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1 README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
4 The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
5 from:
7 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
8 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
9 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
11 There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
12 pcre-dev@exim.org. You can access the archives and subscribe or manage your
13 subscription here:
15 https://lists.exim.org/mailman/listinfo/pcre-dev
17 Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
18 The contents of this README file are:
20 The PCRE APIs
21 Documentation for PCRE
22 Contributions by users of PCRE
23 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
24 Building PCRE without using autotools
25 Building PCRE using autotools
26 Retrieving configuration information
27 Shared libraries
28 Cross-compiling using autotools
29 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
30 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
31 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
32 Using PCRE from MySQL
33 Making new tarballs
34 Testing PCRE
35 Character tables
36 File manifest
39 The PCRE APIs
40 -------------
42 PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are three sets of
43 functions, one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, one for
44 the 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values, and one for the
45 32-bit library, which processes strings of 32-bit values. The distribution also
46 includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
47 courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
48 C++.
50 In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
51 library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
52 man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
53 provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
54 still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
55 not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
57 The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
58 official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
59 with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
60 an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
61 renamed or pointed at by a link.
63 If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
64 library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
65 file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
66 ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
67 up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
69 One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
70 -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
71 compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
72 effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
73 you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
74 new names.
77 Documentation for PCRE
78 ----------------------
80 If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
81 with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
82 called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
83 documentation is supplied in two other forms:
85 1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
86 doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
87 concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
88 those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
89 forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
90 These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
91 similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
92 <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
94 2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
95 in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
96 doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
98 Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
99 releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
100 site (see next section).
103 Contributions by users of PCRE
104 ------------------------------
106 You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
108 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
110 There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
111 complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
112 Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
113 contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
114 Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
115 in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
117 A PCRE user maintains downloadable Windows binaries of the pcregrep and
118 pcretest programs here:
120 http://www.rexegg.com/pcregrep-pcretest.html
123 Building PCRE on non-Unix-like systems
124 --------------------------------------
126 For a non-Unix-like system, please read the comments in the file
127 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD, though if your system supports the use of "configure" and
128 "make" you may be able to build PCRE using autotools in the same way as for
129 many Unix-like systems.
131 PCRE can also be configured using the GUI facility provided by CMake's
132 cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc. The file
133 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD has information about CMake.
135 PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
136 straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
137 library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
140 Building PCRE without using autotools
141 -------------------------------------
143 The use of autotools (in particular, libtool) is problematic in some
144 environments, even some that are Unix or Unix-like. See the NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
145 file for ways of building PCRE without using autotools.
148 Building PCRE using autotools
149 -----------------------------
151 If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
152 in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
154 The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure; make;
155 make install" (autotools) process.
157 To build PCRE on system that supports autotools, first run the "configure"
158 command from the PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set
159 to the directory where you want the files to be created. This command is a
160 standard GNU "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions
161 are supplied in the file INSTALL.
163 Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
164 this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
165 the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
167 CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
169 This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
170 -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
171 under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
173 If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
174 directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
175 into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
177 cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
178 /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
180 PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
181 possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
182 does not have any features to support this.
184 There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
185 library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
187 . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
188 by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
190 --disable-shared
191 --disable-static
193 (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
195 . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
196 the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you add
197 --enable-pcre32 to the "configure" command, the 32-bit library is also built.
198 If you want only the 16-bit or 32-bit library, use --disable-pcre8 to disable
199 building the 8-bit library.
201 . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
202 the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
203 command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
204 try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
205 try to build the C++ wrapper.
207 . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
208 large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
209 "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
210 architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
211 will be a compile time error.
213 . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
214 you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
216 . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
217 the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
218 or UTF-32 Unicode character strings in the 32-bit library, you must add
219 --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code for handling
220 UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-8 is not included in the relevant library. Even
221 when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
222 enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
223 input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16/32, even when running on EBCDIC
224 platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
225 the same time.
227 . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32
228 independently because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting
229 UTF-16 support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
230 --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
231 that did not support 16-bit or 32-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
232 --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
233 and the other without in the same configuration.
