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1 README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
4 The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5 from:
7 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
11 There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12 pcre-dev@exim.org. You can access the archives and subscribe or manage your
13 subscription here:
15 https://lists.exim.org/mailman/listinfo/pcre-dev
17 Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
18 The contents of this README file are:
20 The PCRE APIs
21 Documentation for PCRE
22 Contributions by users of PCRE
23 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
24 Building PCRE without using autotools
25 Building PCRE using autotools
26 Retrieving configuration information
27 Shared libraries
28 Cross-compiling using autotools
29 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
30 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
31 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
32 Using PCRE from MySQL
33 Making new tarballs
34 Testing PCRE
35 Character tables
36 File manifest
39 The PCRE APIs
40 -------------
42 PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of
43 functions, one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for
44 the 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the
45 32-bit library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
46 includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
47 courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
48 C++.
50 In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
51 library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
52 man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
53 provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
54 still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
55 not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
57 The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
58 official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
59 with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
60 an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
61 renamed or pointed at by a link.
63 If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
64 library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
65 file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
66 ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
67 up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
69 One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
70 -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
71 compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
72 effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
73 you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
74 new names.
77 Documentation for PCRE
78 ----------------------
80 If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
81 with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
82 called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
83 documentation is supplied in two other forms:
85 1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
86 doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
87 concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
88 those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
89 forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
90 These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
91 similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
92 <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
94 2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
95 in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
96 doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
98 Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
99 releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
100 site (see next section).
103 Contributions by users of PCRE
104 ------------------------------
106 You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
108 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
110 There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
111 complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
112 Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
113 contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
114 Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
115 in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
117 A PCRE user maintains downloadable Windows binaries of the pcregrep and
118 pcretest programs here:
120 http://www.rexegg.com/pcregrep-pcretest.html
123 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
124 --------------------------------------
126 For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
127 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
128 "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
129 many Unix-like systems.
131 PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
132 cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
133 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
135 PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
136 straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
137 library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
140 Building PCRE without using autotools
141 -------------------------------------
143 The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
144 environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
145 file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
148 Building PCRE using autotools
149 -----------------------------
151 If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
152 in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
154 The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
155 make install" (autotools) process.
157 To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
158 command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
159 to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
160 standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
161 are supplied in the file INSTALL.
163 Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
164 this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
165 the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
167 CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
169 This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
170 -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
171 under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
173 If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
174 directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
175 into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
177 cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
178 /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
180 PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
181 possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
182 does not have any features to support this.
184 There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
185 library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
187 . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
188 by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
190 --disable-shared
191 --disable-static
193 (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
195 . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
196 the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
197 --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
198 If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
199 building the 8-bit library.
201 . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
202 the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
203 command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
204 try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
205 try to build the C++ wrapper.
207 . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
208 large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
209 "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
210 architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
211 will be a compile time error.
213 . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
214 you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
216 . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
217 the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
218 or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
219 --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
220 UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
221 when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
222 enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
223 input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
224 platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
225 the same time.
227 . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
228 independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
229 UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
230 --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
231 that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
232 --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
233 and the other without in the same configuration.
235 . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
236 include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
237 character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
238 "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
239 form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
240 are supported.
242 . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
243 of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
244 end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
245 of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
246 is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
247 newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
248 or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
249 --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
251 If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
252 the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
253 LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
254 to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
255 --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
256 failures.
258 . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
259 sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
260 be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
261 to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
262 --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
264 . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
265 storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
266 them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
268 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
270 on the "configure" command.
272 . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
273 If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
274 million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
276 --with-match-limit=500000
278 on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
279 pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
280 pcreapi man page.
282 . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
283 during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
284 essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
286 --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
288 Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
289 cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
290 sizes in the pcrestack man page.
292 . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
293 this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
294 library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
295 parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
296 the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
297 offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
298 library, the only supported link size is 4.
