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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
3    
4  *******************************************************************************  The latest release of PCRE is always available from
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSIONS BEFORE 2.00           *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
 *******************************************************************************  
5    
6  The distribution should contain the following files:    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
7    
8    There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
9    
10    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    pcre-dev@exim.org
11    Makefile          for building PCRE  
12    README            this file  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
13    RunTest           a shell script for running tests  The contents of this README file are:
14    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  
15    pcre.3            man page for the functions    The PCRE APIs
16    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API    Documentation for PCRE
17    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c    Contributions by users of PCRE
18    study.c           ) source of    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
19    pcre.c            )   the functions    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
20    pcreposix.c       )    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
21    pcre.h            header for the external API    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
22    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
23    internal.h        header for internal use    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
24    pcretest.c        test program    Making new tarballs
25    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Testing PCRE
26    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Character tables
27    perltest          Perl test program    File manifest
28    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005  
29    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
30    testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005  The PCRE APIs
31    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput  -------------
32    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  
33    testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinpug3  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
34    set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
35  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file,  of Google Inc.
36  and there are some comments at the top) and then run it. It builds two  
37  libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest,  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
38  and the pgrep command.  regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
39    library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
40  To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This runs pcretest  interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
41  on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
42  contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  all of PCRE's facilities.
43  hold the output from pcretest (which is documented below).  
44    The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
45  To run pcretest on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
46  to RunTest, for example:  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
47    an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
48    RunTest 3  renamed or pointed at by a link.
49    
50  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
51  program to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
52  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
53  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
54  widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
55    
56  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and  One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
57  run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
58    compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
59  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
60  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
61  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  new names.
62  /usr/local/man/man3).  
63    
64  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  Documentation for PCRE
65  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  ----------------------
66  /usr/local/man/man1).  
67    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
68  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
69  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
70  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  documentation is supplied in two other forms:
71  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  
72  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is    1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
73  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of       doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
74  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that       concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
75  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.       those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
76         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
77         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
78         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
79         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
80    
81      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
82         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
83         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
84    
85    
86    Contributions by users of PCRE
87    ------------------------------
88    
89    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
90    
91      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
92    
93    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
94    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
95    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
96    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
97    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
98    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
99    
100    
101    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
102    ---------------------------------
103    
104    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
105    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
106    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems.
107    
108    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
109    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
110    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
111    
112    
113    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
114    ----------------------------------
115    
116    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
117    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
118    
119    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
120    make install" process. There is also some experimental support for "cmake" in
121    the PCRE distribution, but it is incomplete and not documented. However, if you
122    are a "cmake" user, you might want to try it.
123    
124    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
125    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
126    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
127    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
128    the file INSTALL.
129    
130    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
131    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
132    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
133    
134    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
135    
136    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
137    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
138    instead of the default /usr/local.
139    
140    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
141    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
142    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
143    
144    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
145    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
146    
147    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
148    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
149    does not have any features to support this.
150    
151    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
152    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
153    
154    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
155      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
156      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
157      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
158    
159    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 character strings in PCRE,
160      you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
161      for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. (Even when included, it
162      still has to be enabled by an option at run time.)
163    
164    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
165      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
166      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
167      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
168      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
169      supported.
170    
171    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
172      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
173      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
174      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
175      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
176      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
177      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
178      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
179    
180      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
181      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
182      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
183      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
184      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
185      failures.
186    
187    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
188      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
189      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
190    
191      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
192    
193      on the "configure" command.
194    
195    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
196      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
197      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
198    
199      --with-match-limit=500000
200    
201      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
202      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
203      pcreapi man page.
204    
205    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
206      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
207      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
208    
209      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
210    
211      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
212      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
213      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
214    
215    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
216      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
217      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
218      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
219      performance.
220    
221    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
222      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
223      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
224      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
225      build PCRE like this, use
226    
227      --disable-stack-for-recursion
228    
229      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
230      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
231      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
232      use deeply nested recursion. There is a discussion about stack sizes in the
233      pcrestack man page.
234    
235    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
236      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
237      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
238    
239      --enable-rebuild-chartables
240    
241      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
242      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
243      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
244      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
245    
246    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
247      default character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
248    
249      --enable-ebcdic
250    
251      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above).
252    
253    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
254    
255    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
256    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
257    . pcre.h is the public PCRE header file
258    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
259    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
