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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  -----------------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
3    
4  The latest release of PCRE is always available from  The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5    from:
6    
7    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    
11    There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    
13      pcre-dev@exim.org
14    
15  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    The contents of this README file are:
17    
18  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on    The PCRE APIs
19  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix. Note that this    Documentation for PCRE
20  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions    Contributions by users of PCRE
21  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26      Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27      Using PCRE from MySQL
28      Making new tarballs
29      Testing PCRE
30      Character tables
31      File manifest
32    
33    
34    The PCRE APIs
35    -------------
36    
37    PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are two sets of functions,
38    one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, and one for the
39    16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values. The distribution also
40    includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
41    courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
42    C++.
43    
44    In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
45    library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
46    man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
47    provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
48    still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
49    not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
50    
51    The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
52    official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
53    with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
54    an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
55    renamed or pointed at by a link.
56    
57    If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
58    library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
59    file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
60    ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
61    up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
62    
63    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
64    -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
65    compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
66    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
67    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
68    new names.
69    
70    
71    Documentation for PCRE
72    ----------------------
73    
74    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
75    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
76    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
77    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
78    
79      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
80         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
81         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
82         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
83         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
84         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
85         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
86         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
87    
88      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
89         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
90         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
91    
92    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
93    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
94    site (see next section).
95    
96    
97  Contributions by users of PCRE  Contributions by users of PCRE
# Line 24  You can find contributions from PCRE use Line 101  You can find contributions from PCRE use
101    
102    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
103    
104  where there is also a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are.  There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
105  Several of them provide support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of  complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
106  Windows systems (I myself do not use Windows). Some are complete in themselves;  Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
107  others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.  contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
108    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
109    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
110  Building PCRE on a Unix-like system  
111  -----------------------------------  
112    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
113    ---------------------------------
114    
115    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
116    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
117    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
118    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
119    CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
120    
121    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
122    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
123    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
124    
125    
126    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
127    ----------------------------------
128    
129    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
130    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
131    
132    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
133    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
134    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
135    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
136    
137  To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the  To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
138  PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory  PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
139  where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU  where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
140  "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in  "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
141  INSTALL.  the file INSTALL.
142    
143  Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in  Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
144  this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient, but the  this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
145  usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example,  the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
146    
147  CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local  CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
148    
149  specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead  This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
150  of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local  -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
151  instead of the default /usr/local.  under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
152    
153  If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that  If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
154  directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source  directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
# Line 56  into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want Line 157  into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want
157  cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx  cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
158  /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure  /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
159    
160    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
161    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
162    does not have any features to support this.
163    
164  There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE  There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
165  library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.  library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
166    
167  . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 character strings in PCRE,  . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
168    you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the code    by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
169    for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. (Even when included, it  
170    still has to be enabled by an option at run time.)    --disable-shared
171      --disable-static
172  . You can build PCRE to recognized CR or NL as the newline character, instead  
173    of whatever your compiler uses for "\n", by adding --newline-is-cr or    (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
174    --newline-is-nl to the "configure" command, respectively. Only do this if you  
175    really understand what you are doing. On traditional Unix-like systems, the  . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
176    newline character is NL.    the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you want only
177      the 16-bit library, use "./configure --enable-pcre16 --disable-pcre8".
178    
179    . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
180      the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
181      command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
182      try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
183      try to build the C++ wrapper.
184    
185    . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
186      large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
187      "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
188      architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
189      will be a compile time error.
190    
191    . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
192      you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
193    
194    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
195      the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
196      you must add --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
197      for handling UTF-8 and UTF-16 is not included in the relevant library. Even
198      when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
199      enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
200      input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16, even when running on EBCDIC
201      platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
202      the same time.
203    
204    . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8 and UTF-16 independently
205      because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting UTF-16
206      support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
207      --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
208      that did not support 16-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
209      --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
210      and the other without in the same configuration.
211    
212    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16 character strings, you want to
213      include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
214      character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
215      "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
216      form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
217      are supported.
