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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
3    
4  *******************************************************************************  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5  *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSIONS BEFORE 2.00           *  from:
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.00                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Another (I hope this is the last!) change has been made to the API for the  *  
 * pcre_compile() function. An additional argument has been added to make it   *  
 * possible to pass over a pointer to character tables built in the current    *  
 * locale by pcre_maketables(). To use the default tables, this new arguement  *  
 * should be passed as NULL.                                                   *  
 *******************************************************************************  
6    
7  The distribution should contain the following files:    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    Makefile          for building PCRE  
11    README            this file  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    RunTest           a shell script for running tests  
13    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    pcre.3            man page for the functions  
15    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    dftables.c        auxiliary program for building chartables.c  The contents of this README file are:
17    maketables.c      )  
18    study.c           ) source of    The PCRE APIs
19    pcre.c            )   the functions    Documentation for PCRE
20    pcreposix.c       )    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcre.h            header for the external API    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23    internal.h        header for internal use    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24    pcretest.c        test program    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27    perltest          Perl test program    Using PCRE from MySQL
28    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005    Making new tarballs
29    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Testing PCRE
30    testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005    Character tables
31    testinput4        test data for locale-specific tests    File manifest
32    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput  
33    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  
34    testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinput3  The PCRE APIs
35    testoutput4       test results corresponding to testinput4  -------------
36    
37  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file,  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
38  and there are some comments at the top) and then run it. It builds two  set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
39  libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest,  of Google Inc.
40  and the pgrep command.  
41    In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
42  To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This runs pcretest  regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
43  on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
44  contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
45  hold the output from pcretest (which is documented below).  and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
46    all of PCRE's facilities.
47  To run pcretest on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument  
48  to RunTest, for example:  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
49    official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
50    RunTest 3  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
51    an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
52  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  renamed or pointed at by a link.
53  program to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  
54  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
55  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
56  widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
57    ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
58    up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
59    
60    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
61    -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
62    compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
63    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
64    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
65    new names.
66    
67    
68    Documentation for PCRE
69    ----------------------
70    
71    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
72    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
73    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
74    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
75    
76      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
77         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
78         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
79         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
80         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
81         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
82         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
83         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
84    
85      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
86         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
87         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
88    
89    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
90    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
91    site (see next section).
92    
93    
94    Contributions by users of PCRE
95    ------------------------------
96    
97    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
98    
99      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
100    
101    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
102    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
103    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
104    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
105    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
106    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
107    
108    
109    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
110    ---------------------------------
111    
112    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
113    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
114    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
115    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
116    CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
117    
118    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
119    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
120    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
121    
122    
123    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
124    ----------------------------------
125    
126    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
127    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
128    
129    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
130    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
131    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
132    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
133    
134    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
135    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
136    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
137    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
138    the file INSTALL.
139    
140    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
141    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
142    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
143    
144    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
145    
146    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
147    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
148    instead of the default /usr/local.
149    
150    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
151    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
152    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
153    
154    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
155    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
156    
157    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
158    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
159    does not have any features to support this.
160    
161    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
162    library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
163    
164    . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
165      by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
166    
167      --disable-shared
168      --disable-static
169    
170      (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
171    
172    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
173      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
174      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
175      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
176    
177    . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
178      large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
179      "configure" command.
180    
181    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
182      PCRE, you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the
183      code for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. Even when included,
184      it still has to be enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled
185      with this option, its input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8, even when
186      running on EBCDIC platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf8 and
187      --enable-ebcdic at the same time.
188    
189    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
190      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
191      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
192      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
193      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
194      supported.
195    
196    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
197      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
198      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
199      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
200      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
201      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
202      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
203      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
204    
205      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
206      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
207      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
208      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
209      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
210      failures.
211    
212    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
213      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
214      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
215      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
216      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
217    
218    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
219      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
220      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
221    
222      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
223    
224      on the "configure" command.
225    
226    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
227      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
228      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
229    
230      --with-match-limit=500000
231    
232      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
233      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
234      pcreapi man page.
235    
236    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
237      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
238      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
239    
240      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
241    
242      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
243      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
244      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
245    
246    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
247      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
248      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
249      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
250      performance.
251    
252    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
253      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
254      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
255      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
256      build PCRE like this, use
257    
258      --disable-stack-for-recursion
259    
260      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
261      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
262      normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
263      successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
264      pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
265      discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
266    
267    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
268      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
269      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
270    
271      --enable-rebuild-chartables
272    
273      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
274      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
275      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
276      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
277    
278    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
279      character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
280    
281      --enable-ebcdic
282    
283      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
284      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
285      both EBCDIC and UTF-8.
286    
287    . It is possible to compile pcregrep to use libz and/or libbz2, in order to
288      read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by specifying one or both of
289    
290      --enable-pcregrep-libz
291      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
292    
293      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
294    
295    . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
296      example:
297    
298      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
299    
300      The default value is 20K.
301    
302    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
303      library, by specifying
304    
305      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
306    
307      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
308      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
309      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
310      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
311    
312      Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
313      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
314      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
315      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
316      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
317      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
318      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
319      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
320      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
321      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
322    
323    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
324    
325    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
326    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
327    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
328    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
329                             that were set for "configure"
330    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
331    . libpcreposix.pc    )
332    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
333    . RunTest              script for running tests on the basic C library
334    . RunGrepTest          script for running tests on the pcregrep command
335    
336    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
337    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
338    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
339    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
340    
341    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
342    
343    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
344    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
345    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
346    
347    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
348    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
349    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
350    
351    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
352    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
353    command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable it
354    with --disable-cpp, "make" also builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
355    libpcrecpp, and some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
356    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest. If you enabled JIT
357    support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is also built.
358    
359    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
360    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
361    
362    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
363    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
364    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
365    
366      Commands (bin):
367        pcretest
368        pcregrep
369        pcre-config
370    
371      Libraries (lib):
372        libpcre
373        libpcreposix
374        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
375    
376      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
377        libpcre.pc
378        libpcreposix.pc
379        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
380    
381      Header files (include):
382        pcre.h
383        pcreposix.h
384        pcre_scanner.h      )
385        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
386        pcrecpp.h           )
387        pcrecpparg.h        )
388    
389      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
390        pcregrep.1
391        pcretest.1
392        pcre-config.1
393        pcre.3
394        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
395    
396      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
397        index.html
398        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
399    
400      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
401        AUTHORS
402        COPYING
403        ChangeLog
404        LICENCE
405        NEWS
406        README
407        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
408        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
409        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
410        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
411    
412    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
413    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
414    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
415    
416    
417    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
418    ---------------------------------------------------------
419    
420    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
421    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
422    
423      pcre-config --version
424    
425    prints the version number, and
426    
427      pcre-config --libs
428    
429    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
430    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
431    having to remember too many details.
432    
433    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
434    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
435    single command is used. For example:
436    
437      pkg-config --cflags pcre
438    
439    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
440    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
441    
442    
443    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
444    -------------------------------------
445    
446    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
447    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
448    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
449    "configure" process.
450    
451    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
452    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
453    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
454    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
455    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
456    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
457    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
458    use the uninstalled libraries.
459    
460    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
461    configuring it. For example:
462    
463    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
464    
465    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
466    build only shared libraries.
467    
468    
469    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
470    ------------------------------------
471    
472    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
473    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
474    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
475    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
476    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
477    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
478    compiler.
479    
480    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
481    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
482    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
483    a problem.
484    
485    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
486    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
487    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
488    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
489    
490    
491    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
492    ----------------------------------
493    
494    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
495    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
496    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
497    
498    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
499    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
500    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
501    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
502    running the "configure" script:
503    
504      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
505    
506    
507    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
508    ---------------------------------
509    
510    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
511    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
512    
513      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
514      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
515    
516    
517    Using PCRE from MySQL
518    ---------------------
519    
520    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
521    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
522    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
523    
524      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
525    
526    
527    Making new tarballs
528    -------------------
529    
530    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
531    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
532    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
533    
534    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
535    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
536    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
537    
538    
539    Testing PCRE
540    ------------
541    
542    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
543    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
544    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
545    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
546    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another
547    test program called pcre_jit_test is built.
548    
549    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
550    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
551    
552    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
553    own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
554    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
555    testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
556    were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8 support are run only if
557    --enable-utf8 was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
558    
559    Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
560    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
561    tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
562    done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
563    this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
564    
565    RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest
566    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
567    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
568    
569      RunTest 2
570    
571    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
572    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
573    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
574    
575    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
576    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
577    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
578    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
579    pcre_compile().
580    
581    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
582    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
583    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
584    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
585    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
586    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
587    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
588    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
589    bug in PCRE.
590    
591  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and  The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
 run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  
   