260    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
261    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the basic C library
262    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
263    
264    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under
265    the names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for the
266    benefit of those who have to built PCRE without the benefit of "configure". If
267    you use "configure", the .generic versions are not used.
268    
269    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
270    
271    . libpcrecpp.pc is data for the pkg-config command
272    . pcrecpparg.h is a header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
273    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
274    
275    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
276    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
277    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
278    
279    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
280    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, a demonstration
281    program called pcredemo, and the pcregrep command. If a C++ compiler was found
282    on your system, "make" also builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
283    libpcrecpp, and some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
284    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest. Building the C++ wrapper
285    can be disabled by adding --disable-cpp to the "configure" command.
286    
287    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
288    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
289    
290    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
291    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
292    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
293    
294      Commands (bin):
295        pcretest
296        pcregrep
297        pcre-config
298    
299      Libraries (lib):
300        libpcre
301        libpcreposix
302        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
303    
304      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
305        libpcre.pc
306        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
307    
308      Header files (include):
309        pcre.h
310        pcreposix.h
311        pcre_scanner.h      )
312        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
313        pcrecpp.h           )
314        pcrecpparg.h        )
315    
316      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
317        pcregrep.1
318        pcretest.1
319        pcre.3
320        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
321    
322      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
323        index.html
324        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
325    
326      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
327        AUTHORS
328        COPYING
329        ChangeLog
330        LICENCE
331        NEWS
332        README
333        pcre.txt       (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
334        pcretest.txt   the pcretest man page
335        pcregrep.txt   the pcregrep man page
336    
337    Note that the pcredemo program that is built by "configure" is *not* installed
338    anywhere. It is a demonstration for programmers wanting to use PCRE.
339    
340    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
341    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
342    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
343    
344    
345    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
346    ---------------------------------------------------------
347    
348    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
349    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
350    
351      pcre-config --version
352    
353    prints the version number, and
354    
355      pcre-config --libs
356    
357    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
358    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
359    having to remember too many details.
360    
361    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
362    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
363    single command is used. For example:
364    
365      pkg-config --cflags pcre
366    
367    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
368    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
369    
370    
371    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
372    -------------------------------------
373    
374    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
375    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
376    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
377    "configure" process.
378    
379    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
380    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
381    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
382    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
383    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
384    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
385    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
386    use the uninstalled libraries.
387    
388    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
389    configuring it. For example:
390    
391    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
392    
393    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
394    build only shared libraries.
395    
396    
397    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
398    ------------------------------------
399    
400    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
401    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
402    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
403    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
404    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
405    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
406    compiler.
407    
408    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
409    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
410    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
411    a problem.
412    
413    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
414    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
415    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
416    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
417    
418    
419    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
420    ----------------------------------
421    
422    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
423    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
424    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
425    
426    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
427    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
428    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
429    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
430    running the "configure" script:
431    
432      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
433    
434    
435    Making new tarballs
436    -------------------
437    
438    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
439    zip formats. However, if you have modified any of the man page sources in the
440    doc directory, you should first run the PrepareRelease script. This re-creates
441    the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
442    
443    
444    Testing PCRE
445    ------------
446    
447    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
448    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
449    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
450    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
451    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built.
452    
453    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
454    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
455    
456    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
457    own man page) on each of the testinput files in the testdata directory in
458    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
459    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
460    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
461    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
462    
463      RunTest 2
464    
465    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to
466    check that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is
467    in the first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE
468    version.
469    
470    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
471    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
472    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
473    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
474    pcre_compile().
475    
476    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
477    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
478    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
479    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
480    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
481    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
482    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
483    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
484    bug in PCRE.
485    
486    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
487    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
488    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
489    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
490    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
491    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
492    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
493    
494      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
495    
496    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
497    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
498    
499    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
500    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs.]
501    
502    The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
503    PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
504    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
505    provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
506    commented in the script, can be be used.)
507    
508    The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
509    features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
510    
511    The sixth test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it not
512    run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
513    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
514    
515    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
516    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
517    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
518    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
519    
520    
521  Character tables  Character tables
522  ----------------  ----------------
523    
524  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
525  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
526  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
527  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
528  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
529  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
530  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
531  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
532  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
533    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
534  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
535  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
536  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
537  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
538  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
539    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
540    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
541    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
542    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
543    tables.
544    
545    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
546    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
547    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
548    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
549    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
550    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
551    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
552    
553      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
554    
555    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
556    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
557    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
558    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
559    than 256.
560    
561  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
562  follows:  follows:
563    
564      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 113  You should not alter the set of characte Line 572  You should not alter the set of characte
572  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
573    
574    
575  The pcretest program  File manifest
576  --------------------  -------------
577    
578    The distribution should contain the following files:
579    
580  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
581    
582  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
583  the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
   
