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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  *******************************************************************************  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5  *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSIONS BEFORE 2.00           *  from:
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.00                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Another (I hope this is the last!) change has been made to the API for the  *  
 * pcre_compile() function. An additional argument has been added to make it   *  
 * possible to pass over a pointer to character tables built in the current    *  
 * locale by pcre_maketables(). To use the default tables, this new arguement  *  
 * should be passed as NULL.                                                   *  
7  The distribution should contain the following files:    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    LICENCE           conditions for the use of PCRE  
11    Makefile          for building PCRE  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    README            this file  
13    RunTest           a shell script for running tests    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  
15    pcre.3            man page for the functions  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  The contents of this README file are:
17    dftables.c        auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
18    get.c             )    The PCRE APIs
19    maketables.c      )    Documentation for PCRE
20    study.c           ) source of    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcre.c            )   the functions    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22    pcreposix.c       )    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23    pcre.h            header for the external API    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25    internal.h        header for internal use    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26    pcretest.c        test program    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Using PCRE from MySQL
28    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Making new tarballs
29    perltest          Perl test program    Testing PCRE
30    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005    Character tables
31    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    File manifest
32    testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005  
33    testinput4        test data for locale-specific tests  
34    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput  The PCRE APIs
35    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  -------------
36    testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinput3  
37    testoutput4       test results corresponding to testinput4  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
38    set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
39  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file,  of Google Inc.
40  and there are some comments at the top) and then run it. It builds two  
41  libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest,  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
42  and the pgrep command.  regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
43    library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
44  To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This runs pcretest  interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
45  on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
46  contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  all of PCRE's facilities.
47  hold the output from pcretest (which is documented below).  
48    The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
49  To run pcretest on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
50  to RunTest, for example:  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
51    an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
52    RunTest 3  renamed or pointed at by a link.
54  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
55  program to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
56  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
57  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
58  widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
60  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), pcre_copy_substring(),  One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
61  pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error detection and run-time  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
62  flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
63    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
64    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
65    new names.
68    Documentation for PCRE
69    ----------------------
71    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
72    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
73    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
74    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
76      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
77         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
78         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
79         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
80         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
81         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
82         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
83         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
85      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
86         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
87         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
89    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
90    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
91    site (see next section).
94    Contributions by users of PCRE
95    ------------------------------
97    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
99      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
101    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
102    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
103    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
104    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
105    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
106    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
109    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
110    ---------------------------------
112    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
113    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
114    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
115    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
116    CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
118    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
119    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
120    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
123    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
124    ----------------------------------
126    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
127    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
129    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
130    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
131    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
132    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
134    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
135    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
136    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
137    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
138    the file INSTALL.
140    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
141    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
142    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
144    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
146    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
147    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
148    instead of the default /usr/local.
150    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
151    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
152    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
154    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
155    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
157    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
158    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
159    does not have any features to support this.
161    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
162    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
164    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
165      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
166      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
167      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
169    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
170      PCRE, you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the
171      code for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. Even when included,
172      it still has to be enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled
173      with this option, its input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8, even when
174      running on EBCDIC platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf8 and
175      --enable-ebcdic at the same time.
177    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
178      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
179      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
180      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
181      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
182      supported.
184    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
185      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
186      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
187      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
188      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
189      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
190      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
191      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
193      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
194      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
195      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
196      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
197      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
198      failures.
200    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
201      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
202      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
203      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
204      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
206    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
207      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
208      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
210      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
212      on the "configure" command.
214    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
215      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
216      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
218      --with-match-limit=500000
220      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
221      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
222      pcreapi man page.
224    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
225      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
226      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
228      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
230      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
231      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
232      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
234    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
235      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
236      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
237      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
238      performance.
240    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
241      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
242      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
243      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
244      build PCRE like this, use
246      --disable-stack-for-recursion
248      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
249      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
250      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
251      use deeply nested recursion. There is a discussion about stack sizes in the
252      pcrestack man page.
254    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
255      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
256      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
258      --enable-rebuild-chartables
260      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
261      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
262      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
263      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
265    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
266      character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
268      --enable-ebcdic
270      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
271      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
272      both EBCDIC and UTF-8.
