/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/html/pcreapi.html
ViewVC logotype

Diff of /code/trunk/doc/html/pcreapi.html

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

revision 73 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:30 2007 UTC revision 345 by ph10, Mon Apr 28 15:10:02 2008 UTC
# Line 3  Line 3 
3  <title>pcreapi specification</title>  <title>pcreapi specification</title>
4  </head>  </head>
5  <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">  <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">
6  This HTML document has been generated automatically from the original man page.  <h1>pcreapi man page</h1>
7  If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the man page, in case the  <p>
8  conversion went wrong.<br>  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
9    </p>
10    <p>
11    This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically
12    from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the
13    man page, in case the conversion went wrong.
14    <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS OF PCRE API</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">PCRE NATIVE API</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE API</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE API OVERVIEW</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">MULTITHREADING</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">NEWLINES</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">MULTITHREADING</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">COMPILING A PATTERN</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">STUDYING A PATTERN</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">LOCALE SUPPORT</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">COMPILING A PATTERN</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">COMPILATION ERROR CODES</a>
24  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">STUDYING A PATTERN</a>
25  <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">MATCHING A PATTERN</a>  <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">LOCALE SUPPORT</a>
26  <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER</a>  <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN</a>
27  <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME</a>  <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION</a>
28    <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">REFERENCE COUNTS</a>
29    <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE TRADITIONAL FUNCTION</a>
30    <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER</a>
31    <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME</a>
32    <li><a name="TOC17" href="#SEC17">DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES</a>
33    <li><a name="TOC18" href="#SEC18">FINDING ALL POSSIBLE MATCHES</a>
34    <li><a name="TOC19" href="#SEC19">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION</a>
35    <li><a name="TOC20" href="#SEC20">SEE ALSO</a>
36    <li><a name="TOC21" href="#SEC21">AUTHOR</a>
37    <li><a name="TOC22" href="#SEC22">REVISION</a>
38  </ul>  </ul>
39  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS OF PCRE API</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">PCRE NATIVE API</a><br>
40  <P>  <P>
41  <b>#include &#60;pcre.h&#62;</b>  <b>#include &#60;pcre.h&#62;</b>
42  </P>  </P>
# Line 30  conversion went wrong.<br> Line 46  conversion went wrong.<br>
46  <b>const unsigned char *<i>tableptr</i>);</b>  <b>const unsigned char *<i>tableptr</i>);</b>
47  </P>  </P>
48  <P>  <P>
49    <b>pcre *pcre_compile2(const char *<i>pattern</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>
50    <b>int *<i>errorcodeptr</i>,</b>
51    <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>, int *<i>erroffset</i>,</b>
52    <b>const unsigned char *<i>tableptr</i>);</b>
53    </P>
54    <P>
55  <b>pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>  <b>pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>
56  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>);</b>  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>);</b>
57  </P>  </P>
# Line 39  conversion went wrong.<br> Line 61  conversion went wrong.<br>
61  <b>int <i>options</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>, int <i>ovecsize</i>);</b>  <b>int <i>options</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>, int <i>ovecsize</i>);</b>
62  </P>  </P>
63  <P>  <P>
64    <b>int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
65    <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>
66    <b>int <i>options</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>, int <i>ovecsize</i>,</b>
67    <b>int *<i>workspace</i>, int <i>wscount</i>);</b>
68    </P>
69    <P>
70  <b>int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>
71  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
72  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, const char *<i>stringname</i>,</b>  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, const char *<i>stringname</i>,</b>
# Line 60  conversion went wrong.<br> Line 88  conversion went wrong.<br>
88  <b>const char *<i>name</i>);</b>  <b>const char *<i>name</i>);</b>
89  </P>  </P>
90  <P>  <P>
91    <b>int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>
92    <b>const char *<i>name</i>, char **<i>first</i>, char **<i>last</i>);</b>
93    </P>
94    <P>
95  <b>int pcre_get_substring(const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_get_substring(const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
96  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>,</b>  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>,</b>
97  <b>const char **<i>stringptr</i>);</b>  <b>const char **<i>stringptr</i>);</b>
# Line 86  conversion went wrong.<br> Line 118  conversion went wrong.<br>
118  <b>*<i>firstcharptr</i>);</b>  <b>*<i>firstcharptr</i>);</b>
119  </P>  </P>
120  <P>  <P>
121    <b>int pcre_refcount(pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>adjust</i>);</b>
122    </P>
123    <P>
124  <b>int pcre_config(int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>  <b>int pcre_config(int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>
125  </P>  </P>
126  <P>  <P>
# Line 106  conversion went wrong.<br> Line 141  conversion went wrong.<br>
141  <P>  <P>
142  <b>int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);</b>  <b>int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);</b>
143  </P>  </P>
144  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">PCRE API</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">PCRE API OVERVIEW</a><br>
 <P>  
 PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There is also  
 a set of wrapper functions that correspond to the POSIX regular expression API.  
