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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  *******************************************************************************  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5  *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSIONS BEFORE 2.00           *  from:
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.00                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Another (I hope this is the last!) change has been made to the API for the  *  
 * pcre_compile() function. An additional argument has been added to make it   *  
 * possible to pass over a pointer to character tables built in the current    *  
 * locale by pcre_maketables(). To use the default tables, this new arguement  *  
 * should be passed as NULL.                                                   *  
7  The distribution should contain the following files:    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    LICENCE           conditions for the use of PCRE  
11    Makefile          for building PCRE  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    README            this file  
13    RunTest           a shell script for running tests    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  
15    pcre.3            man page for the functions  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  The contents of this README file are:
17    dftables.c        auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
18    get.c             )    The PCRE APIs
19    maketables.c      )    Documentation for PCRE
20    study.c           ) source of    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcre.c            )   the functions    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22    pcreposix.c       )    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23    pcre.h            header for the external API    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25    internal.h        header for internal use    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26    pcretest.c        test program    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Making new tarballs
28    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Testing PCRE
29    perltest          Perl test program    Character tables
30    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005    File manifest
31    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
32    testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005  
33    testinput4        test data for locale-specific tests  The PCRE APIs
34    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput  -------------
35    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  
36    testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinput3  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
37    testoutput4       test results corresponding to testinput4  set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
38    of Google Inc.
39  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file,  
40  and there are some comments at the top) and then run it. It builds two  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
41  libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest,  regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
42  and the pgrep command.  library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
43    interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
44  To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This runs pcretest  and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
45  on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  all of PCRE's facilities.
46  contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  
47  hold the output from pcretest (which is documented below).  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
48    official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
49  To run pcretest on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
50  to RunTest, for example:  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
51    renamed or pointed at by a link.
52    RunTest 3  
53    If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
54  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
55  program to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
56  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
57  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
58  widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  
59    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
60  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), pcre_copy_substring(),  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
61  pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error detection and run-time  compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
62  flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
63    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
64    new names.
67    Documentation for PCRE
68    ----------------------
70    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
71    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
72    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
73    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
75      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
76         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
77         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
78         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
79         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
80         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
81         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
82         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
84      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
85         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
86         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
89    Contributions by users of PCRE
90    ------------------------------
92    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
94      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
96    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
97    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
98    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
99    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
100    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
101    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
104    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
105    ---------------------------------
107    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
108    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
109    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
110    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility of CMake's
111    CMakeSetup. It creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
113    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
114    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
115    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
118    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
119    ----------------------------------
121    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
122    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
124    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
125    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
126    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
127    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
129    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
130    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
131    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
132    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
133    the file INSTALL.
135    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
136    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
137    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
139    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
141    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
142    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
143    instead of the default /usr/local.
145    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
146    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
147    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
149    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
150    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
152    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
153    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
154    does not have any features to support this.
156    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
157    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
159    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
160      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
161      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
162      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
164    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 character strings in PCRE,
165      you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
166      for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. (Even when included, it
167      still has to be enabled by an option at run time.)
169    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
170      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
171      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
172      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
173      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
174      supported.
176    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
177      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
178      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
179      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
180      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
181      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
182      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
183      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
185      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
186      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
187      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
188      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
189      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
190      failures.
192    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
193      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
194      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
195      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
196      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
198    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
199      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
200      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
202      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
204      on the "configure" command.
206    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
207      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
208      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
210      --with-match-limit=500000
212      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
213      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
214      pcreapi man page.
216    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
217      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
218      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
220      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
222      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
223      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
224      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
226    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
227      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
228      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
229      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
230      performance.
232    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
233      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
234      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
235      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
236      build PCRE like this, use
238      --disable-stack-for-recursion
240      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
241      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
242      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
243      use deeply nested recursion. There is a discussion about stack sizes in the
244      pcrestack man page.
246    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
247      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
248      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
250      --enable-rebuild-chartables
252      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
253      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
254      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
255      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
257    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
258      default character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
260      --enable-ebcdic
262      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above).