274    . It is possible to compile pcregrep to use libz and/or libbz2, in order to
275      read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by specifying one or both of
277      --enable-pcregrep-libz
278      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
280      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
282    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
283      library, by specifying
285      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
287      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
288      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
289      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
290      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
292      Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
293      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
294      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
295      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
296      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
297      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
298      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
299      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
300      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
301      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
303    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
305    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
306    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
307    . pcre.h is the public PCRE header file
308    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
309    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
310    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
311    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the basic C library
312    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
314    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under
315    the names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for the
316    benefit of those who have to built PCRE without the benefit of "configure". If
317    you use "configure", the .generic versions are not used.
319    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
321    . libpcrecpp.pc is data for the pkg-config command
322    . pcrecpparg.h is a header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
323    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
325    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
326    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
327    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
329    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
330    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
331    command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, "make" also builds the C++
332    wrapper library, which is called libpcrecpp, and some test programs called
333    pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
334    Building the C++ wrapper can be disabled by adding --disable-cpp to the
335    "configure" command.
337    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
338    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
340    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
341    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
342    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
344      Commands (bin):
345        pcretest
346        pcregrep
347        pcre-config
349      Libraries (lib):
350        libpcre
351        libpcreposix
352        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
354      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
355        libpcre.pc
356        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
358      Header files (include):
359        pcre.h
360        pcreposix.h
361        pcre_scanner.h      )
362        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
363        pcrecpp.h           )
364        pcrecpparg.h        )
366      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
367        pcregrep.1
368        pcretest.1
369        pcre.3
370        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
372      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
373        index.html
374        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
376      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
377        AUTHORS
378        COPYING
379        ChangeLog
380        LICENCE
381        NEWS
382        README
383        pcre.txt       (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
384        pcretest.txt   the pcretest man page
385        pcregrep.txt   the pcregrep man page
387    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
388    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
389    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
392    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
393    ---------------------------------------------------------
395    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
396    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
398      pcre-config --version
400    prints the version number, and
402      pcre-config --libs
404    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
405    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
406    having to remember too many details.
408    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
409    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
410    single command is used. For example:
412      pkg-config --cflags pcre
414    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
415    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
418    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
419    -------------------------------------
421    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
422    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
423    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
424    "configure" process.
426    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
427    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
428    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
429    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
430    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
431    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
432    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
433    use the uninstalled libraries.
435    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
436    configuring it. For example:
438    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
440    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
441    build only shared libraries.
444    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
445    ------------------------------------
447    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
448    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
449    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
450    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
451    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
452    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
453    compiler.
455    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
456    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
457    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
458    a problem.
460    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
461    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
462    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
463    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
466    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
467    ----------------------------------
469    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
470    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
471    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
473    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
474    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
475    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
476    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
477    running the "configure" script:
479      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
482    Using PCRE from MySQL
483    ---------------------
485    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
486    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
487    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
489      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
492    Making new tarballs
493    -------------------
495    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
496    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
497    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
499    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
500    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
501    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
504    Testing PCRE
505    ------------
507    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
508    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
509    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
510    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
511    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built.
513    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
514    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
516    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
517    own man page) on each of the testinput files in the testdata directory in
518    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
519    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
520    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
521    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
523      RunTest 2
525    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to
526    check that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is
527    in the first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE
528    version.
530    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
531    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
532    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
533    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
534    pcre_compile().
536    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
537    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
538    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
539    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
540    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
541    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
542    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
543    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
544    bug in PCRE.
546  The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a  The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
547  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
548  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr" (French) locale. Before running  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
549  the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running the  running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
550  "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr" in the  the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
551  list of available locales, the fourth test cannot be run, and a comment is  in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
552  output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error  is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
554    ** Failed to set locale "fr"    ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
556  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
557  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
559  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
560  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
561  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
562  /usr/local/man/man3).  Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
563    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
564  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
565  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
566  /usr/local/man/man1).  PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
567    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
568  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
569  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  commented in the script, can be be used.)