 These are described in the <b>pcreposix</b> documentation.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 The native API function prototypes are defined in the header file <b>pcre.h</b>,  
 and on Unix systems the library itself is called <b>libpcre.a</b>, so can be  
 accessed by adding <b>-lpcre</b> to the command for linking an application which  
 calls it. The header file defines the macros PCRE_MAJOR and PCRE_MINOR to  
 contain the major and minor release numbers for the library. Applications can  
 use these to include support for different releases.  
 </P>  
145  <P>  <P>
146  The functions <b>pcre_compile()</b>, <b>pcre_study()</b>, and <b>pcre_exec()</b>  PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There are
147  are used for compiling and matching regular expressions. A sample program that  also some wrapper functions that correspond to the POSIX regular expression
148  demonstrates the simplest way of using them is given in the file  API. These are described in the
149  <i>pcredemo.c</i>. The <b>pcresample</b> documentation describes how to run it.  <a href="pcreposix.html"><b>pcreposix</b></a>
150    documentation. Both of these APIs define a set of C function calls. A C++
151    wrapper is distributed with PCRE. It is documented in the
152    <a href="pcrecpp.html"><b>pcrecpp</b></a>
153    page.
154  </P>  </P>
155  <P>  <P>
156  There are convenience functions for extracting captured substrings from a  The native API C function prototypes are defined in the header file
157  matched subject string. They are:  <b>pcre.h</b>, and on Unix systems the library itself is called <b>libpcre</b>.
158    It can normally be accessed by adding <b>-lpcre</b> to the command for linking
159    an application that uses PCRE. The header file defines the macros PCRE_MAJOR
160    and PCRE_MINOR to contain the major and minor release numbers for the library.
161    Applications can use these to include support for different releases of PCRE.
162    </P>
163    <P>
164    The functions <b>pcre_compile()</b>, <b>pcre_compile2()</b>, <b>pcre_study()</b>,
165    and <b>pcre_exec()</b> are used for compiling and matching regular expressions
166    in a Perl-compatible manner. A sample program that demonstrates the simplest
167    way of using them is provided in the file called <i>pcredemo.c</i> in the source
168    distribution. The
169    <a href="pcresample.html"><b>pcresample</b></a>
170    documentation describes how to compile and run it.
171    </P>
172    <P>
173    A second matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, which is not
174    Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the
175    matching. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given
176    point in the subject), and scans the subject just once. However, this algorithm
177    does not return captured substrings. A description of the two matching
178    algorithms and their advantages and disadvantages is given in the
179    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
180    documentation.
181  </P>  </P>
182  <P>  <P>
183    In addition to the main compiling and matching functions, there are convenience
184    functions for extracting captured substrings from a subject string that is
185    matched by <b>pcre_exec()</b>. They are:
186  <pre>  <pre>
187    <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b>    <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b>
188    <b>pcre_copy_named_substring()</b>    <b>pcre_copy_named_substring()</b>
189    <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>    <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>
190    <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b>    <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b>
191    <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b>    <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b>
192  </PRE>    <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b>
193  </P>    <b>pcre_get_stringtable_entries()</b>
194  <P>  </pre>
195  <b>pcre_free_substring()</b> and <b>pcre_free_substring_list()</b> are also  <b>pcre_free_substring()</b> and <b>pcre_free_substring_list()</b> are also
196  provided, to free the memory used for extracted strings.  provided, to free the memory used for extracted strings.