218    
219    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
220      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
221      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
222      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
223      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
224      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
225      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
226      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
227    
228      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
229      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
230      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
231      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
232      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
233      failures.
234    
235    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
236      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
237      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
238      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
239      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
240    
241  . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional  . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
242    storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of    storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
243    them. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,    them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
244    
245    --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20    --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
246    
247    on the "configure" command.    on the "configure" command.
248    
249  . PCRE has a counter which can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.  . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
250    If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten    If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
251    million. You can change the default by setting, for example,    million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
252    
253    --with-match-limit=500000    --with-match-limit=500000
254    
255    on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to    on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
256    pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is discussion on the pcreapi    pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
257    man page.    pcreapi man page.
258    
259    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
260      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
261      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
262    
263      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
264    
265      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
266      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
267      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
268    
269  . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase  . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
270    this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can    this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
271    increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely    library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
272    ever to be necessary. If you build PCRE with an increased link size, test 2    parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
273    (and 5 if you are using UTF-8) will fail. Part of the output of these tests    the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
274    is a representation of the compiled pattern, and this changes with the link    offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance.
275    size.  
276    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
277  The "configure" script builds five files:    pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
278      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
279  . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries    pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
280  . Makefile is built by copying Makefile.in and making substitutions.    build PCRE like this, use
281  . config.h is built by copying config.in and making substitutions.  
282  . pcre-config is built by copying pcre-config.in and making substitutions.    --disable-stack-for-recursion
283  . RunTest is a script for running tests  
284      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
285  Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries called    necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
286  libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep    normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
287  command. You can use "make install" to copy these, the public header files    successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
288  pcre.h and pcreposix.h, and the man pages to appropriate live directories on    pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
289  your system, in the normal way.    discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
290    
291  Running "make install" also installs the command pcre-config, which can be used  . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
292  to recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For    whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
293  example,    tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
294    
295      --enable-rebuild-chartables
296    
297      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
298      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
299      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
300      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
301    
302    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
303      character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
304    
305      --enable-ebcdic
306    
307      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
308      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
309      both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16.
310    
311    . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
312      requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
313      libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
314      specifying one or both of
315    
316      --enable-pcregrep-libz
317      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
318    
319      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
320    
321    . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
322      example:
323    
324      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
325    
326      The default value is 20K.
327    
328    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
329      library, by specifying
330    
331      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
332    
333      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
334      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
335      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
336      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
337    
338      Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
339      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
340      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
341      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
342      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
343      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
344      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
345      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
346      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
347      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
348    
349    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
350    
351    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
352    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
353    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
354    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
355                             that were set for "configure"
356    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
357    . libpcre16.pc       )
358    . libpcreposix.pc    )
359    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
360    . RunTest              script for running tests on the basic C library
361    . RunGrepTest          script for running tests on the pcregrep command
362    
363    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
364    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
365    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
366    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
367    
368    When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
369    files are also built:
370    
371    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
372    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
373    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
374    
375    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
376    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
377    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
378    
379    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds either or both of the
380    libraries libpcre and libpcre16, and a test program called pcretest. If you
381    enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
382    built as well.
383    
384    If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
385    built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
386    it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
387    libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
388    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
389    
390    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
391    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
392    
393    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
394    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
395    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
396    
397      Commands (bin):
398        pcretest
399        pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
400        pcre-config
401    
402      Libraries (lib):
403        libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
404        libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
405        libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
406        libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
407    
408      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
409        libpcre16.pc
410        libpcre.pc
411        libpcreposix.pc
412        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
413    
414      Header files (include):
415        pcre.h
416        pcreposix.h
417        pcre_scanner.h      )
418        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
419        pcrecpp.h           )
420        pcrecpparg.h        )
421    
422      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
423        pcregrep.1
424        pcretest.1
425        pcre-config.1
426        pcre.3
427        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
428    
429      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
430        index.html
431        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
432    
433      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
434        AUTHORS
435        COPYING
436        ChangeLog
437        LICENCE
438        NEWS
439        README
440        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
441        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
442        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
443        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
444    
445    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
446    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
447    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
448    
449    
450    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
451    ---------------------------------------------------------
452    
453    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
454    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
455    
456    pcre-config --version    pcre-config --version
457    
458  prints the version number, and  prints the version number, and
459    
460   pcre-config --libs    pcre-config --libs
461    
462  outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be  outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
463  included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from  included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
464  having to remember too many details.  having to remember too many details.