235 . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16/32 character strings, you want to
236 include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
237 character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
238 "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
239 form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
240 are supported.
242 . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
243 of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
244 end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
245 of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
246 is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
247 newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
248 or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
249 --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
251 If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
252 the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
253 LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
254 to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
255 --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
256 failures.
258 . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
259 sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
260 be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
261 to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
262 --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
264 . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
265 storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
266 them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
268 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
270 on the "configure" command.
272 . PCRE has a counter that limits the depth of nesting of parentheses in a
273 pattern. This limits the amount of system stack that a pattern uses when it
274 is compiled. The default is 250, but you can change it by setting, for
275 example,
277 --with-parens-nest-limit=500
279 . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses
280 when matching a pattern. If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match
281 fails. The default is ten million. You can change the default by setting, for
282 example,
284 --with-match-limit=500000
286 on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
287 pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
288 pcreapi man page.
290 . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
291 during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
292 essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
294 --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
296 Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
297 cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
298 sizes in the pcrestack man page.
300 . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
301 this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
302 library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
303 parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
304 the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
305 offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance. In the 32-bit
306 library, the only supported link size is 4.
308 . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
309 pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
310 obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
311 pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
312 build PCRE like this, use
314 --disable-stack-for-recursion
316 on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
317 necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
318 normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
319 successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
320 pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
321 discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
323 . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
324 whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
325 tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
327 --enable-rebuild-chartables
329 a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
330 you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
331 not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
332 pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
334 . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
335 character code (as opposed to ASCII/Unicode) by specifying
337 --enable-ebcdic
339 This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
340 when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
341 both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16/32. There is a second option, --enable-ebcdic-nl25,
342 which specifies that the code value for the EBCDIC NL character is 0x25
343 instead of the default 0x15.
345 . In environments where valgrind is installed, if you specify
347 --enable-valgrind
349 PCRE will use valgrind annotations to mark certain memory regions as
350 unaddressable. This allows it to detect invalid memory accesses, and is
351 mostly useful for debugging PCRE itself.
353 . In environments where the gcc compiler is used and lcov version 1.6 or above
354 is installed, if you specify
356 --enable-coverage
358 the build process implements a code coverage report for the test suite. The
359 report is generated by running "make coverage". If ccache is installed on
360 your system, it must be disabled when building PCRE for coverage reporting.
361 You can do this by setting the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE=1 before
362 running "make" to build PCRE. There is more information about coverage
363 reporting in the "pcrebuild" documentation.
365 . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
366 requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
367 libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
368 specifying one or both of
370 --enable-pcregrep-libz
371 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
373 Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
375 . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
376 example:
378 --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
380 The default value is 20K.
382 . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
383 or libedit libraries, by specifying, respectively,
385 --enable-pcretest-libreadline or --enable-pcretest-libedit
387 If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
388 the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
389 Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
390 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues. These can be
391 avoided by linking with libedit (which has a BSD licence) instead.
393 Enabling libreadline causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
394 build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
395 library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
396 unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
397 to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
398 the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
399 with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
400 with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
401 messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
402 this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
404 The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
406 . Makefile the makefile that builds the library
407 . config.h build-time configuration options for the library
408 . pcre.h the public PCRE header file
409 . pcre-config script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
410 that were set for "configure"
411 . libpcre.pc ) data for the pkg-config command
412 . libpcre16.pc )
413 . libpcre32.pc )
414 . libpcreposix.pc )
415 . libtool script that builds shared and/or static libraries
417 Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
418 names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
419 have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
420 or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
422 When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
423 files are also built:
425 . libpcrecpp.pc data for the pkg-config command
426 . pcrecpparg.h header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
427 . pcre_stringpiece.h header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
429 The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
430 script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
431 contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
433 Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds the the libraries
434 libpcre, libpcre16 and/or libpcre32, and a test program called pcretest. If you
435 enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
436 built as well.