197  </P>  </P>
198  <P>  <P>
199  The function <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is used (optionally) to build a set of  The function <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is used to build a set of character tables
200  character tables in the current locale for passing to <b>pcre_compile()</b>.  in the current locale for passing to <b>pcre_compile()</b>, <b>pcre_exec()</b>,
201    or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>. This is an optional facility that is provided for
202    specialist use. Most commonly, no special tables are passed, in which case
203    internal tables that are generated when PCRE is built are used.
204  </P>  </P>
205  <P>  <P>
206  The function <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> is used to find out information about a  The function <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> is used to find out information about a
207  compiled pattern; <b>pcre_info()</b> is an obsolete version which returns only  compiled pattern; <b>pcre_info()</b> is an obsolete version that returns only
208  some of the available information, but is retained for backwards compatibility.  some of the available information, but is retained for backwards compatibility.
209  The function <b>pcre_version()</b> returns a pointer to a string containing the  The function <b>pcre_version()</b> returns a pointer to a string containing the
210  version of PCRE and its date of release.  version of PCRE and its date of release.
211  </P>  </P>
212  <P>  <P>
213    The function <b>pcre_refcount()</b> maintains a reference count in a data block
214    containing a compiled pattern. This is provided for the benefit of
215    object-oriented applications.
216    </P>
217    <P>
218  The global variables <b>pcre_malloc</b> and <b>pcre_free</b> initially contain  The global variables <b>pcre_malloc</b> and <b>pcre_free</b> initially contain
219  the entry points of the standard <b>malloc()</b> and <b>free()</b> functions  the entry points of the standard <b>malloc()</b> and <b>free()</b> functions,
220  respectively. PCRE calls the memory management functions via these variables,  respectively. PCRE calls the memory management functions via these variables,
221  so a calling program can replace them if it wishes to intercept the calls. This  so a calling program can replace them if it wishes to intercept the calls. This
222  should be done before calling any PCRE functions.  should be done before calling any PCRE functions.
# Line 165  should be done before calling any PCRE f Line 225  should be done before calling any PCRE f
225  The global variables <b>pcre_stack_malloc</b> and <b>pcre_stack_free</b> are also  The global variables <b>pcre_stack_malloc</b> and <b>pcre_stack_free</b> are also
226  indirections to memory management functions. These special functions are used  indirections to memory management functions. These special functions are used
227  only when PCRE is compiled to use the heap for remembering data, instead of  only when PCRE is compiled to use the heap for remembering data, instead of
228  recursive function calls. This is a non-standard way of building PCRE, for use  recursive function calls, when running the <b>pcre_exec()</b> function. See the
229  in environments that have limited stacks. Because of the greater use of memory  <a href="pcrebuild.html"><b>pcrebuild</b></a>
230  management, it runs more slowly. Separate functions are provided so that  documentation for details of how to do this. It is a non-standard way of
231  special-purpose external code can be used for this case. When used, these  building PCRE, for use in environments that have limited stacks. Because of the
232  functions are always called in a stack-like manner (last obtained, first  greater use of memory management, it runs more slowly. Separate functions are
233  freed), and always for memory blocks of the same size.  provided so that special-purpose external code can be used for this case. When
234    used, these functions are always called in a stack-like manner (last obtained,
235    first freed), and always for memory blocks of the same size. There is a
236    discussion about PCRE's stack usage in the
237    <a href="pcrestack.html"><b>pcrestack</b></a>
238    documentation.
239  </P>  </P>
240  <P>  <P>
241  The global variable <b>pcre_callout</b> initially contains NULL. It can be set  The global variable <b>pcre_callout</b> initially contains NULL. It can be set
242  by the caller to a "callout" function, which PCRE will then call at specified  by the caller to a "callout" function, which PCRE will then call at specified
243  points during a matching operation. Details are given in the <b>pcrecallout</b>  points during a matching operation. Details are given in the
244    <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
245  documentation.  documentation.
