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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5    from:
7    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8    Makefile          for building PCRE    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    Performance       notes on performance    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    README            this file  
11    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    pcre.3            man page for the functions  
13    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
15    study.c           ) source of  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    pcre.c            )   the functions  The contents of this README file are:
17    pcreposix.c       )  
18    pcre.h            header for the external API    The PCRE APIs
19    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Documentation for PCRE
20    internal.h        header for internal use    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcretest.c        test program    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24    perltest          Perl test program    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput    Using PCRE from MySQL
28    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2    Making new tarballs
29      Testing PCRE
30  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)    Character tables
31  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,    File manifest
32  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.  
34  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with  The PCRE APIs
35  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:  -------------
37    pcretest testinput /tmp/anything  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are two sets of functions,
38    diff /tmp/anything testoutput  one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, and one for the
39    16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values. The distribution also
40  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
41  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.  courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
42    C++.
43    pcretest -i testinput2 /tmp/anything  
44    diff /tmp/anything testoutput2  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
45    library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
46  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
47  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set  provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
48  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
49  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
51  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
52  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
53  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
54  /usr/local/man/man3).  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
55    renamed or pointed at by a link.
56  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
57  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
58  /usr/local/man/man1).  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
59    file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
60  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
61  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
62  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  
63  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
64  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
65  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
66  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
67  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
68    new names.
71    Documentation for PCRE
72    ----------------------
74    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
75    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
76    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
77    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
79      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
80         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
81         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
82         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
83         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
84         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
85         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
86         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
88      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
89         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
90         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
92    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
93    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
94    site (see next section).
97    Contributions by users of PCRE
98    ------------------------------
100    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
102      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
104    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
105    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
106    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
107    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
108    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
109    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
112    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
113    ---------------------------------
115    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
116    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
117    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
118    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
119    CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
121    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
122    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
123    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
126    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
127    ----------------------------------
129    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
130    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
132    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
133    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
134    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
135    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
137    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
138    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
139    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
140    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
141    the file INSTALL.
143    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
144    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
145    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
147    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
149    This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
150    -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
151    under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
153    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
154    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
155    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
157    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
158    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
160    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
161    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
162    does not have any features to support this.
164    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
165    library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
167    . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
168      by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
170      --disable-shared
171      --disable-static
173      (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
175    . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
176      the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you want only
177      the 16-bit library, use "./configure --enable-pcre16 --disable-pcre8".
179    . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
180      the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
181      command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
182      try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
183      try to build the C++ wrapper.
185    . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
186      large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
187      "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
188      architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
189      will be a compile time error.
191    . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
192      you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
194    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
195      the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
196      you must add --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
197      for handling UTF-8 and UTF-16 is not included in the relevant library. Even
198      when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
199      enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
200      input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16, even when running on EBCDIC
201      platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
202      the same time.
204    . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8 and UTF-16 independently
205      because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting UTF-16
206      support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
207      --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
208      that did not support 16-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
209      --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
210      and the other without in the same configuration.
212    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16 character strings, you want to
213      include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
214      character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
215      "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
216      form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
217      are supported.
219    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
220      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
221      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
222      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
223      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
224      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
225      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
226      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
228      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
229      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
230      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
231      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
232      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
233      failures.
235    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
236      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
237      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
238      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
239      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
241    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
242      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
243      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
245      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
247      on the "configure" command.
249    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
250      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
251      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
253      --with-match-limit=500000
255      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
256      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
257      pcreapi man page.
259    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
260      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
261      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
263      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
265      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
266      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
267      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
269    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
270      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
271      library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
272      parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
273      the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
274      offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance.
276    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
277      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
278      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
279      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
280      build PCRE like this, use
282      --disable-stack-for-recursion
284      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
285      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
286      normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
287      successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
288      pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
289      discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
291    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
292      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
293      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
295      --enable-rebuild-chartables
297      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
298      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
299      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
300      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
302    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
303      character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
305      --enable-ebcdic
307      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
308      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
309      both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16.