300 . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
301 pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
302 obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
303 pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
304 build PCRE like this, use
306 --disable-stack-for-recursion
308 on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
309 necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
310 normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
311 successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
312 pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
313 discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
315 . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
316 whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
317 tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
319 --enable-rebuild-chartables
321 a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
322 you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
323 not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
324 pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
326 . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
327 character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
329 --enable-ebcdic
331 This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
332 when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
333 both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
334 which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
335 instead of the default 0x15.
337 . In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
339 --enable-valgrind
341 PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
342 unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
343 mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
345 . In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
346 is installed, if you specify
348 --enable-coverage
350 the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
351 report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
352 your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
353 You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
354 running "make" to build PCRE. There is more information about coverage
355 reporting in the "pcrebuild" documentation.
357 . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
358 requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
359 libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
360 specifying one or both of
362 --enable-pcregrep-libz
363 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
365 Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
367 . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
368 example:
370 --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
372 The default value is 20K.
374 . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
375 or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
377 --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
379 If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
380 the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
381 Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
382 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
383 avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
385 Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
386 build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
387 library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
388 unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
389 to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
390 the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
391 with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
392 with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
393 messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
394 this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
396 The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
398 . Makefile the makefile that builds the library
399 . config.h build-time configuration options for the library
400 . pcre.h the public PCRE header file
401 . pcre-config script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
402 that were set for "configure"
403 . libpcre.pc ) data for the pkg-config command
404 . libpcre16.pc )
405 . libpcre32.pc )
406 . libpcreposix.pc )
407 . libtool script that builds shared and/or static libraries
409 Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
410 names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
411 have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
412 or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
414 When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
415 files are also built:
417 . libpcrecpp.pc data for the pkg-config command
418 . pcrecpparg.h header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
419 . pcre_stringpiece.h header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
421 The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
422 script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
423 contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
425 Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
426 libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
427 enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
428 built as well.
430 If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
431 built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
432 it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
433 libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
434 pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
436 The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
437 tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
439 You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
440 system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
441 <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
443 Commands (bin):
444 pcretest
445 pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
446 pcre-config
448 Libraries (lib):
449 libpcre16 (if 16-bit support is enabled)
450 libpcre32 (if 32-bit support is enabled)
451 libpcre (if 8-bit support is enabled)
452 libpcreposix (if 8-bit support is enabled)
453 libpcrecpp (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
455 Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
456 libpcre16.pc
457 libpcre32.pc
458 libpcre.pc
459 libpcreposix.pc
460 libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
462 Header files (include):
463 pcre.h
464 pcreposix.h
465 pcre_scanner.h )
466 pcre_stringpiece.h ) if C++ support is enabled
467 pcrecpp.h )
468 pcrecpparg.h )
470 Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
471 pcregrep.1
472 pcretest.1
473 pcre-config.1
474 pcre.3
475 pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
477 HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
478 index.html
479 *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
481 Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
484 ChangeLog
486 NEWS
488 pcre.txt (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
489 pcretest.txt the pcretest man page
490 pcregrep.txt the pcregrep man page
491 pcre-config.txt the pcre-config man page
493 If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
494 This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
495 remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
498 Retrieving configuration information
499 ------------------------------------
501 Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
502 recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
504 pcre-config --version
506 prints the version number, and
508 pcre-config --libs
510 outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
511 included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
512 having to remember too many details.
514 The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
515 about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
516 single command is used. For example:
518 pkg-config --cflags pcre
520 The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
521 <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
524 Shared libraries
525 ----------------
527 The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
528 as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
529 support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
530 "configure" process.
532 The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
533 libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
534 built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
535 libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
536 you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
537 automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
538 installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
539 use the uninstalled libraries.
541 To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
542 configuring it. For example:
544 ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
546 Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
547 build only shared libraries.
550 Cross-compiling using autotools
551 -------------------------------
553 You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
554 order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
555 specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
556 file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
557 character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
558 because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
559 compiler.
561 When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
562 by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
563 that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
564 a problem.