438 If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
439 built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
440 it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
441 libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
442 pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
444 The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
445 tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
447 You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
448 system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
449 <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
451 Commands (bin):
452 pcretest
453 pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
454 pcre-config
456 Libraries (lib):
457 libpcre16 (if 16-bit support is enabled)
458 libpcre32 (if 32-bit support is enabled)
459 libpcre (if 8-bit support is enabled)
460 libpcreposix (if 8-bit support is enabled)
461 libpcrecpp (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
463 Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
464 libpcre16.pc
465 libpcre32.pc
466 libpcre.pc
467 libpcreposix.pc
468 libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
470 Header files (include):
471 pcre.h
472 pcreposix.h
473 pcre_scanner.h )
474 pcre_stringpiece.h ) if C++ support is enabled
475 pcrecpp.h )
476 pcrecpparg.h )
478 Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
479 pcregrep.1
480 pcretest.1
481 pcre-config.1
482 pcre.3
483 pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
485 HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
486 index.html
487 *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
489 Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
492 ChangeLog
494 NEWS
496 pcre.txt (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
497 pcretest.txt the pcretest man page
498 pcregrep.txt the pcregrep man page
499 pcre-config.txt the pcre-config man page
501 If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
502 This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
503 remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
506 Retrieving configuration information
507 ------------------------------------
509 Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
510 recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
512 pcre-config --version
514 prints the version number, and
516 pcre-config --libs
518 outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
519 included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
520 having to remember too many details.
522 The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
523 about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
524 single command is used. For example:
526 pkg-config --cflags pcre
528 The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
529 <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
532 Shared libraries
533 ----------------
535 The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
536 as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
537 support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
538 "configure" process.
540 The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
541 libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
542 built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
543 libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
544 you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
545 automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
546 installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
547 use the uninstalled libraries.
549 To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
550 configuring it. For example:
552 ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
554 Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
555 build only shared libraries.
558 Cross-compiling using autotools
559 -------------------------------
561 You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
562 order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
563 specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
564 file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
565 character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
566 because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
567 compiler.
569 When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
570 by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
571 that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
572 a problem.
574 If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
575 move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
576 run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
577 Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
580 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
581 ----------------------------------
583 Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
584 "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
585 environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
587 Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
588 needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
589 option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
590 use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
591 running the "configure" script:
593 CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
596 Compiling in Tru64 using native compilers
597 -----------------------------------------
599 The following error may occur when compiling with native compilers in the Tru64
600 operating system:
602 CXX libpcrecpp_la-pcrecpp.lo
603 cxx: Error: /usr/lib/cmplrs/cxx/V7.1-006/include/cxx/iosfwd, line 58: #error
604 directive: "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to
605 override default - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
606 #error "cannot include iosfwd -- define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM to override default
607 - see section 7.1.2 of the C++ Using Guide"
609 This may be followed by other errors, complaining that 'namespace "std" has no
610 member'. The solution to this is to add the line
612 #define __USE_STD_IOSTREAM 1
614 to the config.h file.
617 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
618 ---------------------------------
620 A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
621 Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
623 Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
624 Solaris 9 x86: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
627 Using PCRE from MySQL
628 ---------------------
630 On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
631 of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
632 There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
634 http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
637 Making new tarballs
638 -------------------
640 The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
641 zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
642 build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
644 If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
645 should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
646 script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
649 Testing PCRE
650 ------------
652 To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix-like system, run the RunTest script.
653 There is another script called RunGrepTest that tests the options of the
654 pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is built, three test programs
655 called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest
656 are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another test program called
657 pcre_jit_test is built.
659 Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
660 "make test". For other environments, see the instructions in
663 The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
664 own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
665 directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
666 testoutput files. RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output
667 from pcretest. Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working
668 files in some tests.