465    
466    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
467    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
468    single command is used. For example:
469    
470      pkg-config --cflags pcre
471    
472    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
473    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
474    
475    
476  Shared libraries on Unix-like systems  Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
477  -------------------------------------  -------------------------------------
478    
479  The default distribution builds PCRE as two shared libraries and two static  The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
480  libraries, as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared  as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
481  library support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the  support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
482  "configure" process.  "configure" process.
483    
484  The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static  The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
# Line 139  built. The programs pcretest and pcregre Line 487  built. The programs pcretest and pcregre
487  libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When  libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
488  you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are  you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
489  automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being  automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
490  installed themselves. However, the versions left in the source directory still  installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
491  use the uninstalled libraries.  use the uninstalled libraries.
492    
493  To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when  To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
494  configuring it. For example  configuring it. For example:
495    
496  ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared  ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
497    
# Line 151  Then run "make" in the usual way. Simila Line 499  Then run "make" in the usual way. Simila
499  build only shared libraries.  build only shared libraries.
500    
501    
502  Cross-compiling on a Unix-like system  Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
503  -------------------------------------  ------------------------------------
504    
505  You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in  You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
506  order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, during the building  order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
507  process, the dftables.c source file is compiled *and run* on the local host, in  specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
508  order to generate the default character tables (the chartables.c file). It  file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
509  therefore needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross compiler.  character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
510  You can do this by specifying HOST_CC (and if necessary HOST_CFLAGS) when  because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
511  calling the "configure" command. If they are not specified, they default to the  compiler.
512  values of CC and CFLAGS.  
513    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
514    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
515  Building on non-Unix systems  that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
516  ----------------------------  a problem.
517    
518  For a non-Unix system, read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE. PCRE has  If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
519  been compiled on Windows systems and on Macintoshes, but I don't know the  move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
520  details because I don't use those systems. It should be straightforward to  run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
521  build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler, because it uses only  Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
522  Standard C functions.  
523    
524    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
525    ----------------------------------
526    
527    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
528    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
529    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
530    
531    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
532    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
533    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
534    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
535    running the "configure" script:
536    
537      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
538    
539    
540    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
541    ---------------------------------
542    
543    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
544    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
545    
546      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
547      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
548    
549    
550    Using PCRE from MySQL
551    ---------------------
552    
553    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
554    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
555    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
556    
557      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
558    
559    
560    Making new tarballs
561    -------------------
562    
563    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
564    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
565    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
566    
567    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
568    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
569    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
570    
571    
572  Testing PCRE  Testing PCRE
573  ------------  ------------
574    
575  To test PCRE on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is created by the  To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
576  configuring process. (This can also be run by "make runtest", "make check", or  created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
577  "make test".) For other systems, see the instruction in NON-UNIX-USE.  that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
578    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
579  The script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its own man  pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another
580  page) on each of the testinput files (in the testdata directory) in turn,  test program called pcre_jit_test is built.
581  and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput file.  
582  A file called testtry is used to hold the output from pcretest. To run pcretest  Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
583  on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for  "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
584  example:  
585    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
586    RunTest 2  own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
587    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
588  The first file can also be fed directly into the perltest script to check that  testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
589  Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the first  were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8/16 support are run only if
590  few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.  --enable-utf was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
591    
592    Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
593    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
594    tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
595    done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
596    this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
597    
598    When both 8-bit and 16-bit support is enabled, the entire set of tests is run
599    twice, once for each library. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
600    RunTest with either the -8 or -16 option.
601    
602    RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest.
603    Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working files in some
604    tests. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test files, give their
605    numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
606    
607      RunTest 2 7 11
608    
609    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
610    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
611    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
612    
613  The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),  The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
614  pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error  pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
615  detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX  detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
616  wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flag to check some of the internals of  wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
617  pcre_compile().  pcre_compile().
