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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  *******************************************************************************  The latest release of PCRE is always available from
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.00                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Another (I hope this is the last!) change has been made to the API for the  *  
 * pcre_compile() function. An additional argument has been added to make it   *  
 * possible to pass over a pointer to character tables built in the current    *  
 * locale by pcre_maketables(). To use the default tables, this new arguement  *  
 * should be passed as NULL.                                                   *  
6  The distribution should contain the following files:    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8    There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
10    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    pcre-dev@exim.org
11    LICENCE           conditions for the use of PCRE  
12    Makefile          for building PCRE  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
13    README            this file  The contents of this README file are:
14    RunTest           a shell script for running tests  
15    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding    The PCRE APIs
16    pcre.3            man page for the functions    Documentation for PCRE
17    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API    Contributions by users of PCRE
18    dftables.c        auxiliary program for building chartables.c    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
19    get.c             )    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
20    maketables.c      )    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
21    study.c           ) source of    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
22    pcre.c            )   the functions    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
23    pcreposix.c       )    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
24    pcre.h            header for the external API    Making new tarballs
25    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Testing PCRE
26    internal.h        header for internal use    Character tables
27    pcretest.c        test program    File manifest
28    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep  
29    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE  
30    perltest          Perl test program  The PCRE APIs
31    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005  -------------
32    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
33    testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
34    testinput4        test data for locale-specific tests  set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
35    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput  of Google Inc.
36    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  
37    testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinput3  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
38    testoutput4       test results corresponding to testinput4  regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
39    library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
40  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file,  interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
41  and there are some comments at the top) and then run it. It builds two  and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
42  libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest,  all of PCRE's facilities.
43  and the pgrep command.  
44    The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
45  To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This runs pcretest  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
46  on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
47  contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
48  hold the output from pcretest (which is documented below).  renamed or pointed at by a link.
50  To run pcretest on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
51  to RunTest, for example:  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
52    file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
53    RunTest 3  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
54    up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
55  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  
56  program to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
57  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
58  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
59  widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
60    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
61  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), pcre_copy_substring(),  new names.
62  pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error detection and run-time  
63  flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  
64    Documentation for PCRE
65    ----------------------
67    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
68    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
69    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
70    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
72      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
73         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
74         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
75         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
76         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
77         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
78         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
79         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
81      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
82         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
83         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
86    Contributions by users of PCRE
87    ------------------------------
89    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
91      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
93    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
94    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
95    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
96    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
97    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
98    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
101    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
102    ---------------------------------
104    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
105    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
106    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
107    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility of CMake's
108    CMakeSetup. It creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
110    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
111    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
112    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
115    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
116    ----------------------------------
118    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
119    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
121    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
122    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
123    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
124    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
126    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
127    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
128    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
129    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
130    the file INSTALL.
132    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
133    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
134    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
136    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
138    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
139    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
140    instead of the default /usr/local.
142    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
143    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
144    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
146    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
147    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
149    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
150    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
151    does not have any features to support this.
153    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
154    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
156    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
157      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
158      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
159      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
161    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 character strings in PCRE,
162      you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
163      for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. (Even when included, it
164      still has to be enabled by an option at run time.)
166    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
167      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
168      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
169      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
170      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
171      supported.
173    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
174      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
175      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
176      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
177      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
178      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
179      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
180      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
182      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
183      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
184      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
185      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
186      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
187      failures.
189    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
190      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
191      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
192      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
193      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
195    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
196      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
197      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
199      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
201      on the "configure" command.
203    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
204      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
205      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
207      --with-match-limit=500000
209      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
210      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
211      pcreapi man page.
213    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
214      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
215      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
217      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
219      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
220      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
221      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
223    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
224      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
225      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
226      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
227      performance.
229    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
230      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
231      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
232      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
233      build PCRE like this, use
235      --disable-stack-for-recursion
237      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
238      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
239      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
240      use deeply nested recursion. There is a discussion about stack sizes in the
241      pcrestack man page.
243    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
244      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
245      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
247      --enable-rebuild-chartables
249      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
250      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
251      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
252      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
254    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
255      default character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
257      --enable-ebcdic
259      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above).