246    <a name="newlines"></a></P>
247    <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">NEWLINES</a><br>
248    <P>
249    PCRE supports five different conventions for indicating line breaks in
250    strings: a single CR (carriage return) character, a single LF (linefeed)
251    character, the two-character sequence CRLF, any of the three preceding, or any
252    Unicode newline sequence. The Unicode newline sequences are the three just
253    mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed,
254    U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line separator, U+2028), and PS
255    (paragraph separator, U+2029).
256    </P>
257    <P>
258    Each of the first three conventions is used by at least one operating system as
259    its standard newline sequence. When PCRE is built, a default can be specified.
260    The default default is LF, which is the Unix standard. When PCRE is run, the
261    default can be overridden, either when a pattern is compiled, or when it is
262    matched.
263    </P>
264    <P>
265    At compile time, the newline convention can be specified by the <i>options</i>
266    argument of <b>pcre_compile()</b>, or it can be specified by special text at the
267    start of the pattern itself; this overrides any other settings. See the
268    <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
269    page for details of the special character sequences.
270    </P>
271    <P>
272    In the PCRE documentation the word "newline" is used to mean "the character or
273    pair of characters that indicate a line break". The choice of newline
274    convention affects the handling of the dot, circumflex, and dollar
275    metacharacters, the handling of #-comments in /x mode, and, when CRLF is a
276    recognized line ending sequence, the match position advancement for a
277    non-anchored pattern. There is more detail about this in the
278    <a href="#execoptions">section on <b>pcre_exec()</b> options</a>
279    below.
280    </P>
281    <P>
282    The choice of newline convention does not affect the interpretation of
283    the \n or \r escape sequences, nor does it affect what \R matches, which is
284    controlled in a similar way, but by separate options.
285  </P>  </P>
286  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">MULTITHREADING</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">MULTITHREADING</a><br>
287  <P>  <P>
288  The PCRE functions can be used in multi-threading applications, with the  The PCRE functions can be used in multi-threading applications, with the
289  proviso that the memory management functions pointed to by <b>pcre_malloc</b>,  proviso that the memory management functions pointed to by <b>pcre_malloc</b>,
# Line 189  callout function pointed to by <b>pcre_c Line 294  callout function pointed to by <b>pcre_c
294  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so
295  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.
296  </P>  </P>
297  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE</a><br>
298    <P>
299    The compiled form of a regular expression can be saved and re-used at a later
300    time, possibly by a different program, and even on a host other than the one on
301    which it was compiled. Details are given in the
302    <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
303    documentation. However, compiling a regular expression with one version of PCRE
304    for use with a different version is not guaranteed to work and may cause
305    crashes.
306    </P>
307    <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS</a><br>
308  <P>  <P>
309  <b>int pcre_config(int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>  <b>int pcre_config(int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>
310  </P>  </P>
# Line 203  documentation has more details about the Line 318  documentation has more details about the
318  The first argument for <b>pcre_config()</b> is an integer, specifying which  The first argument for <b>pcre_config()</b> is an integer, specifying which
319  information is required; the second argument is a pointer to a variable into  information is required; the second argument is a pointer to a variable into
320  which the information is placed. The following information is available:  which the information is placed. The following information is available:
 </P>  
 <P>  
321  <pre>  <pre>
322    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8
323  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
324  The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;  The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;
325  otherwise it is set to zero.  otherwise it is set to zero.
326  </P>  <pre>
327  <P>    PCRE_CONFIG_UNICODE_PROPERTIES
328    </pre>
329    The output is an integer that is set to one if support for Unicode character
330    properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
331  <pre>  <pre>
332    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE
333  </PRE>  </pre>
334  </P>  The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character sequence
335  <P>  that is recognized as meaning "newline". The four values that are supported
336  The output is an integer that is set to the value of the code that is used for  are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for ANYCRLF, and -1 for ANY. The
337  the newline character. It is either linefeed (10) or carriage return (13), and  default should normally be the standard sequence for your operating system.
