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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  *******************************************************************************  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5  *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSIONS BEFORE 2.00           *  from:
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
7  The distribution should contain the following files:    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    Makefile          for building PCRE  
11    README            this file  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    RunTest           a shell script for running tests  
13    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    pcre.3            man page for the functions  
15    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  The contents of this README file are:
17    study.c           ) source of  
18    pcre.c            )   the functions    The PCRE APIs
19    pcreposix.c       )    Documentation for PCRE
20    pcre.h            header for the external API    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22    internal.h        header for internal use    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23    pcretest.c        test program    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26    perltest          Perl test program    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005    Making new tarballs
28    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Testing PCRE
29    testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005    Character tables
30    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput    File manifest
31    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  
32    testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinpug3  
33    The PCRE APIs
34  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file,  -------------
35  and there are some comments at the top) and then run it. It builds two  
36  libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest,  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
37  and the pgrep command.  set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
38    of Google Inc.
39  To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This runs pcretest  
40  on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
41  contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
42  hold the output from pcretest (which is documented below).  library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
43    interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
44  To run pcretest on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument  and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
45  to RunTest, for example:  all of PCRE's facilities.
47    RunTest 3  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
48    official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
49  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
50  program to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
51  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  renamed or pointed at by a link.
52  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  
53  widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
54    library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
55  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
56  run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
57    up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
58  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  
59  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
60  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
61  /usr/local/man/man3).  compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
62    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
63  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
64  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  new names.
65  /usr/local/man/man1).  
67  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  Documentation for PCRE
68  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  ----------------------
69  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  
70  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
71  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
72  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
73  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  documentation is supplied in two other forms:
74  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  
75      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
76         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
77         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
78         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
79         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
80         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
81         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
82         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
84      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
85         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
86         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
88    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
89    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
90    site (see next section).
93    Contributions by users of PCRE
94    ------------------------------
96    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
98      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
100    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
101    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
102    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
103    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
104    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
105    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
108    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
109    ---------------------------------
111    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
112    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
113    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
114    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
115    CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
117    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
118    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
119    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
122    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
123    ----------------------------------
125    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
126    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
128    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
129    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
130    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
131    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
133    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
134    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
135    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
136    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
137    the file INSTALL.
139    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
140    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
141    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
143    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
145    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
146    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
147    instead of the default /usr/local.
149    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
150    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
151    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
153    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
154    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
156    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
157    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
158    does not have any features to support this.
160    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
161    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
163    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
164      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
165      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
166      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
168    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
169      PCRE, you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the
170      code for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. Even when included,
171      it still has to be enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled
172      with this option, its input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8, even when
173      running on EBCDIC platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf8 and
174      --enable-ebcdic at the same time.
176    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
177      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
178      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
179      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
180      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
181      supported.
183    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
184      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
185      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
186      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
187      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
188      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
189      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
190      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
192      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
193      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
194      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
195      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
196      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
197      failures.
199    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
200      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
201      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
202      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
203      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
205    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
206      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
207      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
209      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
211      on the "configure" command.
213    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
214      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
215      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
217      --with-match-limit=500000
219      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
220      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
221      pcreapi man page.
223    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
224      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
225      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
227      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
229      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
230      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
231      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
233    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
234      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
235      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
236      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
237      performance.
239    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
240      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
241      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
242      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
243      build PCRE like this, use
245      --disable-stack-for-recursion
247      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
248      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
249      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
250      use deeply nested recursion. There is a discussion about stack sizes in the
251      pcrestack man page.
253    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
254      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
255      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
257      --enable-rebuild-chartables
259      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
260      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
261      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
262      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
264    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
265      character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
267      --enable-ebcdic
269      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
270      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
271      both EBCDIC and UTF-8.
273    . It is possible to compile pcregrep to use libz and/or libbz2, in order to
274      read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by specifying one or both of
276      --enable-pcregrep-libz
277      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
279      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
281    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
282      library, by specifying
284      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
286      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
287      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
288      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
289      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
291      Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
292      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
293      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
294      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
295      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
296      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
297      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
298      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
299      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
300      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
302    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
304    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
305    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
306    . pcre.h is the public PCRE header file
307    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
308    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
309    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
310    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the basic C library
311    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
313    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under
314    the names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for the
315    benefit of those who have to built PCRE without the benefit of "configure". If
316    you use "configure", the .generic versions are not used.
318    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
320    . libpcrecpp.pc is data for the pkg-config command
321    . pcrecpparg.h is a header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
322    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
324    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
325    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
326    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
328    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
329    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
330    command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, "make" also builds the C++
331    wrapper library, which is called libpcrecpp, and some test programs called
332    pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
333    Building the C++ wrapper can be disabled by adding --disable-cpp to the
334    "configure" command.