570  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  
571  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
572  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
573  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  
574  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  The sixth test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it not
575  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
576    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
578    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
579    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
580    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
581    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
584  Character tables  Character tables
585  ----------------  ----------------
587  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. The final  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
588  argument of the pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
589  containing the concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() is used to  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
590  generate a set of tables in the current locale. However, if the final argument  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
591  is passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
592  used.  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
594  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
595  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
596  (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions  tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
597  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
598  sources. This means that the default C locale set your system will control the  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
599  contents of the tables. You can change the default tables by editing  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
600  chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
601  also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
602    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
603    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
604    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
605    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
606    tables.
608    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
609    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
610    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
611    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
612    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
613    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
614    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
616      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
618  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
619  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
620  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
621  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
622    than 256.
624  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
625  follows:  follows:
# Line 145  You should not alter the set of characte Line 635  You should not alter the set of characte
635  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
638  The pcretest program  File manifest
639  --------------------  -------------
641    The distribution should contain the following files:
643  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
645  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
646  the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters other than backslash, for example  
 White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  
 be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  
 included within it. See the testinput files for many examples. It is possible  
 to include the delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example  
 If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  
 delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  
 If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  
 then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This provides a way of  
 testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a backslash,  
 is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  
 pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  
 The pattern may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS,  
 PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These  
 options have the same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /L option must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,  
 For this reason, it must be the last option letter. The given locale is set,  
 pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,  
 and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular  
 expression. Without an /L option, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that  
 is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
 The /I option requests that pcretest output information about the compiled  
 expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It  
 does this by calling pcre_info() after compiling an expression, and outputting  
 the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results of that  
 are also output.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes the  
 internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation.  
 The /S option causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been  
 compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Cdd   call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \Gdd   call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \L     call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
     0: abc123  
     1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
 If any of \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that is successfully  
 matched, the substrings extracted by the convenience functions are output with  
 C, G, or L after the string number instead of a colon. This is in addition to  
 the normal full list. The string length (that is, the return from the  
 extraction function) is given in parentheses after each string for \C and \G.  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each  
 regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 20000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 20000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options. The contents  
 of testinput and testinput3 meet this condition.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 and testinput4 files are not suitable for feeding to Perltest,  
 since they do make use of the special upper case options and escapes that  
 pcretest uses to test some features of PCRE. The first of these files also  
 contains malformed regular expressions, in order to check that PCRE diagnoses  
 them correctly.  
648  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
649  February 1999                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
650                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
652      pcreposix.c             )
653      pcre_compile.c          )
654      pcre_config.c           )
655      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
656      pcre_exec.c             )
657      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
658      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
659      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
660      pcre_info.c             )
661      pcre_maketables.c       )
662      pcre_newline.c          )
663      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
664      pcre_refcount.c         )
665      pcre_study.c            )
666      pcre_tables.c           )
667      pcre_try_flipped.c      )
668      pcre_ucd.c              )
669      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
670      pcre_version.c          )
671      pcre_xclass.c           )
672      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
673                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
674      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
675      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
676      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
677      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
679      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
681      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
682      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
683      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
684      pcrecpp.cc              )
685      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
687      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
688                                C++ stringpiece functions
689      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
691    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
693      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
694      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
695      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
697    (C) Auxiliary files:
699      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
700      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
701      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
702      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
703      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
704      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
705      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
706      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
707      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
708      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
709                              )   "configure"
710      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
711                              )   Makefile.in
712      NEWS                    important changes in this release
713      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
714      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
715      README                  this file
716      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
717      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
718      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
719      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
720      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
721      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
722      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
723                              )   "configure" and config.h
724      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
725                              )   automake
726      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
727      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
728      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
729      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
730      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
731      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
732      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
733      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
734      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
735      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
736      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
737      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
738      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
739                              )   installing, generated by automake
740      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
741      perltest.pl             Perl test program
742      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
743      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
744      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
745      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
746      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
747      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
748      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
750    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
753      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
754      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
755      CMakeLists.txt
756      config-cmake.h.in
758    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
760      makevp.bat
761      makevp_c.txt
762      makevp_l.txt
763      pcregexp.pas
765    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
767      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
768                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
769      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
770                              )   environments
772    (F) Miscellaneous
774      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
776    Philip Hazel
777    Email local part: ph10
778    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
779    Last updated: 16 September 2009

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