338  should normally be the standard character for your operating system.  <pre>
339  </P>    PCRE_CONFIG_BSR
340  <P>  </pre>
341    The output is an integer whose value indicates what character sequences the \R
342    escape sequence matches by default. A value of 0 means that \R matches any
343    Unicode line ending sequence; a value of 1 means that \R matches only CR, LF,
344    or CRLF. The default can be overridden when a pattern is compiled or matched.
345  <pre>  <pre>
346    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE
347  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
348  The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal  The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal
349  linkage in compiled regular expressions. The value is 2, 3, or 4. Larger values  linkage in compiled regular expressions. The value is 2, 3, or 4. Larger values
350  allow larger regular expressions to be compiled, at the expense of slower  allow larger regular expressions to be compiled, at the expense of slower
351  matching. The default value of 2 is sufficient for all but the most massive  matching. The default value of 2 is sufficient for all but the most massive
352  patterns, since it allows the compiled pattern to be up to 64K in size.  patterns, since it allows the compiled pattern to be up to 64K in size.
 </P>  
 <P>  
353  <pre>  <pre>
354    PCRE_CONFIG_POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD    PCRE_CONFIG_POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD
355  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
356  The output is an integer that contains the threshold above which the POSIX  The output is an integer that contains the threshold above which the POSIX
357  interface uses <b>malloc()</b> for output vectors. Further details are given in  interface uses <b>malloc()</b> for output vectors. Further details are given in
358  the <b>pcreposix</b> documentation.  the
359  </P>  <a href="pcreposix.html"><b>pcreposix</b></a>
360  <P>  documentation.
361  <pre>  <pre>
362    PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT    PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT
363  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
364  The output is an integer that gives the default limit for the number of  The output is an integer that gives the default limit for the number of
365  internal matching function calls in a <b>pcre_exec()</b> execution. Further  internal matching function calls in a <b>pcre_exec()</b> execution. Further
366  details are given with <b>pcre_exec()</b> below.  details are given with <b>pcre_exec()</b> below.
367  </P>  <pre>
368  <P>    PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION
369    </pre>
370    The output is an integer that gives the default limit for the depth of
371    recursion when calling the internal matching function in a <b>pcre_exec()</b>
372    execution. Further details are given with <b>pcre_exec()</b> below.
373  <pre>  <pre>
374    PCRE_CONFIG_STACKRECURSE    PCRE_CONFIG_STACKRECURSE
375  </PRE>  </pre>
376    The output is an integer that is set to one if internal recursion when running
377    <b>pcre_exec()</b> is implemented by recursive function calls that use the stack
378    to remember their state. This is the usual way that PCRE is compiled. The
379    output is zero if PCRE was compiled to use blocks of data on the heap instead
380    of recursive function calls. In this case, <b>pcre_stack_malloc</b> and
381    <b>pcre_stack_free</b> are called to manage memory blocks on the heap, thus
382    avoiding the use of the stack.
383  </P>  </P>
384  <P>  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">COMPILING A PATTERN</a><br>
 The output is an integer that is set to one if internal recursion is  
 implemented by recursive function calls that use the stack to remember their  
 state. This is the usual way that PCRE is compiled. The output is zero if PCRE  
 was compiled to use blocks of data on the heap instead of recursive function  
 calls. In this case, <b>pcre_stack_malloc</b> and <b>pcre_stack_free</b> are  
 called to manage memory blocks on the heap, thus avoiding the use of the stack.  
 </P>  
 <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">COMPILING A PATTERN</a><br>  
385  <P>  <P>
386  <b>pcre *pcre_compile(const char *<i>pattern</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>  <b>pcre *pcre_compile(const char *<i>pattern</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>
387  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>, int *<i>erroffset</i>,</b>  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>, int *<i>erroffset</i>,</b>
388  <b>const unsigned char *<i>tableptr</i>);</b>  <b>const unsigned char *<i>tableptr</i>);</b>
389    <b>pcre *pcre_compile2(const char *<i>pattern</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>
390    <b>int *<i>errorcodeptr</i>,</b>
391    <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>, int *<i>erroffset</i>,</b>
392    <b>const unsigned char *<i>tableptr</i>);</b>
393  </P>  </P>
394  <P>  <P>
395  The function <b>pcre_compile()</b> is called to compile a pattern into an  Either of the functions <b>pcre_compile()</b> or <b>pcre_compile2()</b> can be
396  internal form. The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and  called to compile a pattern into an internal form. The only difference between
397  is passed in the argument <i>pattern</i>. A pointer to a single block of memory  the two interfaces is that <b>pcre_compile2()</b> has an additional argument,
398  that is obtained via <b>pcre_malloc</b> is returned. This contains the compiled  <i>errorcodeptr</i>, via which a numerical error code can be returned.