336    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
337    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
339    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
340    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
341    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
343      Commands (bin):
344        pcretest
345        pcregrep
346        pcre-config
348      Libraries (lib):
349        libpcre
350        libpcreposix
351        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
353      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
354        libpcre.pc
355        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
357      Header files (include):
358        pcre.h
359        pcreposix.h
360        pcre_scanner.h      )
361        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
362        pcrecpp.h           )
363        pcrecpparg.h        )
365      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
366        pcregrep.1
367        pcretest.1
368        pcre.3
369        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
371      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
372        index.html
373        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
375      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
376        AUTHORS
377        COPYING
378        ChangeLog
379        LICENCE
380        NEWS
381        README
382        pcre.txt       (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
383        pcretest.txt   the pcretest man page
384        pcregrep.txt   the pcregrep man page
386    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
387    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
388    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
391    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
392    ---------------------------------------------------------
394    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
395    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
397      pcre-config --version
399    prints the version number, and
401      pcre-config --libs
403    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
404    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
405    having to remember too many details.
407    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
408    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
409    single command is used. For example:
411      pkg-config --cflags pcre
413    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
414    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
417    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
418    -------------------------------------
420    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
421    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
422    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
423    "configure" process.
425    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
426    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
427    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
428    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
429    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
430    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
431    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
432    use the uninstalled libraries.
434    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
435    configuring it. For example:
437    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
439    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
440    build only shared libraries.
443    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
444    ------------------------------------
446    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
447    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
448    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
449    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
450    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
451    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
452    compiler.
454    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
455    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
456    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
457    a problem.
459    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
460    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
461    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
462    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
465    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
466    ----------------------------------
468    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
469    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
470    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
472    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
473    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
474    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
475    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
476    running the "configure" script:
478      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
481    Making new tarballs
482    -------------------
484    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
485    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
486    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
488    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
489    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
490    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
493    Testing PCRE
494    ------------
496    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
497    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
498    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
499    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
500    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built.
502    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
503    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
505    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
506    own man page) on each of the testinput files in the testdata directory in
507    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
508    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
509    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
510    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
512      RunTest 2
514    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to
515    check that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is
516    in the first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE
517    version.
519    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
520    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
521    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
522    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
523    pcre_compile().
525    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
526    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
527    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
528    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
529    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
530    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
531    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
532    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
533    bug in PCRE.
535    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
536    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
537    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
538    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
539    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
540    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
541    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
543      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
545    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
546    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
548    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
549    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
550    RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
551    Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
552    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
554    The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
555    PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
556    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
557    provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
558    commented in the script, can be be used.)
560    The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
561    features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
563    The sixth test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it not
564    run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
565    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
567    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
568    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
569    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
570    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
573  Character tables  Character tables
574  ----------------  ----------------
576  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
577  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
578  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
579  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
580  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
581  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
582  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
583  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
584  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
585    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
586  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
587  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
588  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
589  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
590  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
591    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
592    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
593    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
594    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
595    tables.
597    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
598    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
599    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
600    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
601    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
602    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
603    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
605      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
607    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
608    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
609    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
610    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
611    than 256.
613  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
614  follows:  follows:
616      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 113  You should not alter the set of characte Line 624  You should not alter the set of characte
624  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
627  The pcretest program  File manifest
628  --------------------  -------------
630    The distribution should contain the following files:
632  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
634  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
635  the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput files for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
     0: abc123  
     1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 10000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 10000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options. The contents  
 of testinput and testinput3 meet this condition.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test some features of PCRE. It also contains malformed regular expressions, in  
 order to check that PCRE diagnoses them correctly.  
637  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
638  September 1998                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
639                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
641      pcreposix.c             )
642      pcre_compile.c          )
643      pcre_config.c           )
644      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
645      pcre_exec.c             )
646      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
647      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
648      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
649      pcre_info.c             )
650      pcre_maketables.c       )
651      pcre_newline.c          )
652      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
653      pcre_refcount.c         )
654      pcre_study.c            )
655      pcre_tables.c           )
656      pcre_try_flipped.c      )
657      pcre_ucd.c              )
658      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
659      pcre_version.c          )
660      pcre_xclass.c           )
661      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
662                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
663      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
664      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
665      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
666      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
668      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
670      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
671      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
672      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
673      pcrecpp.cc              )
674      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
676      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
677                                C++ stringpiece functions
678      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
680    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
682      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
683      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
684      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
686    (C) Auxiliary files:
688      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
689      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
690      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
691      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
692      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
693      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
694      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
695      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
696      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
697      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
698                              )   "configure"
699      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
700                              )   Makefile.in
701      NEWS                    important changes in this release
702      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
703      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
704      README                  this file
705      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
706      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
707      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
708      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
709      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
710      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
711      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
712                              )   "configure" and config.h
713      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
714                              )   automake
715      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
716      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
717      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
718      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
719      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
720      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
721      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
722      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
723      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
724      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
725      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
726      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
727      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
728                              )   installing, generated by automake
729      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
730      perltest.pl             Perl test program
731      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
732      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
733      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
734      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
735      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
736      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
737      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
739    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
742      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
743      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
744      CMakeLists.txt
745      config-cmake.h.in
747    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
749      makevp.bat
750      makevp_c.txt
751      makevp_l.txt
752      pcregexp.pas
754    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
756      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
757                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
758      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
759                              )   environments
761    (F) Miscellaneous
763      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
765    Philip Hazel
766    Email local part: ph10
767    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
768    Last updated: 06 September 2009

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