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
77         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
78         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
79         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
80         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
81         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
82         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
83         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
85      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
86         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
87         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
89    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
90    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
91    site (see next section).
94    Contributions by users of PCRE
95    ------------------------------
97    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
99      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
101    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
102    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
103    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
104    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
105    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
106    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
109    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
110    ---------------------------------
112    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
113    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
114    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
115    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
116    CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
118    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
119    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
120    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
123    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
124    ----------------------------------
126    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
127    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
129    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
130    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
131    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
132    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
134    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
135    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
136    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
137    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
138    the file INSTALL.
140    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
141    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
142    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
144    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
146    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
147    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
148    instead of the default /usr/local.
150    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
151    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
152    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
154    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
155    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
157    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
158    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
159    does not have any features to support this.
161    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
162    library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
164    . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
165      by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
167      --disable-shared
168      --disable-static
170      (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
172    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
173      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
174      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
175      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
177    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
178      PCRE, you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the
179      code for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. Even when included,
180      it still has to be enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled
181      with this option, its input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8, even when
182      running on EBCDIC platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf8 and
183      --enable-ebcdic at the same time.
185    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
186      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
187      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
188      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
189      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
190      supported.
192    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
193      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
194      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
195      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
196      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
197      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
198      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
199      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
201      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
202      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
203      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
204      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
205      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
206      failures.
208    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
209      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
210      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
211      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
212      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
214    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
215      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
216      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
218      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
220      on the "configure" command.
222    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
223      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
224      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
226      --with-match-limit=500000
228      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
229      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
230      pcreapi man page.
232    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
233      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
234      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
236      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
238      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
239      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
240      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
242    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
243      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
244      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
245      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
246      performance.
248    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
249      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
250      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
251      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
252      build PCRE like this, use
254      --disable-stack-for-recursion
256      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
257      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
258      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
259      use deeply nested recursion. There is a discussion about stack sizes in the
260      pcrestack man page.
262    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
263      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
264      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
266      --enable-rebuild-chartables
268      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
269      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
270      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
271      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
273    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
274      character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
276      --enable-ebcdic
278      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
279      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
280      both EBCDIC and UTF-8.
282    . It is possible to compile pcregrep to use libz and/or libbz2, in order to
283      read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by specifying one or both of
285      --enable-pcregrep-libz
286      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
288      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
290    . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
291      example:
293      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
295      The default value is 20K.
297    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
298      library, by specifying
300      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
302      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
303      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
304      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
305      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
307      Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
308      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
309      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
310      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
311      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
312      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
313      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
314      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
315      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
316      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
318    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
320    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
321    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
322    . pcre.h is the public PCRE header file
323    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
324    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
325    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
326    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the basic C library
327    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
329    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
330    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
331    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
332    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
334    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
336    . libpcrecpp.pc is data for the pkg-config command
337    . pcrecpparg.h is a header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
338    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
340    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
341    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
342    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
344    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
345    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
346    command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, "make" also builds the C++
347    wrapper library, which is called libpcrecpp, and some test programs called
348    pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
349    Building the C++ wrapper can be disabled by adding --disable-cpp to the
350    "configure" command.
352    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
353    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
355    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
356    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
357    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
359      Commands (bin):
360        pcretest
361        pcregrep
362        pcre-config
364      Libraries (lib):
365        libpcre
366        libpcreposix
367        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
369      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
370        libpcre.pc
371        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
373      Header files (include):
374        pcre.h
375        pcreposix.h
376        pcre_scanner.h      )
377        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
378        pcrecpp.h           )
379        pcrecpparg.h        )
381      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
382        pcregrep.1
383        pcretest.1
384        pcre.3
385        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
387      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
388        index.html
389        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
391      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
392        AUTHORS
393        COPYING
394        ChangeLog
395        LICENCE
396        NEWS
397        README
398        pcre.txt       (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
399        pcretest.txt   the pcretest man page
400        pcregrep.txt   the pcregrep man page
402    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
403    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
404    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
407    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
408    ---------------------------------------------------------
410    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
411    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
413      pcre-config --version
415    prints the version number, and
417      pcre-config --libs
419    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
420    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
421    having to remember too many details.
423    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
424    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
425    single command is used. For example:
427      pkg-config --cflags pcre
429    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
430    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
433    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
434    -------------------------------------
436    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
437    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
438    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
439    "configure" process.
441    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
442    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
443    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
444    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
445    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
446    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
447    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
448    use the uninstalled libraries.
450    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
451    configuring it. For example:
453    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
455    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
456    build only shared libraries.