670 Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options were selected. For
671 example, the tests for UTF-8/16/32 support are run only if --enable-utf was
672 used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
674 Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
675 run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
676 tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
677 done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
678 this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
679 This testing can be suppressed by putting "nojit" on the RunTest command line.
681 The entire set of tests is run once for each of the 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
682 libraries that are enabled. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
683 RunTest with either the -8, -16 or -32 option.
685 If valgrind is installed, you can run the tests under it by putting "valgrind"
686 on the RunTest command line. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test
687 files, give their numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
689 RunTest 2 7 11
691 You can also specify ranges of tests such as 3-6 or 3- (meaning 3 to the
692 end), or a number preceded by ~ to exclude a test. For example:
694 Runtest 3-15 ~10
696 This runs tests 3 to 15, excluding test 10, and just ~13 runs all the tests
697 except test 13. Whatever order the arguments are in, the tests are always run
698 in numerical order.
700 You can also call RunTest with the single argument "list" to cause it to output
701 a list of tests.
703 The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
704 that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
705 first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
707 The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
708 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
709 detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
710 wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
711 pcre_compile().
713 If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
714 character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
715 cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
716 isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
717 [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
718 this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
719 listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
720 test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
721 bug in PCRE.
723 The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
724 set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
725 default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
726 running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
727 the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
728 in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
729 is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
731 ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
733 in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
734 despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
736 [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
737 work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
738 RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
739 Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
740 document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
742 The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16/32 support and error handling and
743 internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
744 sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
746 The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
747 matching function, in non-UTF-8/16/32 mode, UTF-8/16/32 mode, and UTF-8/16/32
748 mode with Unicode property support, respectively.
750 The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
751 run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
752 change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
754 The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
755 test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
756 features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
758 The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
759 the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16/32-bit
760 mode. These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are
761 for general cases, UTF-8/16/32 support, and Unicode property support,
762 respectively.
764 The twentieth test is run only in 16/32-bit mode. It tests some specific
765 16/32-bit features of the DFA matching engine.
767 The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16/32-bit mode, when
768 the link size is set to 2 for the 16-bit library. They test reloading
769 pre-compiled patterns.
771 The twenty-third and twenty-fourth tests are run only in 16-bit mode. They are
772 for general cases, and UTF-16 support, respectively.
774 The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth tests are run only in 32-bit mode. They are
775 for general cases, and UTF-32 support, respectively.
778 Character tables
779 ----------------
781 For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
782 whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
783 pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
784 concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
785 of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
786 passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
788 The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
789 default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
790 tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
791 for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
792 program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
793 handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
794 build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
795 your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
796 the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
797 you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
798 automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
799 pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
800 tables.
802 When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
803 it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
804 attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
805 system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
806 set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
807 locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
808 program by hand with the -L option. For example:
810 ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
812 The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
813 respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
814 digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
815 building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
816 than 256.
818 The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
819 follows:
821 1 white space character
822 2 letter
823 4 decimal digit
824 8 hexadecimal digit
825 16 alphanumeric or '_'
826 128 regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
828 You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
829 will cause PCRE to malfunction.
832 File manifest
833 -------------
835 The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
836 given as pcre[16|32]_xxx it means that there are three files, one with the name
837 pcre_xxx, one with the name pcre16_xx, and a third with the name pcre32_xxx.
