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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  *******************************************************************************  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5  *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSIONS BEFORE 2.00           *  from:
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.00                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Another (I hope this is the last!) change has been made to the API for the  *  
 * pcre_compile() function. An additional argument has been added to make it   *  
 * possible to pass over a pointer to character tables built in the current    *  
 * locale by pcre_maketables(). To use the default tables, this new arguement  *  
 * should be passed as NULL.                                                   *  
 The distribution should contain the following files:  
   ChangeLog         log of changes to the code  
   Makefile          for building PCRE  
   README            this file  
   RunTest           a shell script for running tests  
   Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  
   pcre.3            man page for the functions  
   pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  
   dftables.c        auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
   maketables.c      )  
   study.c           ) source of  
   pcre.c            )   the functions  
   pcreposix.c       )  
   pcre.h            header for the external API  
   pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API  
   internal.h        header for internal use  
   pcretest.c        test program  
   pgrep.1           man page for pgrep  
   pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE  
   perltest          Perl test program  
   testinput         test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005  
   testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
   testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005  
   testinput4        test data for locale-specific tests  
   testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput  
   testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  
   testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinput3  
   testoutput4       test results corresponding to testinput4  
 To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file,  
 and there are some comments at the top) and then run it. It builds two  
 libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest,  
 and the pgrep command.  
 To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This runs pcretest  
 on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  
 contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  
 hold the output from pcretest (which is documented below).  
 To run pcretest on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument  
 to RunTest, for example:  
   RunTest 3  
 The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  
 program to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  
 additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  
 main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  
 widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  
7  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8  run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
11    There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
13      pcre-dev@exim.org
15    Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    The contents of this README file are:
18      The PCRE APIs
19      Documentation for PCRE
20      Contributions by users of PCRE
21      Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
22      Building PCRE without using autotools
23      Building PCRE using autotools
24      Retrieving configuration information
25      Shared libraries
26      Cross-compiling using autotools
27      Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
28      Using PCRE from MySQL
29      Making new tarballs
30      Testing PCRE
31      Character tables
32      File manifest
35    The PCRE APIs
36    -------------
38    PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are two sets of functions,
39    one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, and one for the
40    16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values. The distribution also
41    includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
42    courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
43    C++.
45    In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
46    library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
47    man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
48    provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
49    still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
50    not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
52    The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
53    official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
54    with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
55    an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
56    renamed or pointed at by a link.
58    If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
59    library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
60    file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
61    ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
62    up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
64    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
65    -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
66    compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
67    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
68    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
69    new names.
72    Documentation for PCRE
73    ----------------------
75    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
76    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
77    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
78    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
80      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
81         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
82         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
83         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
84         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
85         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
86         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
87         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
89      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
90         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
91         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
93    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
94    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
95    site (see next section).
98    Contributions by users of PCRE
99    ------------------------------
101    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
103      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
105    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
106    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
107    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
108    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
109    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
110    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
113    Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
114    --------------------------------------
116    For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
117    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
118    "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
119    many Unix-like systems.
121    PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
122    cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
123    NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
125    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
126    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
127    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
130    Building PCRE without using autotools
131    -------------------------------------
133    The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
134    environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
135    file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
138    Building PCRE using autotools
139    -----------------------------
141    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
142    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
144    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
145    make install" (autotools) process.
147    To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
148    command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
149    to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
150    standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
151    are supplied in the file INSTALL.
153    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
154    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
155    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
157    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
159    This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
160    -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
161    under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
163    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
164    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
165    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
167    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
168    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
170    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
171    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
172    does not have any features to support this.
174    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
175    library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
177    . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
178      by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
180      --disable-shared
181      --disable-static
183      (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
185    . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
186      the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you want only
187      the 16-bit library, use "./configure --enable-pcre16 --disable-pcre8".
189    . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
190      the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
191      command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
192      try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
193      try to build the C++ wrapper.
195    . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
196      large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
197      "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
198      architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
199      will be a compile time error.
201    . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
202      you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
204    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
205      the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
206      you must add --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
207      for handling UTF-8 and UTF-16 is not included in the relevant library. Even
208      when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
209      enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
210      input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16, even when running on EBCDIC
211      platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
212      the same time.
214    . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8 and UTF-16 independently
215      because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting UTF-16
216      support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
217      --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
218      that did not support 16-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
219      --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
220      and the other without in the same configuration.
222    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16 character strings, you want to
223      include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
224      character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
225      "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
226      form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
227      are supported.
229    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
230      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
231      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
232      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
233      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
234      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
235      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
236      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
238      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
239      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
240      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
241      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
242      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
243      failures.
245    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
246      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
247      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
248      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
249      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
251    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
252      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
253      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
255      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
257      on the "configure" command.
259    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
260      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
261      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
263      --with-match-limit=500000
265      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
266      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
267      pcreapi man page.