459    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
460    ------------------------------------
462    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
463    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
464    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
465    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
466    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
467    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
468    compiler.
470    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
471    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
472    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
473    a problem.
475    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
476    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
477    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
478    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
481    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
482    ----------------------------------
484    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
485    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
486    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
488    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
489    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
490    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
491    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
492    running the "configure" script:
494      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
497    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
498    ---------------------------------
500    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
501    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
503      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
504      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
507    Using PCRE from MySQL
508    ---------------------
510    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
511    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
512    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
514      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
517    Making new tarballs
518    -------------------
520    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
521    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
522    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
524    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
525    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
526    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
529    Testing PCRE
530    ------------
532    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
533    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
534    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
535    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
536    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built.
538    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
539    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
541    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
542    own man page) on each of the testinput files in the testdata directory in
543    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
544    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
545    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
546    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
548      RunTest 2
550    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to
551    check that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is
552    in the first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE
553    version.
555    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
556    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
557    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
558    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
559    pcre_compile().
561    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
562    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
563    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
564    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
565    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
566    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
567    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
568    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
569    bug in PCRE.
571    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
572    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
573    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
574    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
575    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
576    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
577    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
579      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
581    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
582    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
584    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
585    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
586    RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
587    Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
588    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
590    The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
591    PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
592    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest.pl
593    script, provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher.
595    The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
596    features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
598    The sixth test (which is Perl-5.10 compatible) checks the support for Unicode
599    character properties. It it not run automatically unless PCRE is built with
600    Unicode property support. To to this you must set --enable-unicode-properties
601    when running "configure".
603    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
604    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
605    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
606    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
608    The tenth test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is run
609    only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
610    change).
612    The eleventh test checks out features that are new in Perl 5.10, and the
613    twelfth test checks a number internals and non-Perl features concerned with
614    Unicode property support. It it not run automatically unless PCRE is built with
615    Unicode property support. To to this you must set --enable-unicode-properties
616    when running "configure".
619  Character tables  Character tables
620  ----------------  ----------------
622  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
623  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
624  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
625  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
626  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
627  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
628  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
629  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
630  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
631    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
632  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
633  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
634  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
635  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
636  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
637    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
638    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
639    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
640    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
641    tables.
643    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
644    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
645    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
646    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
647    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
648    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
649    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
651      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
653    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
654    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
655    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
656    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
657    than 256.
659  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
660  follows:  follows:
662      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 99  You should not alter the set of characte Line 670  You should not alter the set of characte
670  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
673  The pcretest program  File manifest
674  --------------------  -------------
676    The distribution should contain the following files:
678  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
680  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
681  the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
683  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
684  October 1997                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
685                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
687      pcreposix.c             )
688      pcre_compile.c          )
689      pcre_config.c           )
690      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
691      pcre_exec.c             )
692      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
693      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
694      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
695      pcre_info.c             )
696      pcre_maketables.c       )
697      pcre_newline.c          )
698      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
699      pcre_refcount.c         )
700      pcre_study.c            )
701      pcre_tables.c           )
702      pcre_try_flipped.c      )
703      pcre_ucd.c              )
704      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
705      pcre_version.c          )
706      pcre_xclass.c           )
707      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
708                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
709      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
710      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
711      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
712      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
714      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
716      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
717      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
718      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
719      pcrecpp.cc              )
720      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
722      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
723                                C++ stringpiece functions
724      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
726    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
728      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
729      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
730      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
732    (C) Auxiliary files:
734      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
735      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
736      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
737      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
738      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
739      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
740      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
741      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
742      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
743      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
744                              )   "configure"
745      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
746                              )   Makefile.in
747      NEWS                    important changes in this release
748      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
749      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
750      README                  this file
751      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
752      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
753      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
754      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
755      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
756      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
757      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
758                              )   "configure" and config.h
759      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
760                              )   automake
761      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
762      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
763      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
764      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
765      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
766      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
767      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
768      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
769      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
770      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
771      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
772      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
773      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
774                              )   installing, generated by automake
775      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
776      perltest.pl             Perl test program
777      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
778      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
779      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
780      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
781      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
782      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
783      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
785    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
788      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
789      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
790      CMakeLists.txt
791      config-cmake.h.in
793    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
795      makevp.bat
796      makevp_c.txt
797      makevp_l.txt
798      pcregexp.pas
800    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
802      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
803                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
804      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
805                              )   environments
807    (F) Miscellaneous
809      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
811    Philip Hazel
812    Email local part: ph10
813    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
814    Last updated: 02 August 2011

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