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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
4  *******************************************************************************  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5  *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSIONS BEFORE 2.00           *  from:
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.00                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Another (I hope this is the last!) change has been made to the API for the  *  
 * pcre_compile() function. An additional argument has been added to make it   *  
 * possible to pass over a pointer to character tables built in the current    *  
 * locale by pcre_maketables(). To use the default tables, this new arguement  *  
 * should be passed as NULL.                                                   *  
7  The distribution should contain the following files:    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    Makefile          for building PCRE  
11    README            this file  There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    RunTest           a shell script for running tests  
13    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding    pcre-dev@exim.org
14    pcre.3            man page for the functions  
15    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    deftables.c       auxiliary program for building chartables.c  The contents of this README file are:
17    maketables.c      )  
18    study.c           ) source of    The PCRE APIs
19    pcre.c            )   the functions    Documentation for PCRE
20    pcreposix.c       )    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    pcre.h            header for the external API    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23    internal.h        header for internal use    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24    pcretest.c        test program    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27    perltest          Perl test program    Using PCRE from MySQL
28    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005    Making new tarballs
29    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things    Testing PCRE
30    testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005    Character tables
31    testinput4        test data for locale-specific tests    File manifest
32    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput  
33    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  
34    testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinput3  The PCRE APIs
35    testoutput4       test results corresponding to testinput4  -------------
37  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file,  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
38  and there are some comments at the top) and then run it. It builds two  set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
39  libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest,  of Google Inc.
40  and the pgrep command.  
41    In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
42  To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This runs pcretest  regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
43  on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
44  contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
45  hold the output from pcretest (which is documented below).  and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
46    all of PCRE's facilities.
47  To run pcretest on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument  
48  to RunTest, for example:  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
49    official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
50    RunTest 3  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
51    an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
52  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  renamed or pointed at by a link.
53  program to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  
54  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
55  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
56  widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
57    ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
58    up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
60    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
61    -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
62    compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
63    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
64    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
65    new names.
68    Documentation for PCRE
69    ----------------------
71    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
72    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
73    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
74    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
76      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
77         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
78         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
79         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
80         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
81         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
82         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
83         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
85      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
86         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
87         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
89    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
90    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
91    site (see next section).
94    Contributions by users of PCRE
95    ------------------------------
97    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
99      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
101    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
102    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
103    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
104    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
105    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
106    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
109    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
110    ---------------------------------
112    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
113    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
114    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
115    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
116    CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
118    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
119    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
120    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
123    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
124    ----------------------------------
126    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
127    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
129    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
130    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
131    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
132    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
134    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
135    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
136    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
137    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
138    the file INSTALL.
140    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
141    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
142    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
144    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
146    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
147    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
148    instead of the default /usr/local.
150    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
151    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
152    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
154    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
155    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
157    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
158    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
159    does not have any features to support this.
161    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
162    library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
164    . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
165      by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
167      --disable-shared
168      --disable-static
170      (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
172    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
173      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
174      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
175      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
177    . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
178      large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
179      "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
180      architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
181      will be a compile time error.
183    . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
184      you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
186    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
187      PCRE, you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the
188      code for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. Even when included,
189      it still has to be enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled
190      with this option, its input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8, even when
191      running on EBCDIC platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf8 and
192      --enable-ebcdic at the same time.
194    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
195      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
196      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
197      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
198      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
199      supported.
201    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
202      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
203      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
204      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
205      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
206      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
207      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
208      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
210      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
211      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
212      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
213      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
214      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
215      failures.
217    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
218      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
219      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
220      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
221      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
223    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
224      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
225      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
227      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
229      on the "configure" command.
231    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
232      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
233      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
235      --with-match-limit=500000
237      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
238      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
239      pcreapi man page.
241    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
242      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
243      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
245      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
247      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
248      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
249      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
251    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
252      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
253      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
254      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
255      performance.
257    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
258      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
259      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
260      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
261      build PCRE like this, use
263      --disable-stack-for-recursion
265      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
266      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
267      normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
268      successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
269      pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
270      discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
272    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
273      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
274      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
276      --enable-rebuild-chartables
278      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
279      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
280      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
281      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
283    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
284      character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
286      --enable-ebcdic
288      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
289      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
290      both EBCDIC and UTF-8.