269    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
270      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
271      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
273      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
275      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
276      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
277      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
279    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
280      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
281      library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
282      parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
283      the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
284      offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance.
286    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
287      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
288      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
289      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
290      build PCRE like this, use
292      --disable-stack-for-recursion
294      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
295      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
296      normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
297      successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
298      pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
299      discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
301    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
302      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
303      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
305      --enable-rebuild-chartables
307      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
308      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
309      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
310      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
312    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
313      character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
315      --enable-ebcdic
317      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
318      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
319      both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16.
321    . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
322      requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
323      libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
324      specifying one or both of
326      --enable-pcregrep-libz
327      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
329      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
331    . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
332      example:
334      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
336      The default value is 20K.
338    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
339      or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
341      --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
343      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
344      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
345      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
346      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
347      avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
349      Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
350      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
351      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
352      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
353      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
354      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
355      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
356      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
357      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
358      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
360    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
362    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
363    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
364    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
365    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
366                             that were set for "configure"
367    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
368    . libpcre16.pc       )
369    . libpcreposix.pc    )
370    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
372    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
373    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
374    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
375    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
377    When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
378    files are also built:
380    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
381    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
382    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
384    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
385    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
386    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
388    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds either or both of the
389    libraries libpcre and libpcre16, and a test program called pcretest. If you
390    enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
391    built as well.
393    If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
394    built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
395    it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
396    libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
397    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
399    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
400    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
402    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
403    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
404    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
406      Commands (bin):
407        pcretest
408        pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
409        pcre-config
411      Libraries (lib):
412        libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
413        libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
414        libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
415        libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
417      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
418        libpcre16.pc
419        libpcre.pc
420        libpcreposix.pc
421        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
423      Header files (include):
424        pcre.h
425        pcreposix.h
426        pcre_scanner.h      )
427        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
428        pcrecpp.h           )
429        pcrecpparg.h        )
431      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
432        pcregrep.1
433        pcretest.1
434        pcre-config.1
435        pcre.3
436        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
438      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
439        index.html
440        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
442      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
443        AUTHORS
444        COPYING
445        ChangeLog
446        LICENCE
447        NEWS
448        README
449        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
450        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
451        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
452        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
454    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
455    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
456    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
459    Retrieving configuration information
460    ------------------------------------
462    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
463    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
465      pcre-config --version
467    prints the version number, and
469      pcre-config --libs
471    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
472    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
473    having to remember too many details.
475    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
476    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
477    single command is used. For example:
479  The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a    pkg-config --cflags pcre
481    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
482    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
485    Shared libraries
486    ----------------
488    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
489    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
490    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
491    "configure" process.
493    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
494    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
495    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
496    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
497    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
498    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
499    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
500    use the uninstalled libraries.
502    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
503    configuring it. For example:
505    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
507    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
508    build only shared libraries.
511    Cross-compiling using autotools
512    -------------------------------
514    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
515    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
516    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
517    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
518    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
519    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
520    compiler.
522    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
523    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
524    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
525    a problem.
527    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
528    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
529    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
530    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
533    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
534    ----------------------------------
536    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
537    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
538    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
540    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
541    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
542    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
543    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
544    running the "configure" script:
546      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
549    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
550    ---------------------------------
552    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
553    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
555      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
556      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
559    Using PCRE from MySQL
560    ---------------------
562    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
563    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
564    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
566      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
569    Making new tarballs
570    -------------------
572    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
573    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
574    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
576    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
577    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
578    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
581    Testing PCRE
582    ------------
584    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
585    There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
586    pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
587    called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
588    are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
589    pcre_jit_test is built.
591    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
592    "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
595    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
596    own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
597    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
598    testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
599    were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8/16 support are run only if
600    --enable-utf was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
602    Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
603    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
604    tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
605    done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
606    this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
608    When both 8-bit and 16-bit support is enabled, the entire set of tests is run
609    twice, once for each library. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
610    RunTest with either the -8 or -16 option.
612    RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest.
613    Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working files in some
614    tests. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test files, give their
615    numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
617      RunTest 2 7 11
619    You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
620    a list of tests.
622    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
623    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
624    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
626    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
627    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
628    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
629    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
630    pcre_compile().
632    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
633    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
634    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
635    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
636    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
637    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
638    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
639    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
640    bug in PCRE.
642    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
643  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
644  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr" (French) locale. Before running  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
645  the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running the  running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
646  "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr" in the  the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
647  list of available locales, the fourth test cannot be run, and a comment is  in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
648  output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error  is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
650    ** Failed to set locale "fr"    ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
652  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
653  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
655  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
656  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
657  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
658  /usr/local/man/man3).  Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
659    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
660  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
661  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16 support and error handling and
662  /usr/local/man/man1).  internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
663    sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
664  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  
665  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
666  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  matching function, in non-UTF-8/16 mode, UTF-8/16 mode, and UTF-8/16 mode with
667  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  Unicode property support, respectively.