261    . It is possible to compile pcregrep to use libz and/or libbz2, in order to
262      read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by specifying one or both of
264      --enable-pcregrep-libz
265      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
267      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
269    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
270      library, by specifying
272      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
274      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
275      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
276      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
277      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
279      Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
280      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
281      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
282      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
283      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
284      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
285      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
286      with readline the to choose an appropriate library."
288    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
290    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
291    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
292    . pcre.h is the public PCRE header file
293    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
294    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
295    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
296    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the basic C library
297    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
299    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under
300    the names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for the
301    benefit of those who have to built PCRE without the benefit of "configure". If
302    you use "configure", the .generic versions are not used.
304    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
306    . libpcrecpp.pc is data for the pkg-config command
307    . pcrecpparg.h is a header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
308    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
310    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
311    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
312    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
314    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
315    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
316    command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, "make" also builds the C++
317    wrapper library, which is called libpcrecpp, and some test programs called
318    pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
319    Building the C++ wrapper can be disabled by adding --disable-cpp to the
320    "configure" command.
322    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
323    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
325    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
326    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
327    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
329      Commands (bin):
330        pcretest
331        pcregrep
332        pcre-config
334      Libraries (lib):
335        libpcre
336        libpcreposix
337        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
339      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
340        libpcre.pc
341        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
343      Header files (include):
344        pcre.h
345        pcreposix.h
346        pcre_scanner.h      )
347        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
348        pcrecpp.h           )
349        pcrecpparg.h        )
351      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
352        pcregrep.1
353        pcretest.1
354        pcre.3
355        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
357      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
358        index.html
359        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
361      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
362        AUTHORS
363        COPYING
364        ChangeLog
365        LICENCE
366        NEWS
367        README
368        pcre.txt       (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
369        pcretest.txt   the pcretest man page
370        pcregrep.txt   the pcregrep man page
372    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
373    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
374    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
377    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
378    ---------------------------------------------------------
380    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
381    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
383      pcre-config --version
385    prints the version number, and
387      pcre-config --libs
389    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
390    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
391    having to remember too many details.
393    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
394    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
395    single command is used. For example:
397      pkg-config --cflags pcre
399    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
400    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
403    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
404    -------------------------------------
406    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
407    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
408    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
409    "configure" process.
411    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
412    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
413    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
414    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
415    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
416    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
417    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
418    use the uninstalled libraries.
420    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
421    configuring it. For example:
423    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
425    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
426    build only shared libraries.
429    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
430    ------------------------------------
432    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
433    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
434    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
435    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
436    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
437    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
438    compiler.
440    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
441    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
442    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
443    a problem.
445    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
446    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
447    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
448    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
451    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
452    ----------------------------------
454    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
455    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
456    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
458    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
459    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
460    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
461    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
462    running the "configure" script:
464      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
467    Making new tarballs
468    -------------------
470    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
471    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
472    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
474    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
475    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
476    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
479    Testing PCRE
480    ------------
482    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
483    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
484    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
485    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
486    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built.
488    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
489    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
491    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
492    own man page) on each of the testinput files in the testdata directory in
493    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
494    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
495    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
496    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
498      RunTest 2
500    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to
501    check that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is
502    in the first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE
503    version.
505    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
506    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
507    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
508    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
509    pcre_compile().
511    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
512    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
513    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
514    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
515    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
516    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
517    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
518    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
519    bug in PCRE.
521  The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a  The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
522  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
523  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr" (French) locale. Before running  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
524  the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running the  running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
525  "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr" in the  the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
526  list of available locales, the fourth test cannot be run, and a comment is  in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
527  output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error  is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
529    ** Failed to set locale "fr"    ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
531  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
532  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
534  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
535  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
536  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
537  /usr/local/man/man3).  Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
538    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
539  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
540  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
541  /usr/local/man/man1).  PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
542    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
543  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
544  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  commented in the script, can be be used.)
545  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  
546  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
547  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
548  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  
549  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  The sixth test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it not
550  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
551    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
553    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
554    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
555    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
556    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
559  Character tables  Character tables
560  ----------------  ----------------
562  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. The final  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
563  argument of the pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
564  containing the concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() is used to  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
565  generate a set of tables in the current locale. However, if the final argument  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
566  is passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
567  used.  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
569  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
570  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
571  (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions  tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
572  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
573  sources. This means that the default C locale set your system will control the  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
574  contents of the tables. You can change the default tables by editing  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
575  chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
576  also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
577    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
578    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
579    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
580    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
581    tables.
