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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5    from:
7    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8    Makefile          for building PCRE    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    Performance       notes on performance    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    README            this file  
11    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    pcre.3            man page for the functions  
13    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
15    study.c           ) source of  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    pcre.c            )   the functions  The contents of this README file are:
17    pcreposix.c       )  
18    pcre.h            header for the external API    The PCRE APIs
19    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Documentation for PCRE
20    internal.h        header for internal use    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcretest.c        test program    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24    perltest          Perl test program    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput    Making new tarballs
28    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2    Testing PCRE
29      Character tables
30  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)    File manifest
31  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,  
32  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.  
33    The PCRE APIs
34  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with  -------------
35  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:  
36    PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
37    pcretest testinput /tmp/anything  set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
38    diff /tmp/anything testoutput  of Google Inc.
40  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
41  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.  regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
42    library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
43    pcretest -i testinput2 /tmp/anything  interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
44    diff /tmp/anything testoutput2  and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
45    all of PCRE's facilities.
46  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  
47  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
48  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
49  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
50    an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
51  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  renamed or pointed at by a link.
52  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  
53  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
54  /usr/local/man/man3).  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
55    file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
56  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
57  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
58  /usr/local/man/man1).  
59    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
60  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
61  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
62  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
63  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
64  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  new names.
65  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  
66  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  
67  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  Documentation for PCRE
68    ----------------------
70    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
71    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
72    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
73    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
75      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
76         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
77         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
78         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
79         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
80         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
81         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
82         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
84      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
85         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
86         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
89    Contributions by users of PCRE
90    ------------------------------
92    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
94      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
96    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
97    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
98    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
99    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
100    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
101    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
104    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
105    ---------------------------------
107    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
108    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
109    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
110    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility of CMake's
111    CMakeSetup. It creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
113    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
114    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
115    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
118    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
119    ----------------------------------
121    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
122    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
124    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
125    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
126    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
127    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
129    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
130    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
131    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
132    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
133    the file INSTALL.
135    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
136    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
137    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
139    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
141    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
142    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
143    instead of the default /usr/local.
145    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
146    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
147    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
149    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
150    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
152    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
153    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
154    does not have any features to support this.
156    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
157    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
159    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
160      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
161      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
162      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
164    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 character strings in PCRE,
165      you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
166      for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. (Even when included, it
167      still has to be enabled by an option at run time.)
169    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
170      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
171      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
172      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
173      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
174      supported.
176    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
177      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
178      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
179      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
180      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
181      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
182      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
183      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
185      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
186      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
187      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
188      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
189      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
190      failures.
192    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
193      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
194      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
195      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
196      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
198    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
199      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
200      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
202      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
204      on the "configure" command.
206    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
207      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
208      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
210      --with-match-limit=500000
212      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
213      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
214      pcreapi man page.
216    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
217      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
218      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
220      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
222      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
223      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
224      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
226    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
227      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
228      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
229      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
230      performance.
232    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
233      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
234      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
235      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
236      build PCRE like this, use
238      --disable-stack-for-recursion
240      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
241      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
242      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
243      use deeply nested recursion. There is a discussion about stack sizes in the
244      pcrestack man page.
246    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
247      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
248      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
250      --enable-rebuild-chartables
252      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
253      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
254      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
255      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
257    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
258      default character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
260      --enable-ebcdic
262      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above).
264    . It is possible to compile pcregrep to use libz and/or libbz2, in order to
265      read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by specifying one or both of
267      --enable-pcregrep-libz
268      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
270      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
272    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
273      library, by specifying
275      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
277      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
278      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
279      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
280      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
282      Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
283      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
284      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
285      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
286      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
287      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
288      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
289      with readline the to choose an appropriate library."
291    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
293    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
294    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
295    . pcre.h is the public PCRE header file
296    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
297    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
298    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
299    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the basic C library
300    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
302    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under
303    the names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for the
304    benefit of those who have to built PCRE without the benefit of "configure". If
305    you use "configure", the .generic versions are not used.
307    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
309    . libpcrecpp.pc is data for the pkg-config command
310    . pcrecpparg.h is a header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
311    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
313    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
314    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
315    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
317    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
318    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
319    command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, "make" also builds the C++
320    wrapper library, which is called libpcrecpp, and some test programs called
321    pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
322    Building the C++ wrapper can be disabled by adding --disable-cpp to the
323    "configure" command.
