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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2    -----------------------------------------------------------------
3    
4    The latest release of PCRE is always available from
5    
6      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
7    
8    There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
9    
10      pcre-dev@exim.org
11    
12    Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
13    The contents of this README file are:
14    
15      The PCRE APIs
16      Documentation for PCRE
17      Contributions by users of PCRE
18      Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
19      Building PCRE on a Unix-like system
20      Retrieving configuration information on a Unix-like system
21      Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
22      Cross-compiling on a Unix-like system
23      Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
24      Making new tarballs
25      Testing PCRE
26      Character tables
27      File manifest
28    
29    
30    The PCRE APIs
31    -------------
32    
33    PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution now includes a
34    set of C++ wrapper functions, courtesy of Google Inc. (see the pcrecpp man page
35    for details).
36    
37    Also included in the distribution are a set of C wrapper functions that are
38    based on the POSIX API. These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note
39    that this just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular
40    expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is
41    restricted, and does not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
42    
43    The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
44    official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
45    with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
46    an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
47    renamed or pointed at by a link.
48    
49    If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
50    library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
51    file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
52    ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
53    up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
54    
55    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
56    -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other functions) to the compiler
57    flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the effect
58    of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course, you
59    have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the new
60    names.
61    
62    
63    Documentation for PCRE
64    ----------------------
65    
66    If you install PCRE in the normal way, you will end up with an installed set of
67    man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just called "pcre"
68    lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE documentation is
69    supplied in two other forms:
70    
71      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
72         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
73         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
74         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
75         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
76         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
77         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
78         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
79    
80      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
81         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is installed in
82         the directory <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
83    
84    
85    Contributions by users of PCRE
86    ------------------------------
87    
88    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
89    
90      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
91    
92    where there is also a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are.
93    Some are complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing
94    relevant files. Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. In
95    particular, several of the contributions provide support for compiling PCRE on
96    various flavours of Windows (I myself do not use Windows), but it is hoped that
97    more Windows support will find its way into the standard distribution.
98    
99    
100    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
101    ---------------------------------
102    
103    For a non-Unix system, read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE, though if
104    the system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be able to build
105    PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems.
106    
107    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
108    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
109    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
110    
111    
112    Building PCRE on a Unix-like system
113    -----------------------------------
114    
115    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
116    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
117    
118    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
119    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
120    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
121    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
122    INSTALL.
123    
124    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
125    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
126    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
127    
128    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
129    
130    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
131    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
132    instead of the default /usr/local.
133    
134    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
135    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
136    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
137    
138    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
139    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
140    
141    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
142    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
143    does not have any features to support this.
144    
145    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
146    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
147    
148    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
149      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
150      will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it
151      will try to build the C++ wrapper.
152    
153    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 character strings in PCRE,
154      you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
155      for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. (Even when included, it
156      still has to be enabled by an option at run time.)
157    
158    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
159      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
160      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
161      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
162      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
163      supported.
164    
165    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
166      of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the end of a line. Whatever
167      you specify at build time is the default; the caller of PCRE can change the
168      selection at run time. The default newline indicator is a single LF character
169      (the Unix standard). You can specify the default newline indicator by adding
170      --newline-is-cr or --newline-is-lf or --newline-is-crlf or --newline-is-any
171      to the "configure" command, respectively.
172    
173      If you specify --newline-is-cr or --newline-is-crlf, some of the standard
174      tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with LF. Even if
175      the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely to be some
176      failures. With --newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be
177      some failures.
178    
179    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
180      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
181      them. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
182    
183      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
184    
185      on the "configure" command.
186    
187    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
188      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
189      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
190    
191      --with-match-limit=500000
192    
193      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
194      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is discussion on the pcreapi
195      man page.
196    
197    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
198      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
199      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
200    
201      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
202    
203      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
204      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
205      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
206    
207    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
208      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
209      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
210      ever to be necessary. If you build PCRE with an increased link size, test 2
211      (and 5 if you are using UTF-8) will fail. Part of the output of these tests
212      is a representation of the compiled pattern, and this changes with the link
213      size.
214    
215    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
216      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses blocks of data
217      from the heap via special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and pcre_stack_free()
218      to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To build PCRE like
219      this, use
220    