839 (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
841 dftables.c auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
842 when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
844 pcre_chartables.c.dist a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
845 coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
846 specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
848 pcreposix.c )
849 pcre[16|32]_byte_order.c )
850 pcre[16|32]_compile.c )
851 pcre[16|32]_config.c )
852 pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec.c )
853 pcre[16|32]_exec.c )
854 pcre[16|32]_fullinfo.c )
855 pcre[16|32]_get.c ) sources for the functions in the library,
856 pcre[16|32]_globals.c ) and some internal functions that they use
857 pcre[16|32]_jit_compile.c )
858 pcre[16|32]_maketables.c )
859 pcre[16|32]_newline.c )
860 pcre[16|32]_refcount.c )
861 pcre[16|32]_string_utils.c )
862 pcre[16|32]_study.c )
863 pcre[16|32]_tables.c )
864 pcre[16|32]_ucd.c )
865 pcre[16|32]_version.c )
866 pcre[16|32]_xclass.c )
867 pcre_ord2utf8.c )
868 pcre_valid_utf8.c )
869 pcre16_ord2utf16.c )
870 pcre16_utf16_utils.c )
871 pcre16_valid_utf16.c )
872 pcre32_utf32_utils.c )
873 pcre32_valid_utf32.c )
875 pcre[16|32]_printint.c ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
876 ) and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
878 pcre.h.in template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
879 pcreposix.h header for the external POSIX wrapper API
880 pcre_internal.h header for internal use
881 sljit/* 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
882 ucp.h header for Unicode property handling
884 config.h.in template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
886 pcrecpp.h public header file for the C++ wrapper
887 pcrecpparg.h.in template for another C++ header file
888 pcre_scanner.h public header file for C++ scanner functions
889 pcrecpp.cc )
890 pcre_scanner.cc ) source for the C++ wrapper library
892 pcre_stringpiece.h.in template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
893 C++ stringpiece functions
894 pcre_stringpiece.cc source for the C++ stringpiece functions
896 (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
898 pcredemo.c simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
899 pcregrep.c source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
900 pcretest.c comprehensive test program
902 (C) Auxiliary files:
904 132html script to turn "man" pages into HTML
905 AUTHORS information about the author of PCRE
906 ChangeLog log of changes to the code
907 CleanTxt script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
908 Detrail script to remove trailing spaces
909 HACKING some notes about the internals of PCRE
910 INSTALL generic installation instructions
911 LICENCE conditions for the use of PCRE
912 COPYING the same, using GNU's standard name
913 Makefile.in ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
914 ) "configure"
915 Makefile.am ) the automake input that was used to create
916 ) Makefile.in
917 NEWS important changes in this release
918 NON-UNIX-USE the previous name for NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD
919 NON-AUTOTOOLS-BUILD notes on building PCRE without using autotools
920 PrepareRelease script to make preparations for "make dist"
921 README this file
922 RunTest a Unix shell script for running tests
923 RunGrepTest a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
924 aclocal.m4 m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
925 config.guess ) files used by libtool,
926 config.sub ) used only when building a shared library
927 configure a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
928 configure.ac ) the autoconf input that was used to build
929 ) "configure" and config.h
930 depcomp ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
931 ) automake
932 doc/*.3 man page sources for PCRE
933 doc/*.1 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
934 doc/index.html.src the base HTML page
935 doc/html/* HTML documentation
936 doc/pcre.txt plain text version of the man pages
937 doc/pcretest.txt plain text documentation of test program
938 doc/perltest.txt plain text documentation of Perl test program
939 install-sh a shell script for installing files
940 libpcre16.pc.in template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
941 libpcre32.pc.in template for libpcre32.pc for pkg-config
942 libpcre.pc.in template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
943 libpcreposix.pc.in template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
944 libpcrecpp.pc.in template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
945 ltmain.sh file used to build a libtool script
946 missing ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
947 ) installing, generated by automake
948 mkinstalldirs script for making install directories
949 perltest.pl Perl test program
950 pcre-config.in source of script which retains PCRE information
951 pcre_jit_test.c test program for the JIT compiler
952 pcrecpp_unittest.cc )
953 pcre_scanner_unittest.cc ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
954 pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
955 testdata/testinput* test data for main library tests
956 testdata/testoutput* expected test results
957 testdata/grep* input and output for pcregrep tests
958 testdata/* other supporting test files
960 (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
963 cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
964 cmake/FindEditline.cmake
965 cmake/FindReadline.cmake
966 CMakeLists.txt
967 config-cmake.h.in
969 (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
971 makevp.bat
972 makevp_c.txt
973 makevp_l.txt
974 pcregexp.pas
976 (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
978 pcre.h.generic ) a version of the public PCRE header file
979 ) for use in non-"configure" environments
980 config.h.generic ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
981 ) environments
983 (F) Miscellaneous
985 RunTest.bat a script for running tests under Windows
987 Philip Hazel
988 Email local part: ph10
989 Email domain: cam.ac.uk
990 Last updated: 05 November 2013

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