 The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a  
592  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
593  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr" (French) locale. Before running  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
594  the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running the  running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
595  "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr" in the  the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
596  list of available locales, the fourth test cannot be run, and a comment is  in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
597  output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error  is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
598    
599    ** Failed to set locale "fr"    ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
600    
601  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
602  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
603    
604  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
605  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
606  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
607  /usr/local/man/man3).  Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
608    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
609  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
610  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. This file can be also fed directly to
611  /usr/local/man/man1).  the perltest.pl script, provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher.
612    
613  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
614  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
615  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  
616  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  The sixth test (which is Perl-5.10 compatible) checks the support for Unicode
617  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  character properties. This file can be also fed directly to the perltest.pl
618  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  script, provided you are running Perl 5.10 or higher.
619  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  
620  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
621    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
622    property support, respectively.
623    
624    The tenth test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is run
625    only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
626    change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
627    
628    The eleventh and twelfth tests check out features that are new in Perl 5.10,
629    without and with UTF-8 support, respectively. This file can be also fed
630    directly to the perltest.pl script, provided you are running Perl 5.10 or
631    higher.
632    
633    The thirteenth test checks a number internals and non-Perl features concerned
634    with Unicode property support.
635    
636    The fourteenth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the
637    fifteenth test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some
638    JIT-specific features such as information output from pcretest about JIT
639    compilation.
640    
641    
642  Character tables  Character tables
643  ----------------  ----------------
644    
645  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. The final  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
646  argument of the pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
647  containing the concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() is used to  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
648  generate a set of tables in the current locale. However, if the final argument  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
649  is passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
650  used.  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
651    
652  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
653  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
654  (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions  tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
655  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
656  sources. This means that the default C locale set your system will control the  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
657  contents of the tables. You can change the default tables by editing  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
658  chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
659  also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
660    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
661    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
662    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
663    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
664    tables.
665    
666    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
667    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
668    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
669    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
670    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
671    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
672    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
673    
674      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
675    
676  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
677  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
678  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
679  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
680    than 256.
681    
682  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
683  follows:  follows:
# Line 142  You should not alter the set of characte Line 693  You should not alter the set of characte
693  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
694    
695    
696  The pcretest program  File manifest
697  --------------------  -------------
   