399  code and related data. The <b>pcre</b> type is defined for the returned block;  </P>
400  this is a typedef for a structure whose contents are not externally defined. It  <P>
401  is up to the caller to free the memory when it is no longer required.  The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and is passed in the
402    <i>pattern</i> argument. A pointer to a single block of memory that is obtained
403    via <b>pcre_malloc</b> is returned. This contains the compiled code and related
404    data. The <b>pcre</b> type is defined for the returned block; this is a typedef
405    for a structure whose contents are not externally defined. It is up to the
406    caller to free the memory (via <b>pcre_free</b>) when it is no longer required.
407  </P>  </P>
408  <P>  <P>
409  Although the compiled code of a PCRE regex is relocatable, that is, it does not  Although the compiled code of a PCRE regex is relocatable, that is, it does not
410  depend on memory location, the complete <b>pcre</b> data block is not  depend on memory location, the complete <b>pcre</b> data block is not
411  fully relocatable, because it contains a copy of the <i>tableptr</i> argument,  fully relocatable, because it may contain a copy of the <i>tableptr</i>
412  which is an address (see below).  argument, which is an address (see below).
413  </P>  </P>
414  <P>  <P>
415  The <i>options</i> argument contains independent bits that affect the  The <i>options</i> argument contains various bit settings that affect the
416  compilation. It should be zero if no options are required. Some of the options,  compilation. It should be zero if no options are required. The available
417  in particular, those that are compatible with Perl, can also be set and unset  options are described below. Some of them, in particular, those that are
418  from within the pattern (see the detailed description of regular expressions  compatible with Perl, can also be set and unset from within the pattern (see
419  in the <b>pcrepattern</b> documentation). For these options, the contents of the  the detailed description in the
420  <i>options</i> argument specifies their initial settings at the start of  <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
421  compilation and execution. The PCRE_ANCHORED option can be set at the time of  documentation). For these options, the contents of the <i>options</i> argument
422    specifies their initial settings at the start of compilation and execution. The
423    PCRE_ANCHORED and PCRE_NEWLINE_<i>xxx</i> options can be set at the time of
424  matching as well as at compile time.  matching as well as at compile time.
425  </P>  </P>
426  <P>  <P>
427  If <i>errptr</i> is NULL, <b>pcre_compile()</b> returns NULL immediately.  If <i>errptr</i> is NULL, <b>pcre_compile()</b> returns NULL immediately.
428  Otherwise, if compilation of a pattern fails, <b>pcre_compile()</b> returns  Otherwise, if compilation of a pattern fails, <b>pcre_compile()</b> returns
429  NULL, and sets the variable pointed to by <i>errptr</i> to point to a textual  NULL, and sets the variable pointed to by <i>errptr</i> to point to a textual
430  error message. The offset from the start of the pattern to the character where  error message. This is a static string that is part of the library. You must
431  the error was discovered is placed in the variable pointed to by  not try to free it. The offset from the start of the pattern to the character
432    where the error was discovered is placed in the variable pointed to by
433  <i>erroffset</i>, which must not be NULL. If it is, an immediate error is given.  <i>erroffset</i>, which must not be NULL. If it is, an immediate error is given.
434  </P>  </P>
435  <P>  <P>
436  If the final argument, <i>tableptr</i>, is NULL, PCRE uses a default set of  If <b>pcre_compile2()</b> is used instead of <b>pcre_compile()</b>, and the
437  character tables which are built when it is compiled, using the default C  <i>errorcodeptr</i> argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is
438  locale. Otherwise, <i>tableptr</i> must be the result of a call to  returned via this argument in the event of an error. This is in addition to the
439  <b>pcre_maketables()</b>. See the section on locale support below.  textual error message. Error codes and messages are listed below.