618    
619  If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the  If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
# Line 212  bug in PCRE. Line 628  bug in PCRE.
628    
629  The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a  The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
630  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
631  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr" (French) locale. Before running  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
632  the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running the  running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
633  "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr" in the  the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
634  list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment is  in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
635  output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error  is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
636    
637    ** Failed to set locale "fr"    ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
638    
639  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
640  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
641    
642  The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless  [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
643  PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when  work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
644  running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,  RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
645  provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,  Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
646  commented in the script, can be be used.)  document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
647    
648    The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16 support and error handling and
649    internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
650    sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
651    
652    The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
653    matching function, in non-UTF-8/16 mode, UTF-8/16 mode, and UTF-8/16 mode with
654    Unicode property support, respectively.
655    
656    The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
657    run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
658    change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
659    
660    The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
661    test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
662    features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
663    
664    The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
665    the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16-bit mode.
666    These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are for
667    general cases, UTF-8/16 support, and Unicode property support, respectively.
668    
669  The fifth and final file tests error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal  The twentieth test is run only in 16-bit mode. It tests some specific 16-bit
670  UTF-8 features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.  features of the DFA matching engine.
671    
672    The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16-bit mode, when the
673    link size is set to 2. They test reloading pre-compiled patterns.
674    
675    
676  Character tables  Character tables
677  ----------------  ----------------
678    
679  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. The final  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
680  argument of the pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
681  containing the concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
682  generate a set of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
683  pcre_compile() is passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
684  the binary is used.  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
685    
686  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
687  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
688  (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions  tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
689  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
690  sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for your system will  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
691  control the contents of these default tables. You can change the default tables  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
692  by editing chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
693  probably also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
694  re-generated.  the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
695    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
696    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
697    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
698    tables.
699    
700    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
701    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
702    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
703    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
704    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
705    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
706    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
707    
708      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
709    
710  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
711  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
712  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
713  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
714    than 256.
715    
716  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
717  follows:  follows:
# Line 272  You should not alter the set of characte Line 727  You should not alter the set of characte
727  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
728    
729    
730  Manifest  File manifest
731  --------  -------------
732    
733  The distribution should contain the following files:  The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
734    given as pcre[16]_xxx it means that there are two files, one with the name
735    pcre_xxx and the other with the name pcre16_xxx.
736    
737    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
738    
739      dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
740                                when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
741    
742      pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
743                                coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
744                                specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
745    
746      pcreposix.c             )
747      pcre[16]_byte_order.c   )
748      pcre[16]_compile.c      )
749      pcre[16]_config.c       )
750      pcre[16]_dfa_exec.c     )
751      pcre[16]_exec.c         )
752      pcre[16]_fullinfo.c     )
753      pcre[16]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
754      pcre[16]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
755      pcre[16]_jit_compile.c  )
756      pcre[16]_maketables.c   )
757      pcre[16]_newline.c      )
758      pcre[16]_refcount.c     )
759      pcre[16]_string_utils.c )
760      pcre[16]_study.c        )
761      pcre[16]_tables.c       )
762      pcre[16]_ucd.c          )
763      pcre[16]_version.c      )
764      pcre[16]_xclass.c       )
765      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
766      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
767      pcre16_ord2utf16.c      )
768      pcre16_utf16_utils.c    )
769      pcre16_valid_utf16.c    )
770    
771      pcre[16]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
772                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
773    
774      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
775      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
776      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
777      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
778      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
779    
780      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
781    
782      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