 This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
   
 If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
   
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
   
   /(a|bc)x+yz/  
   
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
   
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
   
 The /L option must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,  
   
   /pattern/Lfr  
   
 For this reason, it must be the last option letter. The given locale is set,  
 pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,  
 and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular  
 expression. Without an /L option, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that  
 is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
   
 The /I option requests that pcretest output information about the compiled  
 expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It  
 does this by calling pcre_info() after compiling an expression, and outputting  
 the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results of that  
 are also output.  
   
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes the  
 internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation.  
   
 The /S option causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been  
 compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
   
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
   
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput files for many examples.  
   
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
   
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
   
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
   
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
   
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
     0: abc123  
     1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
   
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
   
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
   
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
   
 If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each  
 regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after  
 compilation.  
   
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
   
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 10000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 10000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 pcretest.c  
698    
699    The distribution should contain the following files:
700    
701    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
702    
703  The perltest program    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
704  --------------------                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
   
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options. The contents  
 of testinput and testinput3 meet this condition.  
   
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
   
 The testinput2 and testinput4 files are not suitable for feeding to Perltest,  
 since they do make use of the special upper case options and escapes that  
 pcretest uses to test some features of PCRE. The first of these files also  
 contains malformed regular expressions, in order to check that PCRE diagnoses  
 them correctly.  
705    
706  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
707  January 1999                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
708                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
709    
710      pcreposix.c             )
711      pcre_compile.c          )
712      pcre_config.c           )
713      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
714      pcre_exec.c             )
715      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
716      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
717      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
718      pcre_info.c             )
719      pcre_jit_compile.c      )
720      pcre_maketables.c       )
721      pcre_newline.c          )
722      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
723      pcre_refcount.c         )
724      pcre_study.c            )
725      pcre_tables.c           )
726      pcre_try_flipped.c      )
727      pcre_ucd.c              )
728      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
729      pcre_version.c          )
730      pcre_xclass.c           )
731      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
732                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
733      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
734      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
735      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
736      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
737      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
738    
739      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
740    
741      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
742      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
743      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
744      pcrecpp.cc              )
745      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
746    
747      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
748                                C++ stringpiece functions
749      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
750    
751    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
752    
753      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
754      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
755      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
756    
757    (C) Auxiliary files:
758    
759      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
760      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
761      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
762      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
763      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
764      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
765      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
766      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
767      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
768      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
769                              )   "configure"
770      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
771                              )   Makefile.in
772      NEWS                    important changes in this release
773      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
774      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
775      README                  this file
776      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
777      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
778      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
779      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
780      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
781      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
782      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
783                              )   "configure" and config.h
784      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
785                              )   automake
786      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
787      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
788      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
789      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
790      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
791      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
792      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
793      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
794      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
795      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
796      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
797      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
798      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
799                              )   installing, generated by automake
800      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
801      perltest.pl             Perl test program
802      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
803      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
804      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
805      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
806      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
807      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
808      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
809      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
810    
811    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
812    
813      cmake/COPYING-CMAKE-SCRIPTS
814      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
815      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
816      CMakeLists.txt
817      config-cmake.h.in
818    
819    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
820    
821      makevp.bat
822      makevp_c.txt
823      makevp_l.txt
824      pcregexp.pas
825    
826    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
827    
828      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
829                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
830      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
831                              )   environments
832    
833    (F) Miscellaneous
834    
835      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
836    
837    Philip Hazel
838    Email local part: ph10
839    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
840    Last updated: 23 August 2011

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