221      --disable-stack-for-recursion
222    
223      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
224      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
225      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
226      use deeply nested recursion.
227    
228    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
229    
230    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
231    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
232    . pcre.h is the public PCRE header file
233    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
234    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
235    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
236    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the basic C library
237    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
238    
239    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs. These are
240    provided for the benefit of those who have to compile PCRE without the benefit
241    of "configure". If you use "configure", the distributed copies are replaced.
242    
243    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
244    
245    . libpcrecpp.pc is data for the pkg-config command
246    . pcrecpparg.h is a header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
247    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
248    
249    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
250    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
251    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
252    
253    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
254    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, a demonstration
255    program called pcredemo, and the pcregrep command. If a C++ compiler was found
256    on your system, it also builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
257    libpcrecpp, and some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
258    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
259    
260    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
261    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
262    
263    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
264    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
265    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
266    
267      Commands (bin):
268        pcretest
269        pcregrep
270        pcre-config
271    
272      Libraries (lib):
273        libpcre
274        libpcreposix
275        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
276    
277      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
278        libpcre.pc
279        libpcrecpp.ps (if C++ support is enabled)
280    
281      Header files (include):
282        pcre.h
283        pcreposix.h
284        pcre_scanner.h      )
285        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
286        pcrecpp.h           )
287        pcrecpparg.h        )
288    
289      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
290        pcregrep.1
291        pcretest.1
292        pcre.3
293        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
294    
295      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
296        index.html
297        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
298    
299      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
300        AUTHORS
301        COPYING
302        ChangeLog
303        LICENCE
304        NEWS
305        README
306        pcre.txt       (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
307        pcretest.txt   the pcretest man page
308        pcregrep.txt   the pcregrep man page
309    
310    Note that the pcredemo program that is built by "configure" is *not* installed
311    anywhere. It is a demonstration for programmers wanting to use PCRE.
312    
313    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
314    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
315    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
316    
317    
318    Retrieving configuration information on a Unix-like system
319  ----------------------------------------------------------  ----------------------------------------------------------
320    
321  *******************************************************************************  Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
322  *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSIONS BEFORE 2.00           *  recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.00                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Another (I hope this is the last!) change has been made to the API for the  *  
 * pcre_compile() function. An additional argument has been added to make it   *  
 * possible to pass over a pointer to character tables built in the current    *  
 * locale by pcre_maketables(). To use the default tables, this new arguement  *  
 * should be passed as NULL.                                                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.05                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Yet another (and again I hope this really is the last) change has been made *  
 * to the API for the pcre_exec() function. An additional argument has been    *  
 * added to make it possible to start the match other than at the start of the *  
 * subject string. This is important if there are lookbehinds. The new man     *  
 * page has the details, but you just want to convert existing programs, all   *  
 * you need to do is to stick in a new fifth argument to pcre_exec(), with a   *  
 * value of zero. For example, change                                          *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *   pcre_exec(pattern, extra, subject, length, options, ovec, ovecsize)       *  
 * to                                                                          *  
 *   pcre_exec(pattern, extra, subject, length, 0, options, ovec, ovecsize)    *  
 *******************************************************************************  
323    
324      pcre-config --version
325    
326  The distribution should contain the following files:  prints the version number, and
327    
328      pcre-config --libs
329    
330    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
331    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
332    having to remember too many details.
333    
334    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
335    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
336    single command is used. For example:
337    
338      pkg-config --cflags pcre
339    
340    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
341    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
342    
343    
344    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
345    -------------------------------------
346    
347    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
348    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
349    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
350    "configure" process.
351    
352    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
353    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
354    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
355    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
356    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
357    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
358    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the source directory still
359    use the uninstalled libraries.
360    
361    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
362    configuring it. For example:
363    
364    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
365    
366    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
367    build only shared libraries.
368    
369    
370    Cross-compiling on a Unix-like system
371    -------------------------------------
372    
373    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code  You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
374    LICENCE           conditions for the use of PCRE  order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, during the building
375    Makefile          for building PCRE in Unix systems  process, the dftables.c source file is compiled *and run* on the local host, in
376    README            this file  order to generate the default character tables (the chartables.c file). It
377    RunTest           a Unix shell script for running tests  therefore needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross compiler.
378    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  You can do this by specifying CC_FOR_BUILD (and if necessary CFLAGS_FOR_BUILD;
379    pcre.3            man page source for the functions  there are also CXX_FOR_BUILD and CXXFLAGS_FOR_BUILD for the C++ wrapper)
380    pcre.3.txt        plain text version  when calling the "configure" command. If they are not specified, they default
381    pcre.3.html       HTML version  to the values of CC and CFLAGS.
   pcreposix.3       man page source for the POSIX wrapper API  
   pcreposix.3.txt   plain text version  
   pcreposix.3.HTML  HTML version  
   dftables.c        auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
   get.c             )  
   maketables.c      )  
   study.c           ) source of  
   pcre.c            )   the functions  
   pcreposix.c       )  
   pcre.h            header for the external API  
   pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API  
   internal.h        header for internal use  
   pcretest.c        test program  
   pgrep.1           man page source for pgrep  
   pgrep.1.txt       plain text version  
   pgrep.1.HTML      HTML version  
   pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE  
   perltest          Perl test program  
   testinput1        test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005  
   testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
   testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005  
   testinput4        test data for locale-specific tests  
   testoutput1       test results corresponding to testinput1  
   testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  
   testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinput3  
   testoutput4       test results corresponding to testinput4  
   dll.mk            for Win32 DLL  
   pcre.def          ditto  
   