292    . It is possible to compile pcregrep to use libz and/or libbz2, in order to
293      read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by specifying one or both of
295      --enable-pcregrep-libz
296      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
298      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
300    . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
301      example:
303      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
305      The default value is 20K.
307    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
308      library, by specifying
310      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
312      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
313      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
314      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
315      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
317      Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
318      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
319      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
320      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
321      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
322      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
323      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
324      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
325      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
326      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
328    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
330    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
331    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
332    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
333    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
334                             that were set for "configure"
335    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
336    . libpcreposix.pc    )
337    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
338    . RunTest              script for running tests on the basic C library
339    . RunGrepTest          script for running tests on the pcregrep command
341    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
342    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
343    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
344    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
346    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
348    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
349    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
350    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
352    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
353    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
354    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
356    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
357    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
358    command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable it
359    with --disable-cpp, "make" also builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
360    libpcrecpp, and some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
361    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest. If you enabled JIT
362    support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is also built.
364    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
365    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
367    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
368    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
369    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
371      Commands (bin):
372        pcretest
373        pcregrep
374        pcre-config
376      Libraries (lib):
377        libpcre
378        libpcreposix
379        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
381      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
382        libpcre.pc
383        libpcreposix.pc
384        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
386      Header files (include):
387        pcre.h
388        pcreposix.h
389        pcre_scanner.h      )
390        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
391        pcrecpp.h           )
392        pcrecpparg.h        )
394      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
395        pcregrep.1
396        pcretest.1
397        pcre-config.1
398        pcre.3
399        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
401      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
402        index.html
403        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
405      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
406        AUTHORS
407        COPYING
408        ChangeLog
409        LICENCE
410        NEWS
411        README
412        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
413        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
414        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
415        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
417    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
418    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
419    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
422    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
423    ---------------------------------------------------------
425    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
426    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
428      pcre-config --version
430    prints the version number, and
432      pcre-config --libs
434    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
435    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
436    having to remember too many details.
438    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
439    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
440    single command is used. For example:
442      pkg-config --cflags pcre
444    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
445    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
448    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
449    -------------------------------------
451    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
452    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
453    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
454    "configure" process.
456    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
457    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
458    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
459    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
460    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
461    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
462    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
463    use the uninstalled libraries.
465    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
466    configuring it. For example:
468    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
470    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
471    build only shared libraries.
474    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
475    ------------------------------------
477    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
478    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
479    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
480    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
481    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
482    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
483    compiler.
485    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
486    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
487    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
488    a problem.
490    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
491    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
492    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
493    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
496    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
497    ----------------------------------
499    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
500    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
501    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
503    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
504    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
505    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
506    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
507    running the "configure" script:
509      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
512    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
513    ---------------------------------
515    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
516    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
518      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
519      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
522    Using PCRE from MySQL
523    ---------------------
525    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
526    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
527    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
529      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
532    Making new tarballs
533    -------------------
535    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
536    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
537    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
539    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
540    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
541    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
544    Testing PCRE
545    ------------
547    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
548    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
549    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
550    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
551    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another
552    test program called pcre_jit_test is built.
554    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
555    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
557    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
558    own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
559    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
560    testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
561    were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8 support are run only if
562    --enable-utf8 was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
564    Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
565    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
566    tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
567    done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
568    this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
570    RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest
571    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
572    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
574      RunTest 2
576    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
577    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
578    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
580    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
581    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
582    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
583    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
584    pcre_compile().
586    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
587    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
588    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
589    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
590    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
591    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
592    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
593    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
594    bug in PCRE.
596  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and  The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
 run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  
 The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a  
597  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
598  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr" (French) locale. Before running  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
599  the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running the  running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
600  "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr" in the  the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
601  list of available locales, the fourth test cannot be run, and a comment is  in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
602  output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error  is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
604    ** Failed to set locale "fr"    ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
606  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
607  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
609  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
610  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
611  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
612  /usr/local/man/man3).  Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
613    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
614  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
615  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. This file can be also fed directly to
616  /usr/local/man/man1).  the perltest.pl script, provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher.
618  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
619  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
620  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  
621  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  The sixth test (which is Perl-5.10 compatible) checks the support for Unicode
622  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  character properties. This file can be also fed directly to the perltest.pl
623  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  script, provided you are running Perl 5.10 or higher.
624  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  
625  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
626    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
627    property support, respectively.
