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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  -----------------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
3    
4    The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5    from:
6    
7      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
10    
11    There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12    
13      pcre-dev@exim.org
14    
15  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
16    The contents of this README file are:
17    
18      The PCRE APIs
19      Documentation for PCRE
20      Contributions by users of PCRE
21      Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
22      Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
23      Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
24      Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
25      Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
26      Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
27      Using PCRE from MySQL
28      Making new tarballs
29      Testing PCRE
30      Character tables
31      File manifest
32    
33    
34    The PCRE APIs
35    -------------
36    
37    PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are two sets of functions,
38    one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, and one for the
39    16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values. The distribution also
40    includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
41    courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
42    C++.
43    
44    In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
45    library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
46    man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
47    provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
48    still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
49    not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
50    
51    The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
52    official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
53    with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
54    an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
55    renamed or pointed at by a link.
56    
57    If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
58    library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
59    file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
60    ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
61    up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
62    
63    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
64    -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
65    compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
66    effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
67    you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
68    new names.
69    
70    
71    Documentation for PCRE
72    ----------------------
73    
74    If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
75    with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
76    called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
77    documentation is supplied in two other forms:
78    
79      1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
80         doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
81         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
82         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
83         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
84         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
85         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
86         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
87    
88      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
89         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
90         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
91    
92    Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
93    releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
94    site (see next section).
95    
96  Building PCRE on a Unix system  
97    Contributions by users of PCRE
98  ------------------------------  ------------------------------
99    
100  To build PCRE on a Unix system, run the "configure" command in the PCRE  You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
101  distribution directory. This is a standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script,  
102  for which generic instructions are supplied in INSTALL. On many systems just    ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
103  running "./configure" is sufficient, but the usual methods of changing standard  
104  defaults are available. For example  There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
105    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
106    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
107    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
108    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
109    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
110    
111    
112    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
113    ---------------------------------
114    
115    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
116    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
117    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
118    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
119    CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
120    
121    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
122    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
123    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
124    
125    
126    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
127    ----------------------------------
128    
129    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
130    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
131    
132    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
133    make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
134    distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
135    file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
136    
137    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
138    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
139    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
140    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
141    the file INSTALL.
142    
143    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
144    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
145    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
146    
147  CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local  CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
148    
149  specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead  This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
150  of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local  -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
151  instead of the default /usr/local. The "configure" script builds two files:  under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
152    
153  . Makefile is built by copying Makefile.in and making certain substitutions.  If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
154  . config.h is built by copying config.in and making certain substitutions.  directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
155    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
156  Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries called  
157  libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep  cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
158  command. You can use "make install" to copy these, and the public header file  /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
159  pcre.h, to appropriate live directories on your system, in the normal way.  
160    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
161    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
162  Shared libraries on Unix systems  does not have any features to support this.
163  --------------------------------  
164    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
165  The default distribution builds static libraries. It is also possible to build  library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
166  PCRE as two shared libraries. This support is new and experimental and may not  
167  work on all systems. It relies on the "libtool" scripts - these are distributed  . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
168  with PCRE. To build PCRE using shared libraries you must use --enable-shared    by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
169  when configuring it. For example  
170      --disable-shared
171  ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --enable-shared    --disable-static
172    
173  Then run "make" in the usual way. It should build a "libtool" script and use    (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
174  this to compile and link shared libraries, which are placed in a subdirectory  
175  called .libs. The programs pcretest and pgrep are built to use these  . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
176  uninstalled libraries by means of wrapper scripts. When you use "make install"    the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you want only
177  to install shared libraries, pgrep is automatically re-built to use the newly    the 16-bit library, use "./configure --enable-pcre16 --disable-pcre8".
178  installed library before it itself is installed.  
179    . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
180      the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
181  Building on non-Unix systems    command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
182  ----------------------------    try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
183      try to build the C++ wrapper.
184  For a non-Unix system, read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE. PCRE has  
185  been compiled on Windows systems and on Macintoshes, but I don't know the  . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
186  details because I don't use those systems. It should be straightforward to    large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
187  build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler, because it uses only    "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
188  Standard C functions.    architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
189      will be a compile time error.
190    
191    . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
192      you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
193    
194    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
195      the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
196      you must add --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
197      for handling UTF-8 and UTF-16 is not included in the relevant library. Even
198      when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
199      enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
200      input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16, even when running on EBCDIC
201      platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
202      the same time.
203    
204    . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8 and UTF-16 independently
205      because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting UTF-16
206      support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
207      --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
208      that did not support 16-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
209      --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
210      and the other without in the same configuration.
211    
212    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16 character strings, you want to
213      include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
214      character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
215      "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
216      form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
217      are supported.