 To build PCRE on a Unix system, first edit Makefile for your system. It is a  
 fairly simple make file, and there are some comments near the top, after the  
 text "On a Unix system". Then run "make". It builds two libraries called  
 libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep  
 command. You can use "make install" to copy these, and the public header file  
 pcre.h, to appropriate live directories on your system. These installation  
 directories are defined at the top of the Makefile, and you should edit them if  
 necessary.  
   
 For a non-Unix system, read the comments at the top of Makefile, which give  
 some hints on what needs to be done. PCRE has been compiled on Windows systems  
 and on Macintoshes, but I don't know the details as I don't use those systems.  
 It should be straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C  
 compiler.  
   
 Some help in building a Win32 DLL of PCRE in GnuWin32 environments was  
 contributed by Paul.Sokolovsky@technologist.com. These environments are  
 Mingw32 (http://www.xraylith.wisc.edu/~khan/software/gnu-win32/) and  
 CygWin  (http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Paul comments:  
   
   For CygWin, set CFLAGS=-mno-cygwin, and do 'make dll'. You'll get  
   pcre.dll (containing pcreposix also), libpcre.dll.a, and dynamically  
   linked pgrep and pcretest. If you have /bin/sh, run RunTest (three  
   main test go ok, locale not supported).  
   
 To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This can also be  
 run by "make runtest". It runs the pcretest test program (which is documented  
 below) on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  
 contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  
 hold the output from pcretest. To run pcretest on just one of the test files,  
 give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:  
   
   RunTest 3  
   
 The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  
 script to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  
 additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  
 main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  
 widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  
   
 The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), pcre_copy_substring(),  
 pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error detection and run-time  
 flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  
382    
383  The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a  
384    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
385    ----------------------------------
386    
387    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
388    "configure" script, you *must* include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
389    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
390    
391    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
392    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
393    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
394    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
395    running the "configure" script:
396    
397      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
398    
399    
400    Making new tarballs
401    -------------------
402    
403    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
404    zip formats. However, if you have modified any of the man page sources in the
405    doc directory, you should first run the PrepareRelease script. This re-creates
406    the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
407    
408    
409    Testing PCRE
410    ------------
411    
412    To test PCRE on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is created by the
413    configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest that tests the
414    options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is build, three
415    test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
416    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built.
417    
418    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
419    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
420    
421    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
422    own man page) on each of the testinput files (in the testdata directory) in
423    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
424    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
425    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
426    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
427    
428      RunTest 2
429    
430    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to
431    check that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is
432    in the first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE
433    version.
434    
435    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
436    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
437    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
438    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flag to check some of the internals of
439    pcre_compile().
440    
441    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
442    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
443    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
444    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
445    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
446    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
447    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
448    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
449    bug in PCRE.
450    
451    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
452  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
453  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr" (French) locale. Before running  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
454  the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running the  running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
455  "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr" in the  the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
456  list of available locales, the fourth test cannot be run, and a comment is  in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
457  output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error  is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
458    
459    ** Failed to set locale "fr"    ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
460    
461  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
462  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
463    
464  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
465  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
466  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
467  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
468  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  commented in the script, can be be used.)
469  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  
470  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
471  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
472    
473    The sixth and test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it
474    not run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
475    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
476    
477    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
478    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
479    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
480    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
481    
482    
483  Character tables  Character tables
484  ----------------  ----------------
485    
486  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. The final  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters whose values
487  argument of the pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory  are less than 256. The final argument of the pcre_compile() function is a
488  containing the concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to  pointer to a block of memory containing the concatenated tables. A call to
489  generate a set of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for  pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set of tables in the current
490  pcre_compile() is passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into  locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is passed as NULL, a set of
491  the binary is used.  default tables that is built into the binary is used.
492    
493  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is
494  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables
# Line 163  re-generated. Line 503  re-generated.
503  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
504  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
505  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
506  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
507    than 256.
508    
509  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
510  follows:  follows:
# Line 179  You should not alter the set of characte Line 520  You should not alter the set of characte
520  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
521    
522    
523  The pcretest program  File manifest
524  --------------------  -------------
525    
526    The distribution should contain the following files:
527    
528  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
529    
530  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c             auxiliary program for building chartables.c
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
   