566 If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
567 move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
568 run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
569 Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
572 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
573 ----------------------------------
575 Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
576 "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
577 environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
579 Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
580 needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
581 option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
582 use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
583 running the "configure" script:
585 CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
588 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
589 -----------------------------------------
591 The following error may occur when compiling with native compilers in the Tru64
592 operating system:
594 CXX libpcrecpp_la-pcrecpp.lo
595 cxx: Error: /usr/lib/cmplrs/cxx/V7.1-006/include/cxx/iosfwd, line 58: #error
596 directive: "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to
597 override default - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
598 #error "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to override default
599 - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
601 This may be followed by other errors, complaining that 'namespace "std" has no
602 member'. The solution to this is to add the line
604 #define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM 1
606 to the config.h file.
609 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
610 ---------------------------------
612 A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
613 Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
615 Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
616 Solaris 9 x86: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
619 Using PCRE from MySQL
620 ---------------------
622 On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
623 of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
624 There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
626 http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
629 Making new tarballs
630 -------------------
632 The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
633 zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
634 build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
636 If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
637 should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
638 script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
641 Testing PCRE
642 ------------
644 To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
645 There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
646 pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
647 called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
648 are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
649 pcre_jit_test is built.
651 Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
652 "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
655 The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
656 own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
657 directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
658 testoutput files. RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output
659 from pcretest. Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working
660 files in some tests.
662 Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options were selected. For
663 example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if --enable-utf was
664 used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
666 Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
667 run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
668 tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
669 done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
670 this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
671 This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
673 The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
674 libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
675 RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
677 If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
678 on the RunTest command line. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test
679 files, give their numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
681 RunTest 2 7 11
683 You can also specify ranges of tests such as 3-6 or 3- (meaning 3 to the
684 end), or a number preceded by ~ to exclude a test. For example:
686 Runtest 3-15 ~10
688 This runs tests 3 to 15, excluding test 10, and just ~13 runs all the tests
689 except test 13. Whatever order the arguments are in, the tests are always run
690 in numerical order.
692 You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
693 a list of tests.
695 The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
696 that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
697 first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
699 The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
700 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
701 detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
702 wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
703 pcre_compile().
705 If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
706 character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
707 cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
708 isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
709 [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
710 this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
711 listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
712 test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
713 bug in PCRE.
715 The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
716 set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
717 default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
718 running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
719 the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
720 in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
721 is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
723 ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
725 in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
726 despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
728 [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
729 work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
730 RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
731 Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
732 document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
734 The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
735 internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
736 sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
738 The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
739 matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
740 mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
742 The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
743 run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
744 change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
746 The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
747 test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
748 features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
750 The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
751 the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit
752 mode. These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are
753 for general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support,
754 respectively.
756 The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
757 16/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
759 The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when
760 the link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading
761 pre-compiled patterns.
763 The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are
764 for general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
766 The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are
767 for general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
770 Character tables
771 ----------------
773 For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
774 whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
775 pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
776 concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
777 of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
778 passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
780 The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
781 default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
782 tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
783 for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
784 program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
785 handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
786 build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
787 your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
788 the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
789 you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
790 automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
791 pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
792 tables.
794 When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
795 it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
796 attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
797 system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
798 set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
799 locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
800 program by hand with the -L option. For example:
802 ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
804 The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
805 respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
806 digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
807 building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
808 than 256.
810 The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
811 follows:
813 1 white space character
814 2 letter
815 4 decimal digit
816 8 hexadecimal digit
817 16 alphanumeric or '_'
818 128 regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
820 You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
821 will cause PCRE to malfunction.