218    
219    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
220      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
221      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
222      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
223      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
224      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
225      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
226      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
227    
228      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
229      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
230      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
231      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
232      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
233      failures.
234    
235    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
236      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
237      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
238      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
239      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
240    
241    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
242      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
243      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
244    
245      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
246    
247      on the "configure" command.
248    
249    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
250      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
251      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
252    
253      --with-match-limit=500000
254    
255      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
256      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
257      pcreapi man page.
258    
259    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
260      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
261      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
262    
263      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
264    
265      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
266      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
267      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
268    
269    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
270      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
271      library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
272      parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
273      the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
274      offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance.
275    
276    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
277      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
278      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
279      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
280      build PCRE like this, use
281    
282      --disable-stack-for-recursion
283    
284      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
285      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
286      normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
287      successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
288      pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
289      discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
290    
291    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
292      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
293      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
294    
295      --enable-rebuild-chartables
296    
297      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
298      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
299      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
300      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
301    
302    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
303      character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
304    
305      --enable-ebcdic
306    
307      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
308      when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
309      both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16.
310    
311    . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
312      requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
313      libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
314      specifying one or both of
315    
316      --enable-pcregrep-libz
317      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
318    
319      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
320    
321    . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
322      example:
323    
324      --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
325    
326      The default value is 20K.
327    
328    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
329      or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
330    
331      --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
332    
333      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
334      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
335      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
336      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
337      avoided by linking with libedit instead.
338    
339      Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
340      build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
341      library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
342      unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
343      to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
344      the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
345      with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
346      with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
347      messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
348      this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
349    
350    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
351    
352    . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
353    . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
354    . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
355    . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
356                             that were set for "configure"
357    . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
358    . libpcre16.pc       )
359    . libpcreposix.pc    )
360    . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
361    . RunTest              script for running tests on the basic C library
362    . RunGrepTest          script for running tests on the pcregrep command
363    
364    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
365    names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
366    have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
367    or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
368    
369    When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
370    files are also built:
371    
372    . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
373    . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
374    . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
375    
376    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
377    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
378    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
379    
380    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds either or both of the
381    libraries libpcre and libpcre16, and a test program called pcretest. If you
382    enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
383    built as well.
384    
385    If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
386    built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
387    it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
388    libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
389    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
390    
391    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
392    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
393    
394    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
395    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
396    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
397    
398      Commands (bin):
399        pcretest
400        pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
401        pcre-config
402    
403      Libraries (lib):
404        libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
405        libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
406        libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
407        libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
408    
409      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
410        libpcre16.pc
411        libpcre.pc
412        libpcreposix.pc
413        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
414    
415      Header files (include):
416        pcre.h
417        pcreposix.h
418        pcre_scanner.h      )
419        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
420        pcrecpp.h           )
421        pcrecpparg.h        )
422    
423      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
424        pcregrep.1
425        pcretest.1
426        pcre-config.1
427        pcre.3
428        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
429    
430      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
431        index.html
432        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
433    
434      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
435        AUTHORS
436        COPYING
437        ChangeLog
438        LICENCE
439        NEWS
440        README
441        pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
442        pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
443        pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
444        pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
445    
446    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
447    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
448    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
449    
450    
451    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
452    ---------------------------------------------------------
453    
454    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
455    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
456    
457      pcre-config --version
458    
459    prints the version number, and
460    
461      pcre-config --libs
462    
463    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
464    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
465    having to remember too many details.
466    
467    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
468    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
469    single command is used. For example:
470    
471      pkg-config --cflags pcre
472    
473    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
474    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
475    
476    
477    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
478    -------------------------------------
479    
480    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
481    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
482    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
483    "configure" process.
484    
485    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
486    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
487    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
488    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
489    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
490    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
491    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
492    use the uninstalled libraries.
493    
494    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
495    configuring it. For example:
496    
497    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
498    
499    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