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters other than backslash, for example  
   
   /(a|bc)x+yz/  
   
 White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  
 be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  
 included within it. See the testinput files for many examples. It is possible  
 to include the delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example  
   
   /abc\/def/  
   
 If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  
 delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  
 If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  
 example,  
   
   /abc/\  
   
 then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a  
 way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a  
 backslash, because  
   
   /abc\/  
   
 is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  
 pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  
   
 The pattern may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS,  
 PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. For  
 example:  
   
   /caseless/i  
   
 These modifier letters have the same effect as they do in Perl. There are  
 others which set PCRE options that do not correspond to anything in Perl: /A,  
 /E, and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
   
 Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  
 by the /g or /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called again to search  
 the remainder of the subject string. The difference between /g and /G is that  
 the former uses the startoffset argument to pcre_exec() to start searching at  
 a new point within the entire string (which is in effect what Perl does),  
 whereas the latter passes over a shortened substring. This makes a difference  
 to the matching process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion  
 (including \b or \B).  
   
 If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty string, the  
 next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY flag set so that it cannot match an  
 empty string again. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using  
 the /g modifier or the split() function.  
   
 There are a number of other modifiers for controlling the way pcretest  
 operates.  
   
 The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that matched  
 the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of the  
 subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains multiple  
 copies of the same substring.  
   
 The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,  
   
   /pattern/Lfr  
   
 For this reason, it must be the last modifier letter. The given locale is set,  
 pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,  
 and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular  
 expression. Without an /L modifier, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that  
 is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
   
 The /I modifier requests that pcretest output information about the compiled  
 expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It  
 does this by calling pcre_info() after compiling an expression, and outputting  
 the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results of that  
 are also output.  
   
 The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes  
 the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  
 compilation.  
   
 The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been  
 compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
   
 The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  
 pattern to be output.  
   
 Finally, the /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except /i,  
 /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is  
 set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always,  
 and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
   
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Cdd   call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \Gdd   call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \L     call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match  
   \N     pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
   
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
   
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
   
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   
   $ pcretest  
   PCRE version 2.06 08-Jun-1999  
   
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
   
 If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  
 escapes. If the pattern has the /+ modifier, then the output for substring 0 is  
 followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:  
   
     re> /cat/+  
   data> cataract  
    0: cat  
    0+ aract  
   
 If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive matching  
 attempts are output in sequence, like this:  
   
     re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g  
   data> Mississippi  
    0: iss  
    1: ss  
    0: iss  
    1: ss  
    0: ipp  
    1: pp  
   
 "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  
   
 If any of \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that is successfully  
 matched, the substrings extracted by the convenience functions are output with  
 C, G, or L after the string number instead of a colon. This is in addition to  
 the normal full list. The string length (that is, the return from the  
 extraction function) is given in parentheses after each string for \C and \G.  
   
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
   
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
   
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
   
 If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each  
 regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after  
 compilation.  
   
 If the option -m is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled. It is equivalent to adding /M to each  
 regular expression. For compatibility with earlier versions of pcretest, -s is  
 a synonym for -m.  
   
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 20000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 20000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 pcretest.c  
   
   
   
 The perltest program  
 --------------------  
   
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case modifiers. The  
 contents of testinput1 and testinput3 meet this condition.  
   
 The data lines are processed as Perl double-quoted strings, so if they contain  
 " \ $ or @ characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such  
 characters in testinput1 and testinput3 are escaped so that they can be used  
 for perltest as well as for pcretest, and the special upper case modifiers such  
 as /A that pcretest recognizes are not used in these files. The output should  
 be identical, apart from the initial identifying banner.  
   