264    . It is possible to compile pcregrep to use libz and/or libbz2, in order to
265      read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by specifying one or both of
267      --enable-pcregrep-libz
268      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
270      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
272    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
273      library, by specifying
275      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
277      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
278      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
279      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
280      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
282      Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
283      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
284      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
285      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
286      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
287      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
288      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
289      with readline the to choose an appropriate library."
291    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
293    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
294    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
295    . pcre.h is the public PCRE header file
296    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
297    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
298    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
299    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the basic C library
300    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
302    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under
303    the names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for the
304    benefit of those who have to built PCRE without the benefit of "configure". If
305    you use "configure", the .generic versions are not used.
307    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
309    . libpcrecpp.pc is data for the pkg-config command
310    . pcrecpparg.h is a header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
311    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
313    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
314    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
315    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
317    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
318    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
319    command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, "make" also builds the C++
320    wrapper library, which is called libpcrecpp, and some test programs called
321    pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
322    Building the C++ wrapper can be disabled by adding --disable-cpp to the
323    "configure" command.
325    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
326    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
328    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
329    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
330    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
332      Commands (bin):
333        pcretest
334        pcregrep
335        pcre-config
337      Libraries (lib):
338        libpcre
339        libpcreposix
340        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
342      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
343        libpcre.pc
344        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
346      Header files (include):
347        pcre.h
348        pcreposix.h
349        pcre_scanner.h      )
350        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
351        pcrecpp.h           )
352        pcrecpparg.h        )
354      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
355        pcregrep.1
356        pcretest.1
357        pcre.3
358        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
360      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
361        index.html
362        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
364      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
365        AUTHORS
366        COPYING
367        ChangeLog
368        LICENCE
369        NEWS
370        README
371        pcre.txt       (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
372        pcretest.txt   the pcretest man page
373        pcregrep.txt   the pcregrep man page
375    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
376    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
377    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
380    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
381    ---------------------------------------------------------
383    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
384    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
386      pcre-config --version
388    prints the version number, and
390      pcre-config --libs
392    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
393    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
394    having to remember too many details.
396    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
397    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
398    single command is used. For example:
400      pkg-config --cflags pcre
402    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
403    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
406    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
407    -------------------------------------
409    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
410    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
411    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
412    "configure" process.
414    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
415    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
416    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
417    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
418    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
419    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
420    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
421    use the uninstalled libraries.
423    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
424    configuring it. For example:
426    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
428    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
429    build only shared libraries.
432    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
433    ------------------------------------
435    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
436    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
437    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
438    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
439    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
440    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
441    compiler.
443    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
444    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
445    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
446    a problem.
448    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
449    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
450    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
451    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
454    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
455    ----------------------------------
457    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
458    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
459    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
461    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
462    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
463    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
464    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
465    running the "configure" script:
467      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
470    Making new tarballs
471    -------------------
473    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
474    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
475    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
477    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
478    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
479    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
482    Testing PCRE
483    ------------
485    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
486    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
487    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
488    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
489    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built.
491    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
492    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
494    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
495    own man page) on each of the testinput files in the testdata directory in
496    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
497    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
498    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
499    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
501      RunTest 2
503    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to
504    check that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is
505    in the first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE
506    version.
508    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
509    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
510    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
511    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
512    pcre_compile().
514    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
515    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
516    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
517    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
518    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
519    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
520    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
521    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
522    bug in PCRE.
524  The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a  The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
525  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
526  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr" (French) locale. Before running  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
527  the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running the  running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
528  "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr" in the  the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
529  list of available locales, the fourth test cannot be run, and a comment is  in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
530  output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error  is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
532    ** Failed to set locale "fr"    ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
534  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
535  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
537  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
538  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
539  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
540  /usr/local/man/man3).  Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
541    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
542  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
543  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
544  /usr/local/man/man1).  PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
545    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
546  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
547  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  commented in the script, can be be used.)