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
   
   /(a|bc)x+yz/  
   
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
   
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched.  
   
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
   
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput files for many examples.  
   
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
   
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
   
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
   
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
   
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
     0: abc123  
     1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
   
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
   
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
   
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
   
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
   
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
   
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 10000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 10000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 pcretest.c  
   
   
   
 The perltest program  
 --------------------  
   
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options. The contents  
 of testinput and testinput3 meet this condition.  
   
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
   
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test some features of PCRE. It also contains malformed regular expressions, in  
 order to check that PCRE diagnoses them correctly.  
584    
585  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
586  September 1998                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
587                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
588    
589      pcreposix.c             )
590      pcre_compile.c          )
591      pcre_config.c           )
592      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
593      pcre_exec.c             )
594      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
595      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
596      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
597      pcre_info.c             )
598      pcre_maketables.c       )
599      pcre_newline.c          )
600      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
601      pcre_refcount.c         )
602      pcre_study.c            )
603      pcre_tables.c           )
604      pcre_try_flipped.c      )
605      pcre_ucp_searchfuncs.c  )
606      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
607      pcre_version.c          )
608      pcre_xclass.c           )
609      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
610                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
611      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
612      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
613      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
614      ucp.h                   ) headers concerned with
615      ucpinternal.h           )   Unicode property handling
616      ucptable.h              ) (this one is the data table)
617    
618      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
619    
620      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
621      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
622      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
623      pcrecpp.cc              )
624      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
625    
626      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
627                                C++ stringpiece functions
628      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
629    
630    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
631    
632      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
633      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
634      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
635    
636    (C) Auxiliary files:
637    
638      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
639      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
640      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
641      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
642      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
643      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
644      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
645      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
646      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
647      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
648                              )   "configure"
649      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
650                              )   Makefile.in
651      NEWS                    important changes in this release
652      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
653      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
654      README                  this file
655      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
656      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
657      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
658      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
659      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
660      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
661      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
662                              )   "configure" and config.h
663      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
664                              )   automake
665      doc/*.3                 man page sources for the PCRE functions
666      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
667      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
668      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
669      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
670      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
671      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
672      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
673      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
674      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
675      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
676      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
677                              )   installing, generated by automake
678      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
679      perltest.pl             Perl test program
680      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
681      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
682      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
683      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
684      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
685      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
686      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
687    
688    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
689    
690      CMakeLists.txt
691      config-cmake.h.in
692    
693    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
694    
695      makevp.bat
696      makevp_c.txt
697      makevp_l.txt
698      pcregexp.pas
699    
700    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
701    
702      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
703                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
704      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
705                              )   environments
706    
707    (F) Miscellaneous
708    
709      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
710    
711    Philip Hazel
712    Email local part: ph10
713    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
714    Last updated: 16 April 2007

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