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1 <html>
2 <head>
3 <title>pcre16 specification</title>
4 </head>
5 <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">
6 <h1>pcre16 man page</h1>
7 <p>
8 Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
9 </p>
10 <p>
11 This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically
12 from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the
13 man page, in case the conversion went wrong.
14 <br>
15 <ul>
16 <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">PCRE 16-BIT API BASIC FUNCTIONS</a>
17 <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE 16-BIT API STRING EXTRACTION FUNCTIONS</a>
18 <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">PCRE 16-BIT API AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS</a>
19 <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PCRE 16-BIT API INDIRECTED FUNCTIONS</a>
20 <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">PCRE 16-BIT API 16-BIT-ONLY FUNCTION</a>
21 <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">THE PCRE 16-BIT LIBRARY</a>
22 <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">THE HEADER FILE</a>
23 <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">THE LIBRARY NAME</a>
24 <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">STRING TYPES</a>
25 <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">STRUCTURE TYPES</a>
26 <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">16-BIT FUNCTIONS</a>
27 <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">SUBJECT STRING OFFSETS</a>
28 <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">NAMED SUBPATTERNS</a>
29 <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">OPTION NAMES</a>
30 <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">CHARACTER CODES</a>
31 <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">ERROR NAMES</a>
32 <li><a name="TOC17" href="#SEC17">ERROR TEXTS</a>
33 <li><a name="TOC18" href="#SEC18">CALLOUTS</a>
34 <li><a name="TOC19" href="#SEC19">TESTING</a>
35 <li><a name="TOC20" href="#SEC20">NOT SUPPORTED IN 16-BIT MODE</a>
36 <li><a name="TOC21" href="#SEC21">AUTHOR</a>
37 <li><a name="TOC22" href="#SEC22">REVISION</a>
38 </ul>
39 <P>
40 <b>#include &#60;pcre.h&#62;</b>
41 </P>
42 <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">PCRE 16-BIT API BASIC FUNCTIONS</a><br>
43 <P>
44 <b>pcre16 *pcre16_compile(PCRE_SPTR16 <i>pattern</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>
45 <b> const char **<i>errptr</i>, int *<i>erroffset</i>,</b>
46 <b> const unsigned char *<i>tableptr</i>);</b>
47 <br>
48 <br>
49 <b>pcre16 *pcre16_compile2(PCRE_SPTR16 <i>pattern</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>
50 <b> int *<i>errorcodeptr</i>,</b>
51 <b> const char **<i>errptr</i>, int *<i>erroffset</i>,</b>
52 <b> const unsigned char *<i>tableptr</i>);</b>
53 <br>
54 <br>
55 <b>pcre16_extra *pcre16_study(const pcre16 *<i>code</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>
56 <b> const char **<i>errptr</i>);</b>
57 <br>
58 <br>
59 <b>void pcre16_free_study(pcre16_extra *<i>extra</i>);</b>
60 <br>
61 <br>
62 <b>int pcre16_exec(const pcre16 *<i>code</i>, const pcre16_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
63 <b> PCRE_SPTR16 <i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>
64 <b> int <i>options</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>, int <i>ovecsize</i>);</b>
65 <br>
66 <br>
67 <b>int pcre16_dfa_exec(const pcre16 *<i>code</i>, const pcre16_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
68 <b> PCRE_SPTR16 <i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>
69 <b> int <i>options</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>, int <i>ovecsize</i>,</b>
70 <b> int *<i>workspace</i>, int <i>wscount</i>);</b>
71 </P>
72 <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">PCRE 16-BIT API STRING EXTRACTION FUNCTIONS</a><br>
73 <P>
74 <b>int pcre16_copy_named_substring(const pcre16 *<i>code</i>,</b>
75 <b> PCRE_SPTR16 <i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
76 <b> int <i>stringcount</i>, PCRE_SPTR16 <i>stringname</i>,</b>
77 <b> PCRE_UCHAR16 *<i>buffer</i>, int <i>buffersize</i>);</b>
78 <br>
79 <br>
80 <b>int pcre16_copy_substring(PCRE_SPTR16 <i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
81 <b> int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>, PCRE_UCHAR16 *<i>buffer</i>,</b>
82 <b> int <i>buffersize</i>);</b>
83 <br>
84 <br>
85 <b>int pcre16_get_named_substring(const pcre16 *<i>code</i>,</b>
86 <b> PCRE_SPTR16 <i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