311    . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
312      requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
313      libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
314      specifying one or both of
316      --enable-pcregrep-libz
317      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
319      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
321    . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
322      example:
324      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
326      The default value is 20K.
328    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
329      or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
331      --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
333      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
334      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
335      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
336      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
337      avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
339      Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
340      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
341      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
342      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
343      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
344      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
345      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
346      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
347      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
348      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
350    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
352    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
353    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
354    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
355    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
356                             that were set for "configure"
357    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
358    . libpcre16.pc       )
359    . libpcreposix.pc    )
360    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
361    . RunTest              script for running tests on the basic C library
362    . RunGrepTest          script for running tests on the pcregrep command
364    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
365    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
366    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
367    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
369    When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
370    files are also built:
372    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
373    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
374    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
376    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
377    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
378    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
380    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds either or both of the
381    libraries libpcre and libpcre16, and a test program called pcretest. If you
382    enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
383    built as well.
385    If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
386    built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
387    it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
388    libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
389    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
391    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
392    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
394    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
395    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
396    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
398      Commands (bin):
399        pcretest
400        pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
401        pcre-config
403      Libraries (lib):
404        libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
405        libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
406        libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
407        libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
409      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
410        libpcre16.pc
411        libpcre.pc
412        libpcreposix.pc
413        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
415      Header files (include):
416        pcre.h
417        pcreposix.h
418        pcre_scanner.h      )
419        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
420        pcrecpp.h           )
421        pcrecpparg.h        )
423      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
424        pcregrep.1
425        pcretest.1
426        pcre-config.1
427        pcre.3
428        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
430      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
431        index.html
432        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
434      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
435        AUTHORS
436        COPYING
437        ChangeLog
438        LICENCE
439        NEWS
440        README
441        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
442        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
443        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
444        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
446    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
447    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
448    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
451    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
452    ---------------------------------------------------------
454    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
455    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
457      pcre-config --version
459    prints the version number, and
461      pcre-config --libs
463    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
464    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
465    having to remember too many details.
467    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
468    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
469    single command is used. For example:
471      pkg-config --cflags pcre
473    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
474    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
477    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
478    -------------------------------------
480    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
481    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
482    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
483    "configure" process.
485    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
486    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
487    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
488    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
489    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
490    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
491    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
492    use the uninstalled libraries.
494    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
495    configuring it. For example:
497    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
499    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
500    build only shared libraries.
503    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
504    ------------------------------------
506    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
507    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
508    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
509    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
510    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
511    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
512    compiler.
514    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
515    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
516    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
517    a problem.
519    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
520    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
521    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
522    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
525    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
526    ----------------------------------
528    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
529    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
530    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
532    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
533    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
534    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
535    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
536    running the "configure" script:
538      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
541    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
542    ---------------------------------
544    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
545    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
547      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
548      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
551    Using PCRE from MySQL
552    ---------------------
554    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
555    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
556    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
558      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
561    Making new tarballs
562    -------------------
564    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
565    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
566    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
568    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
569    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
570    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
573    Testing PCRE
574    ------------
576    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
577    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
578    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
579    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
580    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another
581    test program called pcre_jit_test is built.
583    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
584    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
586    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
587    own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
588    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
589    testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
590    were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8/16 support are run only if
591    --enable-utf was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
593    Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
594    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
595    tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
596    done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
597    this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
599    When both 8-bit and 16-bit support is enabled, the entire set of tests is run
600    twice, once for each library. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
601    RunTest with either the -8 or -16 option.
603    RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest.
604    Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working files in some
605    tests. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test files, give their
606    numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
608      RunTest 2 7 11
610    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
611    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
612    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
614    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
615    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
616    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
617    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
618    pcre_compile().
620    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
621    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
622    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
623    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
624    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
625    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
626    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
627    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
628    bug in PCRE.