668  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  
669  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
670  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
671  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
673    The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
674    test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
675    features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
677    The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
678    the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16-bit mode.
679    These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are for
680    general cases, UTF-8/16 support, and Unicode property support, respectively.
682    The twentieth test is run only in 16-bit mode. It tests some specific 16-bit
683    features of the DFA matching engine.
685    The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16-bit mode, when the
686    link size is set to 2. They test reloading pre-compiled patterns.
689  Character tables  Character tables
690  ----------------  ----------------
692  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. The final  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
693  argument of the pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
694  containing the concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() is used to  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
695  generate a set of tables in the current locale. However, if the final argument  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
696  is passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
697  used.  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
699  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
700  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
701  (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions  tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
702  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
703  sources. This means that the default C locale set your system will control the  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
704  contents of the tables. You can change the default tables by editing  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
705  chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
706  also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
707    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
708    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
709    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
710    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
711    tables.
713    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
714    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
715    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
716    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
717    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
718    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
719    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
721      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
723  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
724  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
725  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
726  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
727    than 256.
729  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
730  follows:  follows:
# Line 142  You should not alter the set of characte Line 740  You should not alter the set of characte
740  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
743  The pcretest program  File manifest
744  --------------------  -------------
 This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
 If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /L option must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,  
 For this reason, it must be the last option letter. The given locale is set,  
 pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,  
 and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular  
 expression. Without an /L option, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that  
 is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
 The /I option requests that pcretest output information about the compiled  
 expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It  
 does this by calling pcre_info() after compiling an expression, and outputting  
 the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results of that  
 are also output.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes the  
 internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation.  
 The /S option causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been  
 compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput files for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
     0: abc123  
     1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each  
 regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 10000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 10000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 The perltest program  
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options. The contents  
 of testinput and testinput3 meet this condition.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 and testinput4 files are not suitable for feeding to Perltest,  
 since they do make use of the special upper case options and escapes that  
 pcretest uses to test some features of PCRE. The first of these files also  
 contains malformed regular expressions, in order to check that PCRE diagnoses  
 them correctly.  
746  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
747  January 1999  given as pcre[16]_xxx it means that there are two files, one with the name
748    pcre_xxx and the other with the name pcre16_xxx.
750    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
752      dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
753                                when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
755      pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
756                                coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
757                                specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
759      pcreposix.c             )
760      pcre[16]_byte_order.c   )
761      pcre[16]_compile.c      )
762      pcre[16]_config.c       )
763      pcre[16]_dfa_exec.c     )
764      pcre[16]_exec.c         )
765      pcre[16]_fullinfo.c     )
766      pcre[16]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
767      pcre[16]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
768      pcre[16]_jit_compile.c  )
769      pcre[16]_maketables.c   )
770      pcre[16]_newline.c      )
771      pcre[16]_refcount.c     )
772      pcre[16]_string_utils.c )
773      pcre[16]_study.c        )
774      pcre[16]_tables.c       )
775      pcre[16]_ucd.c          )
776      pcre[16]_version.c      )
777      pcre[16]_xclass.c       )
778      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
779      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
780      pcre16_ord2utf16.c      )
781      pcre16_utf16_utils.c    )
782      pcre16_valid_utf16.c    )
784      pcre[16]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
785                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
787      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
788      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
789      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
790      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
791      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
793      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
795      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
796      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
797      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
798      pcrecpp.cc              )
799      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
801      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
802                                C++ stringpiece functions
803      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
805    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
807      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
808      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
809      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
811    (C) Auxiliary files:
813      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
814      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
815      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
816      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
817      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
818      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
819      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
820      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
821      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
822      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
823                              )   "configure"
824      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
825                              )   Makefile.in
826      NEWS                    important changes in this release
827      NON-UNIX-USE            the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
828      NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD     notes on building PCRE without using autotools
829      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
830      README                  this file
831      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
832      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
833      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
834      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
835      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
836      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
837      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
838                              )   "configure" and config.h
839      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
840                              )   automake
841      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
842      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
843      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
844      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
845      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
846      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
847      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
848      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
849      libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
850      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
851      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
852      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
853      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
854      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
855                              )   installing, generated by automake
856      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
857      perltest.pl             Perl test program
858      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
859      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
860      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
861      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
862      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
863      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
864      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
865      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
866      testdata/*              other supporting test files
868    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
871      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
872      cmake/FindEditline.cmake
873      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
874      CMakeLists.txt
875      config-cmake.h.in
877    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
879      makevp.bat
880      makevp_c.txt
881      makevp_l.txt
882      pcregexp.pas
884    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
886      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
887                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
888      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
889                              )   environments
891    (F) Miscellaneous
893      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
895    Philip Hazel
896    Email local part: ph10
897    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
898    Last updated: 18 June 2012

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