87 <b> int <i>stringcount</i>, PCRE_SPTR16 <i>stringname</i>,</b>
88 <b> PCRE_SPTR16 *<i>stringptr</i>);</b>
89 <br>
90 <br>
91 <b>int pcre16_get_stringnumber(const pcre16 *<i>code</i>,</b>
92 <b>" PCRE_SPTR16 <i>name</i>);</b>
93 <br>
94 <br>
95 <b>int pcre16_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre16 *<i>code</i>,</b>
96 <b> PCRE_SPTR16 <i>name</i>, PCRE_UCHAR16 **<i>first</i>, PCRE_UCHAR16 **<i>last</i>);</b>
97 <br>
98 <br>
99 <b>int pcre16_get_substring(PCRE_SPTR16 <i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
100 <b> int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>,</b>
101 <b> PCRE_SPTR16 *<i>stringptr</i>);</b>
102 <br>
103 <br>
104 <b>int pcre16_get_substring_list(PCRE_SPTR16 <i>subject</i>,</b>
105 <b> int *<i>ovector</i>, int <i>stringcount</i>, PCRE_SPTR16 **<i>listptr</i>);</b>
106 <br>
107 <br>
108 <b>void pcre16_free_substring(PCRE_SPTR16 <i>stringptr</i>);</b>
109 <br>
110 <br>
111 <b>void pcre16_free_substring_list(PCRE_SPTR16 *<i>stringptr</i>);</b>
112 </P>
113 <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">PCRE 16-BIT API AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS</a><br>
114 <P>
115 <b>pcre16_jit_stack *pcre16_jit_stack_alloc(int <i>startsize</i>, int <i>maxsize</i>);</b>
116 <br>
117 <br>
118 <b>void pcre16_jit_stack_free(pcre16_jit_stack *<i>stack</i>);</b>
119 <br>
120 <br>
121 <b>void pcre16_assign_jit_stack(pcre16_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
122 <b> pcre16_jit_callback <i>callback</i>, void *<i>data</i>);</b>
123 <br>
124 <br>
125 <b>const unsigned char *pcre16_maketables(void);</b>
126 <br>
127 <br>
128 <b>int pcre16_fullinfo(const pcre16 *<i>code</i>, const pcre16_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
129 <b> int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>
130 <br>
131 <br>
132 <b>int pcre16_refcount(pcre16 *<i>code</i>, int <i>adjust</i>);</b>
133 <br>
134 <br>
135 <b>int pcre16_config(int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>
136 <br>
137 <br>
138 <b>const char *pcre16_version(void);</b>
139 <br>
140 <br>
141 <b>int pcre16_pattern_to_host_byte_order(pcre16 *<i>code</i>,</b>
142 <b> pcre16_extra *<i>extra</i>, const unsigned char *<i>tables</i>);</b>
143 </P>
144 <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PCRE 16-BIT API INDIRECTED FUNCTIONS</a><br>
145 <P>
146 <b>void *(*pcre16_malloc)(size_t);</b>
147 <br>
148 <br>
149 <b>void (*pcre16_free)(void *);</b>
150 <br>
151 <br>
152 <b>void *(*pcre16_stack_malloc)(size_t);</b>
153 <br>
154 <br>
155 <b>void (*pcre16_stack_free)(void *);</b>
156 <br>
157 <br>
158 <b>int (*pcre16_callout)(pcre16_callout_block *);</b>
159 </P>
160 <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">PCRE 16-BIT API 16-BIT-ONLY FUNCTION</a><br>
161 <P>
162 <b>int pcre16_utf16_to_host_byte_order(PCRE_UCHAR16 *<i>output</i>,</b>
163 <b> PCRE_SPTR16 <i>input</i>, int <i>length</i>, int *<i>byte_order</i>,</b>
164 <b> int <i>keep_boms</i>);</b>
165 </P>
166 <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">THE PCRE 16-BIT LIBRARY</a><br>
167 <P>
168 Starting with release 8.30, it is possible to compile a PCRE library that
169 supports 16-bit character strings, including UTF-16 strings, as well as or
170 instead of the original 8-bit library. The majority of the work to make this
171 possible was done by Zoltan Herczeg. The two libraries contain identical sets
172 of functions, used in exactly the same way. Only the names of the functions and
173 the data types of their arguments and results are different. To avoid
174 over-complication and reduce the documentation maintenance load, most of the
175 PCRE documentation describes the 8-bit library, with only occasional references
176 to the 16-bit library. This page describes what is different when you use the
177 16-bit library.
178 </P>
179 <P>
180 WARNING: A single application can be linked with both libraries, but you must
181 take care when processing any particular pattern to use functions from just one
182 library. For example, if you want to study a pattern that was compiled with
183 <b>pcre16_compile()</b>, you must do so with <b>pcre16_study()</b>, not
184 <b>pcre_study()</b>, and you must free the study data with
185 <b>pcre16_free_study()</b>.
186 </P>
187 <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">THE HEADER FILE</a><br>
188 <P>
189 There is only one header file, <b>pcre.h</b>. It contains prototypes for all the
190 functions in all libraries, as well as definitions of flags, structures, error
191 codes, etc.