325    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
326    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
328    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
329    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
330    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
332      Commands (bin):
333        pcretest
334        pcregrep
335        pcre-config
337      Libraries (lib):
338        libpcre
339        libpcreposix
340        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
342      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
343        libpcre.pc
344        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
346      Header files (include):
347        pcre.h
348        pcreposix.h
349        pcre_scanner.h      )
350        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
351        pcrecpp.h           )
352        pcrecpparg.h        )
354      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
355        pcregrep.1
356        pcretest.1
357        pcre.3
358        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
360      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
361        index.html
362        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
364      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
365        AUTHORS
366        COPYING
367        ChangeLog
368        LICENCE
369        NEWS
370        README
371        pcre.txt       (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
372        pcretest.txt   the pcretest man page
373        pcregrep.txt   the pcregrep man page
375    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
376    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
377    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
380    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
381    ---------------------------------------------------------
383    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
384    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
386      pcre-config --version
388    prints the version number, and
390      pcre-config --libs
392    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
393    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
394    having to remember too many details.
396    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
397    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
398    single command is used. For example:
400      pkg-config --cflags pcre
402    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
403    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
406    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
407    -------------------------------------
409    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
410    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
411    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
412    "configure" process.
414    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
415    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
416    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
417    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
418    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
419    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
420    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
421    use the uninstalled libraries.
423    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
424    configuring it. For example:
426    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
428    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
429    build only shared libraries.
432    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
433    ------------------------------------
435    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
436    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
437    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
438    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
439    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
440    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
441    compiler.
443    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
444    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
445    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
446    a problem.
448    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
449    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
450    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
451    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
454    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
455    ----------------------------------
457    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
458    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
459    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
461    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
462    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
463    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
464    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
465    running the "configure" script:
467      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
470    Making new tarballs
471    -------------------
473    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
474    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
475    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
477    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
478    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
479    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
482    Testing PCRE
483    ------------
485    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
486    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
487    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
488    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
489    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built.
491    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
492    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
494    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
495    own man page) on each of the testinput files in the testdata directory in
496    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
497    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
498    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
499    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
501      RunTest 2
503    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to
504    check that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is
505    in the first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE
506    version.
508    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
509    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
510    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
511    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
512    pcre_compile().
514    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
515    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
516    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
517    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
518    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
519    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
520    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
521    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
522    bug in PCRE.
524    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
525    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
526    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
527    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
528    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
529    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
530    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
532      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
534    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
535    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
537    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
538    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
539    RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
540    Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
541    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
543    The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
544    PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
545    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
546    provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
547    commented in the script, can be be used.)
549    The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
550    features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
552    The sixth test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it not
553    run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
554    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
556    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
557    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
558    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
559    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
562  Character tables  Character tables
563  ----------------  ----------------
565  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
566  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
567  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
568  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
569  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
570  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
571  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
572  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
573  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
574    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
575  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
576  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
577  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
578  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
579  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
580    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
581    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
582    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
583    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
584    tables.
586    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
587    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
588    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
589    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
590    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
591    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
592    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
594      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
596    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
597    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
598    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
599    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
600    than 256.
602  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
603  follows:  follows:
605      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 99  You should not alter the set of characte Line 613  You should not alter the set of characte
613  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
616  The pcretest program  File manifest
617  --------------------  -------------
619    The distribution should contain the following files:
621  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
623  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
624  the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
626  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
627  October 1997                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
628                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
630      pcreposix.c             )
631      pcre_compile.c          )
632      pcre_config.c           )
633      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
634      pcre_exec.c             )
635      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
636      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
637      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
638      pcre_info.c             )
639      pcre_maketables.c       )
640      pcre_newline.c          )
641      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
642      pcre_refcount.c         )
643      pcre_study.c            )
644      pcre_tables.c           )
645      pcre_try_flipped.c      )
646      pcre_ucd.c              )
647      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
648      pcre_version.c          )
649      pcre_xclass.c           )
650      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
651                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
652      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
653      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
654      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
655      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
657      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
659      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
660      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
661      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
662      pcrecpp.cc              )
663      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
665      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
666                                C++ stringpiece functions
667      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
669    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
671      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
672      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
673      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
675    (C) Auxiliary files:
677      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
678      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
679      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
680      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
681      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
682      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
683      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
684      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
685      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
686      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
687                              )   "configure"
688      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
689                              )   Makefile.in
690      NEWS                    important changes in this release
691      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
692      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
693      README                  this file
694      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
695      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
696      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
697      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
698      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
699      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
700      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
701                              )   "configure" and config.h
702      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
703                              )   automake
704      doc/*.3                 man page sources for the PCRE functions
705      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
706      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
707      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
708      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
709      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
710      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
711      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
712      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
713      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
714      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
715      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
716                              )   installing, generated by automake
717      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
718      perltest.pl             Perl test program
719      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
720      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
721      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
722      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
723      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
724      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
725      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
727    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
730      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
731      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
732      CMakeLists.txt
733      config-cmake.h.in
735    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
737      makevp.bat
738      makevp_c.txt
739      makevp_l.txt
740      pcregexp.pas
742    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
744      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
745                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
746      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
747                              )   environments
749    (F) Miscellaneous
751      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
753    Philip Hazel
754    Email local part: ph10
755    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
756    Last updated: 05 September 2008

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