500    build only shared libraries.
501    
502    
503    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
504    ------------------------------------
505    
506    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
507    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
508    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
509    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
510    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
511    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
512    compiler.
513    
514    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
515    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
516    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
517    a problem.
518    
519    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
520    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
521    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
522    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
523    
524    
525    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
526    ----------------------------------
527    
528    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
529    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
530    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
531    
532    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
533    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
534    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
535    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
536    running the "configure" script:
537    
538      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
539    
540    
541    Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
542    ---------------------------------
543    
544    A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
545    Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
546    
547      Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
548      Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
549    
550    
551    Using PCRE from MySQL
552    ---------------------
553    
554    On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
555    of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
556    There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
557    
558      http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
559    
560    
561    Making new tarballs
562    -------------------
563    
564    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
565    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
566    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
567    
568    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
569    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
570    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
571    
572    
573  Testing PCRE  Testing PCRE
574  ------------  ------------
575    
576  To test PCRE on a Unix system, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory.  To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
577  (This can also be run by "make runtest" or "make check".) For other systems,  created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
578  see the instruction in NON-UNIX-USE.  that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
579    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
580  The script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in  pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another
581  doc/pcretest.txt) on each of the testinput files (in the testdata directory) in  test program called pcre_jit_test is built.
582  turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput  
583  file. A file called testtry is used to hold the output from pcretest. To run  Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
584  pcretest on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument to  "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
585  RunTest, for example:  
586    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
587    RunTest 3  own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
588    directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
589  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
590  script to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8/16 support are run only if
591  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  --enable-utf was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
592  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  
593  widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
594    run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
595  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), pcre_copy_substring(),  tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
596  pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error detection and run-time  done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
597  flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
598    
599    When both 8-bit and 16-bit support is enabled, the entire set of tests is run
600    twice, once for each library. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
601    RunTest with either the -8 or -16 option.
602    
603    RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest.
604    Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working files in some
605    tests. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test files, give their
606    numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
607    
608      RunTest 2 7 11
609    
610    The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
611    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
612    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
613    
614    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
615    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
616    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
617    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
618    pcre_compile().
619    
620    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
621    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
622    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
623    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
624    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
625    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
626    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
627    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
628    bug in PCRE.
629    
630  The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a  The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
631  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
632  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr" (French) locale. Before running  default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
633  the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running the  running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
634  "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr" in the  the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
635  list of available locales, the fourth test cannot be run, and a comment is  in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
636  output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error  is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
637    
638    ** Failed to set locale "fr"    ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
639    
640  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
641  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
642    
643  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
644  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
645  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
646  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
647  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
648  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  
649  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16 support and error handling and
650  uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
651    sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
652    
653    The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
654    matching function, in non-UTF-8/16 mode, UTF-8/16 mode, and UTF-8/16 mode with
655    Unicode property support, respectively.
656    
657    The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
658    run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
659    change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
660    
661    The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
662    test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
663    features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
664    
665    The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
666    the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16-bit mode.
667    These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are for
668    general cases, UTF-8/16 support, and Unicode property support, respectively.
669    
670    The twentieth test is run only in 16-bit mode. It tests some specific 16-bit
671    features of the DFA matching engine.
672    
673    The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16-bit mode, when the
674    link size is set to 2. They test reloading pre-compiled patterns.
675    
676    
677  Character tables  Character tables
678  ----------------  ----------------
679    
680  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. The final  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
681  argument of the pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
682  containing the concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
683  generate a set of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
684  pcre_compile() is passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
685  the binary is used.  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
686    
687  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
688  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
689  (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions  tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
690  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
691  sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for your system will  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
692  control the contents of these default tables. You can change the default tables  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
693  by editing chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
694  probably also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
695  re-generated.  the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
696    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
697    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
698    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
699    tables.
700    
701    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
702    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
703    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
704    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
705    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
706    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
707    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
708    
709      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
710    
711  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,  The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
712  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify  respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
713  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when  digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
714  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.  building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
715    than 256.
716    
717  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
718  follows:  follows:
# Line 145  You should not alter the set of characte Line 728  You should not alter the set of characte
728  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
729    
730    
731  Manifest  File manifest
732  --------  -------------
   