192 </P>
193 <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">THE LIBRARY NAME</a><br>
194 <P>
195 In Unix-like systems, the 16-bit library is called <b>libpcre16</b>, and can
196 normally be accesss by adding <b>-lpcre16</b> to the command for linking an
197 application that uses PCRE.
198 </P>
199 <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">STRING TYPES</a><br>
200 <P>
201 In the 8-bit library, strings are passed to PCRE library functions as vectors
202 of bytes with the C type "char *". In the 16-bit library, strings are passed as
203 vectors of unsigned 16-bit quantities. The macro PCRE_UCHAR16 specifies an
204 appropriate data type, and PCRE_SPTR16 is defined as "const PCRE_UCHAR16 *". In
205 very many environments, "short int" is a 16-bit data type. When PCRE is built,
206 it defines PCRE_UCHAR16 as "unsigned short int", but checks that it really is a
207 16-bit data type. If it is not, the build fails with an error message telling
208 the maintainer to modify the definition appropriately.
209 </P>
210 <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">STRUCTURE TYPES</a><br>
211 <P>
212 The types of the opaque structures that are used for compiled 16-bit patterns
213 and JIT stacks are <b>pcre16</b> and <b>pcre16_jit_stack</b> respectively. The
214 type of the user-accessible structure that is returned by <b>pcre16_study()</b>
215 is <b>pcre16_extra</b>, and the type of the structure that is used for passing
216 data to a callout function is <b>pcre16_callout_block</b>. These structures
217 contain the same fields, with the same names, as their 8-bit counterparts. The
218 only difference is that pointers to character strings are 16-bit instead of
219 8-bit types.
220 </P>
221 <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">16-BIT FUNCTIONS</a><br>
222 <P>
223 For every function in the 8-bit library there is a corresponding function in
224 the 16-bit library with a name that starts with <b>pcre16_</b> instead of
225 <b>pcre_</b>. The prototypes are listed above. In addition, there is one extra
226 function, <b>pcre16_utf16_to_host_byte_order()</b>. This is a utility function
227 that converts a UTF-16 character string to host byte order if necessary. The
228 other 16-bit functions expect the strings they are passed to be in host byte
229 order.
230 </P>
231 <P>
232 The <i>input</i> and <i>output</i> arguments of
233 <b>pcre16_utf16_to_host_byte_order()</b> may point to the same address, that is,
234 conversion in place is supported. The output buffer must be at least as long as
235 the input.
236 </P>
237 <P>
238 The <i>length</i> argument specifies the number of 16-bit data units in the
239 input string; a negative value specifies a zero-terminated string.
240 </P>
241 <P>
242 If <i>byte_order</i> is NULL, it is assumed that the string starts off in host
243 byte order. This may be changed by byte-order marks (BOMs) anywhere in the
244 string (commonly as the first character).
245 </P>
246 <P>
247 If <i>byte_order</i> is not NULL, a non-zero value of the integer to which it
248 points means that the input starts off in host byte order, otherwise the
249 opposite order is assumed. Again, BOMs in the string can change this. The final
250 byte order is passed back at the end of processing.
251 </P>
252 <P>
253 If <i>keep_boms</i> is not zero, byte-order mark characters (0xfeff) are copied
254 into the output string. Otherwise they are discarded.
255 </P>
256 <P>
257 The result of the function is the number of 16-bit units placed into the output
258 buffer, including the zero terminator if the string was zero-terminated.
259 </P>
260 <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">SUBJECT STRING OFFSETS</a><br>
261 <P>
262 The lengths and starting offsets of subject strings must be specified in 16-bit
263 data units, and the offsets within subject strings that are returned by the
264 matching functions are in also 16-bit units rather than bytes.
265 </P>
266 <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">NAMED SUBPATTERNS</a><br>
267 <P>
268 The name-to-number translation table that is maintained for named subpatterns
269 uses 16-bit characters. The <b>pcre16_get_stringtable_entries()</b> function
270 returns the length of each entry in the table as the number of 16-bit data
271 units.
272 </P>
273 <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">OPTION NAMES</a><br>
274 <P>
275 There are two new general option names, PCRE_UTF16 and PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK,
276 which correspond to PCRE_UTF8 and PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK in the 8-bit library. In
277 fact, these new options define the same bits in the options word. There is a
278 discussion about the
279 <a href="pcreunicode.html#utf16strings">validity of UTF-16 strings</a>
280 in the
281 <a href="pcreunicode.html"><b>pcreunicode</b></a>
282 page.