583    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
584    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
585    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
586    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
587    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
588    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
589    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
591      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
593  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
594  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
595  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
596  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
597    than 256.
599  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
600  follows:  follows:
# Line 145  You should not alter the set of characte Line 610  You should not alter the set of characte
610  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
613  The pcretest program  File manifest
614  --------------------  -------------
616    The distribution should contain the following files:
618  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
620  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
621  the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters other than backslash, for example  
 White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  
 be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  
 included within it. See the testinput files for many examples. It is possible  
 to include the delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example  
 If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  
 delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  
 If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  
 then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This provides a way of  
 testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a backslash,  
 is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  
 pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  
 The pattern may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS,  
 PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These  
 options have the same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /L option must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,  
 For this reason, it must be the last option letter. The given locale is set,  
 pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,  
 and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular  
 expression. Without an /L option, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that  
 is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
 The /I option requests that pcretest output information about the compiled  
 expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It  
 does this by calling pcre_info() after compiling an expression, and outputting  
 the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results of that  
 are also output.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes the  
 internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation.  
 The /S option causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been  
 compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Cdd   call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \Gdd   call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \L     call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
     0: abc123  
     1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
 If any of \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that is successfully  
 matched, the substrings extracted by the convenience functions are output with  
 C, G, or L after the string number instead of a colon. This is in addition to  
 the normal full list. The string length (that is, the return from the  
 extraction function) is given in parentheses after each string for \C and \G.  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each  
 regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 20000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 20000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options. The contents  
 of testinput and testinput3 meet this condition.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 and testinput4 files are not suitable for feeding to Perltest,  
 since they do make use of the special upper case options and escapes that  
 pcretest uses to test some features of PCRE. The first of these files also  
 contains malformed regular expressions, in order to check that PCRE diagnoses  
 them correctly.  
623  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
624  February 1999                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
625                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
627      pcreposix.c             )
628      pcre_compile.c          )
629      pcre_config.c           )
630      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
631      pcre_exec.c             )
632      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
633      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
634      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
635      pcre_info.c             )
636      pcre_maketables.c       )
637      pcre_newline.c          )
638      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
639      pcre_refcount.c         )
640      pcre_study.c            )
641      pcre_tables.c           )
642      pcre_try_flipped.c      )
643      pcre_ucp_searchfuncs.c  )
644      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
645      pcre_version.c          )
646      pcre_xclass.c           )
647      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
648                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
649      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
650      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
651      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
652      ucp.h                   ) headers concerned with
653      ucpinternal.h           )   Unicode property handling
654      ucptable.h              ) (this one is the data table)
656      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
658      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
659      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
660      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
661      pcrecpp.cc              )
662      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
664      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
665                                C++ stringpiece functions
666      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
668    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
670      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
671      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
672      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
674    (C) Auxiliary files:
676      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
677      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
678      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
679      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
680      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
681      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
682      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
683      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
684      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
685      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
686                              )   "configure"
687      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
688                              )   Makefile.in
689      NEWS                    important changes in this release
690      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
691      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
692      README                  this file
693      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
694      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
695      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
696      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
697      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
698      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
699      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
700                              )   "configure" and config.h
701      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
702                              )   automake
703      doc/*.3                 man page sources for the PCRE functions
704      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
705      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
706      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
707      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
708      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
709      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
710      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
711      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
712      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
713      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
714      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
715                              )   installing, generated by automake
716      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
717      perltest.pl             Perl test program
718      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
719      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
720      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
721      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
722      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
723      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
724      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
726    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
728      CMakeLists.txt
729      config-cmake.h.in
731    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
733      makevp.bat
734      makevp_c.txt
735      makevp_l.txt
736      pcregexp.pas
738    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
740      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
741                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
742      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
743                              )   environments
745    (F) Miscellaneous
747      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
749    Philip Hazel
750    Email local part: ph10
751    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
752    Last updated: 13 April 2008

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