824 File manifest
825 -------------
827 The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
828 given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
829 pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
831 (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
833 dftables.c auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
834 when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
836 pcre_chartables.c.dist a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
837 coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
838 specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
840 pcreposix.c )
841 pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c )
842 pcre[16|32]_compile.c )
843 pcre[16|32]_config.c )
844 pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c )
845 pcre[16|32]_exec.c )
846 pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c )
847 pcre[16|32]_get.c ) sources for the functions in the library,
848 pcre[16|32]_globals.c ) and some internal functions that they use
849 pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c )
850 pcre[16|32]_maketables.c )
851 pcre[16|32]_newline.c )
852 pcre[16|32]_refcount.c )
853 pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
854 pcre[16|32]_study.c )
855 pcre[16|32]_tables.c )
856 pcre[16|32]_ucd.c )
857 pcre[16|32]_version.c )
858 pcre[16|32]_xclass.c )
859 pcre_ord2utf8.c )
860 pcre_valid_utf8.c )
861 pcre16_ord2utf16.c )
862 pcre16_utf16_utils.c )
863 pcre16_valid_utf16.c )
864 pcre32_utf32_utils.c )
865 pcre32_valid_utf32.c )
867 pcre[16|32]_printint.c ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
868 ) and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
870 pcre.h.in template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
871 pcreposix.h header for the external POSIX wrapper API
872 pcre_internal.h header for internal use
873 sljit/* 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
874 ucp.h header for Unicode property handling
876 config.h.in template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
878 pcrecpp.h public header file for the C++ wrapper
879 pcrecpparg.h.in template for another C++ header file
880 pcre_scanner.h public header file for C++ scanner functions
881 pcrecpp.cc )
882 pcre_scanner.cc ) source for the C++ wrapper library
884 pcre_stringpiece.h.in template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
885 C++ stringpiece functions
886 pcre_stringpiece.cc source for the C++ stringpiece functions
888 (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
890 pcredemo.c simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
891 pcregrep.c source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
892 pcretest.c comprehensive test program
894 (C) Auxiliary files:
896 132html script to turn "man" pages into HTML
897 AUTHORS information about the author of PCRE
898 ChangeLog log of changes to the code
899 CleanTxt script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
900 Detrail script to remove trailing spaces
901 HACKING some notes about the internals of PCRE
902 INSTALL generic installation instructions
903 LICENCE conditions for the use of PCRE
904 COPYING the same, using GNU's standard name
905 Makefile.in ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
906 ) "configure"
907 Makefile.am ) the automake input that was used to create
908 ) Makefile.in
909 NEWS important changes in this release
910 NON-UNIX-USE the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
911 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD notes on building PCRE without using autotools
912 PrepareRelease script to make preparations for "make dist"
913 README this file
914 RunTest a Unix shell script for running tests
915 RunGrepTest a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
916 aclocal.m4 m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
917 config.guess ) files used by libtool,
918 config.sub ) used only when building a shared library
919 configure a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
920 configure.ac ) the autoconf input that was used to build
921 ) "configure" and config.h
922 depcomp ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
923 ) automake
924 doc/*.3 man page sources for PCRE
925 doc/*.1 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
926 doc/index.html.src the base HTML page
927 doc/html/* HTML documentation
928 doc/pcre.txt plain text version of the man pages
929 doc/pcretest.txt plain text documentation of test program
930 doc/perltest.txt plain text documentation of Perl test program
931 install-sh a shell script for installing files
932 libpcre16.pc.in template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
933 libpcre32.pc.in template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
934 libpcre.pc.in template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
935 libpcreposix.pc.in template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
936 libpcrecpp.pc.in template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
937 ltmain.sh file used to build a libtool script
938 missing ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
939 ) installing, generated by automake
940 mkinstalldirs script for making install directories
941 perltest.pl Perl test program
942 pcre-config.in source of script which retains PCRE information
943 pcre_jit_test.c test program for the JIT compiler
944 pcrecpp_unittest.cc )
945 pcre_scanner_unittest.cc ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
946 pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
947 testdata/testinput* test data for main library tests
948 testdata/testoutput* expected test results
949 testdata/grep* input and output for pcregrep tests
950 testdata/* other supporting test files
952 (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
955 cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
956 cmake/FindEditline.cmake
957 cmake/FindReadline.cmake
958 CMakeLists.txt
959 config-cmake.h.in
961 (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
963 makevp.bat
964 makevp_c.txt
965 makevp_l.txt
966 pcregexp.pas
968 (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
970 pcre.h.generic ) a version of the public PCRE header file
971 ) for use in non-"configure" environments
972 config.h.generic ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
973 ) environments
975 (F) Miscellaneous
977 RunTest.bat a script for running tests under Windows
979 Philip Hazel
980 Email local part: ph10
981 Email domain: cam.ac.uk
982 Last updated: 02 July 2013


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