 The distribution should contain the following files:  
   
 (A) The actual source files of the PCRE library functions and their  
     headers:  
   
   dftables.c            auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
   get.c                 )  
   maketables.c          )  
   study.c               ) source of  
   pcre.c                )   the functions  
   pcreposix.c           )  
   pcre.h                header for the external API  
   pcreposix.h           header for the external POSIX wrapper API  
   internal.h            header for internal use  
   config.in             template for config.h, which is built by configure  
   
 (B) Auxiliary files:  
   
   AUTHORS               information about the author of PCRE  
   ChangeLog             log of changes to the code  
   INSTALL               generic installation instructions  
   LICENCE               conditions for the use of PCRE  
   Makefile.in           template for Unix Makefile, which is built by configure  
   NEWS                  important changes in this release  
   NON-UNIX-USE          notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems  
   README                this file  
   RunTest               a Unix shell script for running tests  
   config.guess          ) files used by libtool,  
   config.sub            )   used only when building a shared library  
   configure             a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)  
   configure.in          the autoconf input used to build configure  
   doc/Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  
   doc/pcre.3            man page source for the PCRE functions  
   doc/pcre.html         HTML version  
   doc/pcre.txt          plain text version  
   doc/pcreposix.3       man page source for the POSIX wrapper API  
   doc/pcreposix.html    HTML version  
   doc/pcreposix.txt     plain text version  
   doc/pcretest.txt      documentation of test program  
   doc/perltest.txt      documentation of Perl test program  
   doc/pgrep.1           man page source for the pgrep utility  
   doc/pgrep.html        HTML version  
   doc/pgrep.txt         plain text version  
   install-sh            a shell script for installing files  
   ltconfig              ) files used to build "libtool",  
   ltmain.sh             )   used only when building a shared library  
   pcretest.c            test program  
   perltest              Perl test program  
   pgrep.c               source of a grep utility that uses PCRE  
   testdata/testinput1   test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005  
   testdata/testinput2   test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
   testdata/testinput3   test data, compatible with Perl 5.005  
   testdata/testinput4   test data for locale-specific tests  
   testdata/testoutput1  test results corresponding to testinput1  
   testdata/testoutput2  test results corresponding to testinput2  
   testdata/testoutput3  test results corresponding to testinput3  
   testdata/testoutput4  test results corresponding to testinput4  
   
 (C) Auxiliary files for Win32 DLL  
   
   dll.mk  
   pcre.def  
733    
734  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
735  January 2000  given as pcre[16]_xxx it means that there are two files, one with the name
736    pcre_xxx and the other with the name pcre16_xxx.
737    
738    (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
739    
740      dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
741                                when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
742    
743      pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
744                                coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
745                                specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
746    
747      pcreposix.c             )
748      pcre[16]_byte_order.c   )
749      pcre[16]_compile.c      )
750      pcre[16]_config.c       )
751      pcre[16]_dfa_exec.c     )
752      pcre[16]_exec.c         )
753      pcre[16]_fullinfo.c     )
754      pcre[16]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
755      pcre[16]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
756      pcre[16]_jit_compile.c  )
757      pcre[16]_maketables.c   )
758      pcre[16]_newline.c      )
759      pcre[16]_refcount.c     )
760      pcre[16]_string_utils.c )
761      pcre[16]_study.c        )
762      pcre[16]_tables.c       )
763      pcre[16]_ucd.c          )
764      pcre[16]_version.c      )
765      pcre[16]_xclass.c       )
766      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
767      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
768      pcre16_ord2utf16.c      )
769      pcre16_utf16_utils.c    )
770      pcre16_valid_utf16.c    )
771    
772      pcre[16]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
773                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
774    
775      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
776      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
777      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
778      sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
779      ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
780    
781      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
782    
783      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
784      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
785      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
786      pcrecpp.cc              )
787      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
788    
789      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
790                                C++ stringpiece functions
791      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
792    
793    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
794    
795      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
796      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
797      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
798    
799    (C) Auxiliary files:
800    
801      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
802      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
803      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
804      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
805      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
806      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
807      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
808      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
809      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
810      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
811                              )   "configure"
812      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
813                              )   Makefile.in
814      NEWS                    important changes in this release
815      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
816      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
817      README                  this file
818      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
819      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
820      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
821      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
822      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
823      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
824      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
825                              )   "configure" and config.h
826      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
827                              )   automake
828      doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
829      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
830      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
831      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
832      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
833      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
834      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
835      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
836      libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
837      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
838      libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
839      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
840      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
841      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
842                              )   installing, generated by automake
843      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
844      perltest.pl             Perl test program
845      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
846      pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
847      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
848      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
849      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
850      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
851      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
852      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
853      testdata/*              other supporting test files
854    
855    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
856    
857      cmake/COPYING-CMAKE-SCRIPTS
858      cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
859      cmake/FindReadline.cmake
860      CMakeLists.txt
861      config-cmake.h.in
862    
863    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
864    
865      makevp.bat
866      makevp_c.txt
867      makevp_l.txt
868      pcregexp.pas
869    
870    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
871    
872      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
873                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
874      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
875                              )   environments
876    
877    (F) Miscellaneous
878    
879      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
880    
881    Philip Hazel
882    Email local part: ph10
883    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
884    Last updated: 25 February 2012

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