548  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  
549  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
550  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
551  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  
552  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  The sixth test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it not
553  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
554    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
556    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
557    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
558    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
559    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
562  Character tables  Character tables
563  ----------------  ----------------
565  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. The final  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
566  argument of the pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
567  containing the concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() is used to  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
568  generate a set of tables in the current locale. However, if the final argument  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
569  is passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
570  used.  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
572  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
573  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
574  (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions  tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
575  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
576  sources. This means that the default C locale set your system will control the  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
577  contents of the tables. You can change the default tables by editing  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
578  chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
579  also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
580    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
581    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
582    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
583    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
584    tables.
586    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
587    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
588    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
589    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
590    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
591    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
592    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
594      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
596  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
597  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
598  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
599  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
600    than 256.
602  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
603  follows:  follows:
# Line 145  You should not alter the set of characte Line 613  You should not alter the set of characte
613  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
616  The pcretest program  File manifest
617  --------------------  -------------
619    The distribution should contain the following files:
621  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
623  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
624  the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters other than backslash, for example  
 White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  
 be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  
 included within it. See the testinput files for many examples. It is possible  
 to include the delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example  
 If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  
 delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  
 If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  
 then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This provides a way of  
 testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a backslash,  
 is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  
 pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  
 The pattern may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS,  
 PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These  
 options have the same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /L option must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,  
 For this reason, it must be the last option letter. The given locale is set,  
 pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,  
 and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular  
 expression. Without an /L option, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that  
 is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
 The /I option requests that pcretest output information about the compiled  
 expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It  
 does this by calling pcre_info() after compiling an expression, and outputting  
 the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results of that  
 are also output.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes the  
 internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation.  
 The /S option causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been  
 compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Cdd   call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \Gdd   call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \L     call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
     0: abc123  
     1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
 If any of \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that is successfully  
 matched, the substrings extracted by the convenience functions are output with  
 C, G, or L after the string number instead of a colon. This is in addition to  
 the normal full list. The string length (that is, the return from the  
 extraction function) is given in parentheses after each string for \C and \G.  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each  
 regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 20000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 20000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options. The contents  
 of testinput and testinput3 meet this condition.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 and testinput4 files are not suitable for feeding to Perltest,  
 since they do make use of the special upper case options and escapes that  
 pcretest uses to test some features of PCRE. The first of these files also  
 contains malformed regular expressions, in order to check that PCRE diagnoses  
 them correctly.  
626  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
627  February 1999                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
628                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
630      pcreposix.c             )
631      pcre_compile.c          )
632      pcre_config.c           )
633      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
634      pcre_exec.c             )
635      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
636      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
637      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
638      pcre_info.c             )
639      pcre_maketables.c       )
640      pcre_newline.c          )
641      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
642      pcre_refcount.c         )
643      pcre_study.c            )
644      pcre_tables.c           )
645      pcre_try_flipped.c      )
646      pcre_ucd.c              )
647      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
648      pcre_version.c          )
649      pcre_xclass.c           )
650      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
651                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
652      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
653      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
654      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
655      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
657      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
659      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
660      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
661      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
662      pcrecpp.cc              )
663      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
665      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
666                                C++ stringpiece functions
667      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
669    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
671      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
672      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
673      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
675    (C) Auxiliary files:
677      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
678      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
679      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
680      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
681      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
682      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
683      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
684      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
685      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
686      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
687                              )   "configure"
688      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
689                              )   Makefile.in
690      NEWS                    important changes in this release
691      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
692      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
693      README                  this file
694      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
695      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
696      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
697      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
698      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
699      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
700      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
701                              )   "configure" and config.h
702      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
703                              )   automake
704      doc/*.3                 man page sources for the PCRE functions
705      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
706      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
707      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
708      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
709      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
710      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
711      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
712      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
713      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
714      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
715      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
716                              )   installing, generated by automake
717      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
718      perltest.pl             Perl test program
719      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
720      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
721      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
722      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
723      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
724      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
725      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
727    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
730      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
731      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
732      CMakeLists.txt
733      config-cmake.h.in
735    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
737      makevp.bat
738      makevp_c.txt
739      makevp_l.txt
740      pcregexp.pas
742    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
744      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
745                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
746      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
747                              )   environments
749    (F) Miscellaneous
751      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
753    Philip Hazel
754    Email local part: ph10
755    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
756    Last updated: 05 September 2008

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