 The testinput2 and testinput4 files are not suitable for feeding to perltest,  
 since they do make use of the special upper case modifiers and escapes that  
 pcretest uses to test some features of PCRE. The first of these files also  
 contains malformed regular expressions, in order to check that PCRE diagnoses  
 them correctly.  
531    
532  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcreposix.c            )
533  July 1999    pcre_compile.c         )
534      pcre_config.c          )
535      pcre_dfa_exec.c        )
536      pcre_exec.c            )
537      pcre_fullinfo.c        )
538      pcre_get.c             ) sources for the functions in the library,
539      pcre_globals.c         )   and some internal functions that they use
540      pcre_info.c            )
541      pcre_maketables.c      )
542      pcre_newline.c         )
543      pcre_ord2utf8.c        )
544      pcre_refcount.c        )
545      pcre_study.c           )
546      pcre_tables.c          )
547      pcre_try_flipped.c     )
548      pcre_ucp_searchfuncs.c )
549      pcre_valid_utf8.c      )
550      pcre_version.c         )
551      pcre_xclass.c          )
552      pcre_printint.src      ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
553                             )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
554      pcre.h.in              template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
555      pcreposix.h            header for the external POSIX wrapper API
556      pcre_internal.h        header for internal use
557      ucp.h                  ) headers concerned with
558      ucpinternal.h          )   Unicode property handling
559      ucptable.h             ) (this one is the data table)
560    
561      config.h.in            template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
562    
563      pcrecpp.h              public header file for the C++ wrapper
564      pcrecpparg.h.in        template for another C++ header file
565      pcre_scanner.h         public header file for C++ scanner functions
566      pcrecpp.cc             )
567      pcre_scanner.cc        ) source for the C++ wrapper library
568    
569      pcre_stringpiece.h.in  template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
570                               C++ stringpiece functions
571      pcre_stringpiece.cc    source for the C++ stringpiece functions
572    
573    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
574    
575      pcredemo.c             simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
576      pcregrep.c             source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
577      pcretest.c             comprehensive test program
578    
579    (C) Auxiliary files:
580    
581      132html                script to turn "man" pages into HTML
582      AUTHORS                information about the author of PCRE
583      ChangeLog              log of changes to the code
584      CleanTxt               script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
585      Detrail                script to remove trailing spaces
586      Index.html             the base HTML page
587      INSTALL                generic installation instructions
588      LICENCE                conditions for the use of PCRE
589      COPYING                the same, using GNU's standard name
590      Makefile.in            ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
591                             )   "configure"
592      Makefile.am            ) the automake input that was used to create
593                             )   Makefile.in
594      NEWS                   important changes in this release
595      NON-UNIX-USE           notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
596      PrepareRelease         script to make preparations for "make dist"
597      README                 this file
598      RunTest.in             template for a Unix shell script for running tests
599      RunGrepTest.in         template for a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
600      aclocal.m4             m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
601      config.guess           ) files used by libtool,
602      config.sub             )   used only when building a shared library
603      configure              a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
604      configure.ac           ) the autoconf input that was used to build
605                             )   "configure" and config.h
606      depcomp                ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
607                             )   automake
608      doc/*.3                man page sources for the PCRE functions
609      doc/*.1                man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
610      doc/html/*             HTML documentation
611      doc/pcre.txt           plain text version of the man pages
612      doc/pcretest.txt       plain text documentation of test program
613      doc/perltest.txt       plain text documentation of Perl test program
614      install-sh             a shell script for installing files
615      libpcre.pc.in          template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
616      libpcrecpp.pc.in       template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
617      ltmain.sh              file used to build a libtool script
618      missing                ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
619                             )   installing, generated by automake
620      mkinstalldirs          script for making install directories
621      perltest.pl            Perl test program
622      pcre-config.in         source of script which retains PCRE information
623      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
624      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
625      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
626      testdata/testinput*    test data for main library tests
627      testdata/testoutput*   expected test results
628      testdata/grep*         input and output for pcregrep tests
629    
630    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
631    
632      CMakeLists.txt
633      config-cmake.h.in
634    
635    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
636    
637      makevp.bat
638      !compile.txt
639      !linklib.txt
640      pcregexp.pas
641    
642    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
643    
644      pcre.h.generic         ) a version of the public PCRE header file
645                             )   for use in non-"configure" environments
646      config.h.generic       ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
647                             )   environments
648    
649    (F) Miscellaneous
650    
651      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
652    
653    Philip Hazel
654    Email local part: ph10
655    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
656    Last updated: March 2007

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