783      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
784      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
785      pcrecpp.cc              )
786      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
787    
788      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
789                                C++ stringpiece functions
790      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
791    
792    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
793    
794      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
795      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
796      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
797    
798    (C) Auxiliary files:
799    
800      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
801      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
802      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
803      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
804      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
805      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
806      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
807      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
808      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
809      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
810                              )   "configure"
811      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
812                              )   Makefile.in
813      NEWS                    important changes in this release
814      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
815      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
816      README                  this file
817      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
818      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
819      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
820      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
821      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
822      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
823      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
824                              )   "configure" and config.h
825      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
826                              )   automake
827      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
828      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
829      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
830      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
831      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
832      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
833      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
834      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
835      libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
836      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
837      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
838      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
839      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
840      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
841                              )   installing, generated by automake
842      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
843      perltest.pl             Perl test program
844      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
845      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
846      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
847      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
848      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
849      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
850      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
851      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
852      testdata/*              other supporting test files
853    
854    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
855    
856      cmake/COPYING-CMAKE-SCRIPTS
857      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
858      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
859      CMakeLists.txt
860      config-cmake.h.in
861    
862  (A) The actual source files of the PCRE library functions and their  (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
     headers:  
863    
864    dftables.c            auxiliary program for building chartables.c    makevp.bat
865    get.c                 )    makevp_c.txt
866    maketables.c          )    makevp_l.txt
867    study.c               ) source of    pcregexp.pas
   pcre.c                )   the functions  
   pcreposix.c           )  
   printint.c            )  
   pcre.in               "source" for the header for the external API; pcre.h  
                           is built from this by "configure"  
   pcreposix.h           header for the external POSIX wrapper API  
   internal.h            header for internal use  
   config.in             template for config.h, which is built by configure  
   
 (B) Auxiliary files:  
   
   AUTHORS               information about the author of PCRE  
   ChangeLog             log of changes to the code  
   INSTALL               generic installation instructions  
   LICENCE               conditions for the use of PCRE  
   COPYING               the same, using GNU's standard name  
   Makefile.in           template for Unix Makefile, which is built by configure  
   NEWS                  important changes in this release  
   NON-UNIX-USE          notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems  
   README                this file  
   RunTest.in            template for a Unix shell script for running tests  
   config.guess          ) files used by libtool,  
   config.sub            )   used only when building a shared library  
   configure             a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)  
   configure.in          the autoconf input used to build configure  
   doc/Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  
   doc/*.3               man page sources for the PCRE functions  
   doc/*.1               man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest  
   doc/html/*            HTML documentation  
   doc/pcre.txt          plain text version of the man pages  
   doc/pcretest.txt      plain text documentation of test program  
   doc/perltest.txt      plain text documentation of Perl test program  
   install-sh            a shell script for installing files  
   ltmain.sh             file used to build a libtool script  
   pcretest.c            comprehensive test program  
   pcredemo.c            simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE  
   perltest              Perl test program  
   pcregrep.c            source of a grep utility that uses PCRE  
   pcre-config.in        source of script which retains PCRE information  
   testdata/testinput1   test data, compatible with Perl  
   testdata/testinput2   test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
   testdata/testinput3   test data for locale-specific tests  
   testdata/testinput4   test data for UTF-8 tests compatible with Perl  
   testdata/testinput5   test data for other UTF-8 tests  
   testdata/testoutput1  test results corresponding to testinput1  
   testdata/testoutput2  test results corresponding to testinput2  
   testdata/testoutput3  test results corresponding to testinput3  
   testdata/testoutput4  test results corresponding to testinput4  
   testdata/testoutput5  test results corresponding to testinput5  
868    
869  (C) Auxiliary files for Win32 DLL  (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
870    
871    dll.mk    pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
872    pcre.def                            )   for use in non-"configure" environments
873      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
874                              )   environments
875    
876  (D) Auxiliary file for VPASCAL  (F) Miscellaneous
877    
878    makevp.bat    RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
879    
880  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  Philip Hazel
881  February 2003  Email local part: ph10
882    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
883    Last updated: 20 January 2012

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