283 </P>
284 <P>
285 For the <b>pcre16_config()</b> function there is an option PCRE_CONFIG_UTF16
286 that returns 1 if UTF-16 support is configured, otherwise 0. If this option is
287 given to <b>pcre_config()</b> or <b>pcre32_config()</b>, or if the
288 PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8 or PCRE_CONFIG_UTF32 option is given to <b>pcre16_config()</b>,
289 the result is the PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION error.
290 </P>
291 <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">CHARACTER CODES</a><br>
292 <P>
293 In 16-bit mode, when PCRE_UTF16 is not set, character values are treated in the
294 same way as in 8-bit, non UTF-8 mode, except, of course, that they can range
295 from 0 to 0xffff instead of 0 to 0xff. Character types for characters less than
296 0xff can therefore be influenced by the locale in the same way as before.
297 Characters greater than 0xff have only one case, and no "type" (such as letter
298 or digit).
299 </P>
300 <P>
301 In UTF-16 mode, the character code is Unicode, in the range 0 to 0x10ffff, with
302 the exception of values in the range 0xd800 to 0xdfff because those are
303 "surrogate" values that are used in pairs to encode values greater than 0xffff.
304 </P>
305 <P>
306 A UTF-16 string can indicate its endianness by special code knows as a
307 byte-order mark (BOM). The PCRE functions do not handle this, expecting strings
308 to be in host byte order. A utility function called
309 <b>pcre16_utf16_to_host_byte_order()</b> is provided to help with this (see
310 above).
311 </P>
312 <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">ERROR NAMES</a><br>
313 <P>
314 The errors PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF16_OFFSET and PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF16 correspond to
315 their 8-bit counterparts. The error PCRE_ERROR_BADMODE is given when a compiled
316 pattern is passed to a function that processes patterns in the other
317 mode, for example, if a pattern compiled with <b>pcre_compile()</b> is passed to
318 <b>pcre16_exec()</b>.
319 </P>
320 <P>
321 There are new error codes whose names begin with PCRE_UTF16_ERR for invalid
322 UTF-16 strings, corresponding to the PCRE_UTF8_ERR codes for UTF-8 strings that
323 are described in the section entitled
324 <a href="pcreapi.html#badutf8reasons">"Reason codes for invalid UTF-8 strings"</a>
325 in the main
326 <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
327 page. The UTF-16 errors are:
328 <pre>
329 PCRE_UTF16_ERR1 Missing low surrogate at end of string
330 PCRE_UTF16_ERR2 Invalid low surrogate follows high surrogate
331 PCRE_UTF16_ERR3 Isolated low surrogate
332 PCRE_UTF16_ERR4 Non-character
333 </PRE>
334 </P>
335 <br><a name="SEC17" href="#TOC1">ERROR TEXTS</a><br>
336 <P>
337 If there is an error while compiling a pattern, the error text that is passed
338 back by <b>pcre16_compile()</b> or <b>pcre16_compile2()</b> is still an 8-bit
339 character string, zero-terminated.
340 </P>
341 <br><a name="SEC18" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
342 <P>
343 The <i>subject</i> and <i>mark</i> fields in the callout block that is passed to
344 a callout function point to 16-bit vectors.
345 </P>
346 <br><a name="SEC19" href="#TOC1">TESTING</a><br>
347 <P>
348 The <b>pcretest</b> program continues to operate with 8-bit input and output
349 files, but it can be used for testing the 16-bit library. If it is run with the
350 command line option <b>-16</b>, patterns and subject strings are converted from
351 8-bit to 16-bit before being passed to PCRE, and the 16-bit library functions
352 are used instead of the 8-bit ones. Returned 16-bit strings are converted to
353 8-bit for output. If both the 8-bit and the 32-bit libraries were not compiled,
354 <b>pcretest</b> defaults to 16-bit and the <b>-16</b> option is ignored.
355 </P>
356 <P>
357 When PCRE is being built, the <b>RunTest</b> script that is called by "make
358 check" uses the <b>pcretest</b> <b>-C</b> option to discover which of the 8-bit,
359 16-bit and 32-bit libraries has been built, and runs the tests appropriately.
360 </P>
361 <br><a name="SEC20" href="#TOC1">NOT SUPPORTED IN 16-BIT MODE</a><br>
362 <P>
363 Not all the features of the 8-bit library are available with the 16-bit
364 library. The C++ and POSIX wrapper functions support only the 8-bit library,
365 and the <b>pcregrep</b> program is at present 8-bit only.
366 </P>
367 <br><a name="SEC21" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
368 <P>
369 Philip Hazel
370 <br>
371 University Computing Service
372 <br>
373 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
374 <br>
375 </P>
376 <br><a name="SEC22" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
377 <P>
378 Last updated: 12 May 2013
379 <br>
380 Copyright &copy; 1997-2013 University of Cambridge.
381 <br>
382 <p>
383 Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
384 </p>

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