630    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
631    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
632    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
633    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
634    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
635    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
636    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
638      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
640    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
641    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
643    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
644    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
645    RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
646    Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
647    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
649    The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16 support and error handling and
650    internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
651    sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
653    The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
654    matching function, in non-UTF-8/16 mode, UTF-8/16 mode, and UTF-8/16 mode with
655    Unicode property support, respectively.
657    The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
658    run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
659    change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
661    The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
662    test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
663    features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
665    The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
666    the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16-bit mode.
667    These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are for
668    general cases, UTF-8/16 support, and Unicode property support, respectively.
670    The twentieth test is run only in 16-bit mode. It tests some specific 16-bit
671    features of the DFA matching engine.
673    The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16-bit mode, when the
674    link size is set to 2. They test reloading pre-compiled patterns.
677  Character tables  Character tables
678  ----------------  ----------------
680  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
681  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
682  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
683  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
684  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
685  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
686  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
687  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
688  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
689    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
690  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
691  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
692  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
693  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
694  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
695    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
696    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
697    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
698    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
699    tables.
701    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
702    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
703    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
704    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
705    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
706    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
707    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
709      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
711    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
712    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
713    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
714    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
715    than 256.
717  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
718  follows:  follows:
720      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 99  You should not alter the set of characte Line 728  You should not alter the set of characte
728  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
731  The pcretest program  File manifest
732  --------------------  -------------
 This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
 If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
734  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
735  October 1997  given as pcre[16]_xxx it means that there are two files, one with the name
736    pcre_xxx and the other with the name pcre16_xxx.
738    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
740      dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
741                                when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
743      pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
744                                coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
745                                specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
747      pcreposix.c             )
748      pcre[16]_byte_order.c   )
749      pcre[16]_compile.c      )
750      pcre[16]_config.c       )
751      pcre[16]_dfa_exec.c     )
752      pcre[16]_exec.c         )
753      pcre[16]_fullinfo.c     )
754      pcre[16]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
755      pcre[16]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
756      pcre[16]_jit_compile.c  )
757      pcre[16]_maketables.c   )
758      pcre[16]_newline.c      )
759      pcre[16]_refcount.c     )
760      pcre[16]_string_utils.c )
761      pcre[16]_study.c        )
762      pcre[16]_tables.c       )
763      pcre[16]_ucd.c          )
764      pcre[16]_version.c      )
765      pcre[16]_xclass.c       )
766      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
767      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
768      pcre16_ord2utf16.c      )
769      pcre16_utf16_utils.c    )
770      pcre16_valid_utf16.c    )
772      pcre[16]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
773                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
775      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
776      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
777      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
778      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
779      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
781      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
783      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
784      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
785      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
786      pcrecpp.cc              )
787      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
789      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
790                                C++ stringpiece functions
791      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
793    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
795      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
796      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
797      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
799    (C) Auxiliary files:
801      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
802      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
803      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
804      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
805      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
806      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
807      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
808      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
809      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
810      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
811                              )   "configure"
812      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
813                              )   Makefile.in
814      NEWS                    important changes in this release
815      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
816      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
817      README                  this file
818      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
819      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
820      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
821      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
822      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
823      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
824      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
825                              )   "configure" and config.h
826      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
827                              )   automake
828      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
829      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
830      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
831      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
832      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
833      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
834      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
835      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
836      libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
837      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
838      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
839      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
840      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
841      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
842                              )   installing, generated by automake
843      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
844      perltest.pl             Perl test program
845      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
846      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
847      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
848      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
849      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
850      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
851      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
852      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
853      testdata/*              other supporting test files
855    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
858      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
859      cmake/FindEditline.cmake
860      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
861      CMakeLists.txt
862      config-cmake.h.in
864    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
866      makevp.bat
867      makevp_c.txt
868      makevp_l.txt
869      pcregexp.pas
871    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
873      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
874                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
875      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
876                              )   environments
878    (F) Miscellaneous
880      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
882    Philip Hazel
883    Email local part: ph10
884    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
885    Last updated: 26 February 2012

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