629    The tenth test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is run
630    only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
631    change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
633    The eleventh and twelfth tests check out features that are new in Perl 5.10,
634    without and with UTF-8 support, respectively. This file can be also fed
635    directly to the perltest.pl script, provided you are running Perl 5.10 or
636    higher.
638    The thirteenth test checks a number internals and non-Perl features concerned
639    with Unicode property support.
641    The fourteenth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the
642    fifteenth test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some
643    JIT-specific features such as information output from pcretest about JIT
644    compilation.
647  Character tables  Character tables
648  ----------------  ----------------
650  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. The final  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
651  argument of the pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
652  containing the concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() is used to  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
653  generate a set of tables in the current locale. However, if the final argument  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
654  is passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
655  used.  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
657  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
658  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program deftables  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
659  (compiled from deftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions  tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
660  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
661  sources. This means that the default C locale set your system will control the  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
662  contents of the tables. You can change the default tables by editing  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
663  chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
664  also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
665    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
666    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
667    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
668    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
669    tables.
671    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
672    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
673    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
674    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
675    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
676    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
677    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
679      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
681  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
682  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
683  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
684  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
685    than 256.
687  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
688  follows:  follows:
# Line 142  You should not alter the set of characte Line 698  You should not alter the set of characte
698  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
701  The pcretest program  File manifest
702  --------------------  -------------
 This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
 If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /L option must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,  
 For this reason, it must be the last option letter. The given locale is set,  
 pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,  
 and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular  
 expression. Without an /L option, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that  
 is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
 The /I option requests that pcretest output information about the compiled  
 expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It  
 does this by calling pcre_info() after compiling an expression, and outputting  
 the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results of that  
 are also output.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes the  
 internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation.  
 The /S option causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been  
 compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput files for many examples.  
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
     0: abc123  
     1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
 If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each  
 regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after  
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 10000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 10000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
704    The distribution should contain the following files:
706    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
708  The perltest program    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
709  --------------------                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options. The contents  
 of testinput and testinput3 meet this condition.  
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
 The testinput2 and testinput4 files are not suitable for feeding to Perltest,  
 since they do make use of the special upper case options and escapes that  
 pcretest uses to test some features of PCRE. The first of these files also  
 contains malformed regular expressions, in order to check that PCRE diagnoses  
 them correctly.  
711  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
712  October 1998                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
713                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
715      pcreposix.c             )
716      pcre_byte_order.c       )
717      pcre_compile.c          )
718      pcre_config.c           )
719      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
720      pcre_exec.c             )
721      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
722      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
723      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
724      pcre_info.c             )
725      pcre_jit_compile.c      )
726      pcre_maketables.c       )
727      pcre_newline.c          )
728      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
729      pcre_refcount.c         )
730      pcre_study.c            )
731      pcre_tables.c           )
732      pcre_ucd.c              )
733      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
734      pcre_version.c          )
735      pcre_xclass.c           )
736      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
737                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
738      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
739      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
740      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
741      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
742      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
744      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
746      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
747      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
748      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
749      pcrecpp.cc              )
750      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
752      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
753                                C++ stringpiece functions
754      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
756    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
758      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
759      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
760      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
762    (C) Auxiliary files:
764      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
765      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
766      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
767      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
768      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
769      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
770      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
771      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
772      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
773      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
774                              )   "configure"
775      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
776                              )   Makefile.in
777      NEWS                    important changes in this release
778      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
779      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
780      README                  this file
781      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
782      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
783      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
784      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
785      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
786      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
787      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
788                              )   "configure" and config.h
789      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
790                              )   automake
791      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
792      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
793      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
794      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
795      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
796      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
797      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
798      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
799      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
800      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
801      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
802      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
803      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
804                              )   installing, generated by automake
805      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
806      perltest.pl             Perl test program
807      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
808      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
809      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
810      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
811      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
812      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
813      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
814      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
816    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
819      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
820      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
821      CMakeLists.txt
822      config-cmake.h.in
824    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
826      makevp.bat
827      makevp_c.txt
828      makevp_l.txt
829      pcregexp.pas
831    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
833      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
834                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
835      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
836                              )   environments
838    (F) Miscellaneous
840      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
842    Philip Hazel
843    Email local part: ph10
844    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
845    Last updated: 06 September 2011

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