440  </P>  </P>
441  <P>  <P>
442  This code fragment shows a typical straightforward call to <b>pcre_compile()</b>:  If the final argument, <i>tableptr</i>, is NULL, PCRE uses a default set of
443    character tables that are built when PCRE is compiled, using the default C
444    locale. Otherwise, <i>tableptr</i> must be an address that is the result of a
445    call to <b>pcre_maketables()</b>. This value is stored with the compiled
446    pattern, and used again by <b>pcre_exec()</b>, unless another table pointer is
447    passed to it. For more discussion, see the section on locale support below.
448  </P>  </P>
449  <P>  <P>
450    This code fragment shows a typical straightforward call to <b>pcre_compile()</b>:
451  <pre>  <pre>
452    pcre *re;    pcre *re;
453    const char *error;    const char *error;
# Line 327  This code fragment shows a typical strai Line 458  This code fragment shows a typical strai
458      &error,           /* for error message */      &error,           /* for error message */
459      &erroffset,       /* for error offset */      &erroffset,       /* for error offset */
460      NULL);            /* use default character tables */      NULL);            /* use default character tables */
461  </PRE>  </pre>
462  </P>  The following names for option bits are defined in the <b>pcre.h</b> header
463  <P>  file:
 The following option bits are defined:  
 </P>  
 <P>  
464  <pre>  <pre>
465    PCRE_ANCHORED    PCRE_ANCHORED
466  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
467  If this bit is set, the pattern is forced to be "anchored", that is, it is  If this bit is set, the pattern is forced to be "anchored", that is, it is
468  constrained to match only at the first matching point in the string which is  constrained to match only at the first matching point in the string that is
469  being searched (the "subject string"). This effect can also be achieved by  being searched (the "subject string"). This effect can also be achieved by
470  appropriate constructs in the pattern itself, which is the only way to do it in  appropriate constructs in the pattern itself, which is the only way to do it in
471  Perl.  Perl.
472  </P>  <pre>
473  <P>    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
474    </pre>
475    If this bit is set, <b>pcre_compile()</b> automatically inserts callout items,
476    all with number 255, before each pattern item. For discussion of the callout
477    facility, see the
478    <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
479    documentation.
480    <pre>
481      PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
482      PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
483    </pre>
484    These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \R escape
485    sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF, or to
486    match any Unicode newline sequence. The default is specified when PCRE is
487    built. It can be overridden from within the pattern, or by setting an option
488    when a compiled pattern is matched.
489  <pre>  <pre>
490    PCRE_CASELESS    PCRE_CASELESS
491  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
492  If this bit is set, letters in the pattern match both upper and lower case  If this bit is set, letters in the pattern match both upper and lower case
493  letters. It is equivalent to Perl's /i option, and it can be changed within a  letters. It is equivalent to Perl's /i option, and it can be changed within a
494  pattern by a (?i) option setting.  pattern by a (?i) option setting. In UTF-8 mode, PCRE always understands the
495  </P>  concept of case for characters whose values are less than 128, so caseless
496  <P>  matching is always possible. For characters with higher values, the concept of
497    case is supported if PCRE is compiled with Unicode property support, but not
498    otherwise. If you want to use caseless matching for characters 128 and above,
499    you must ensure that PCRE is compiled with Unicode property support as well as
500    with UTF-8 support.
501  <pre>  <pre>
502    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
503  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
504  If this bit is set, a dollar metacharacter in the pattern matches only at the  If this bit is set, a dollar metacharacter in the pattern matches only at the
505  end of the subject string. Without this option, a dollar also matches  end of the subject string. Without this option, a dollar also matches
506  immediately before the final character if it is a newline (but not before any  immediately before a newline at the end of the string (but not before any other
507  other newlines). The PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option is ignored if PCRE_MULTILINE is  newlines). The PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option is ignored if PCRE_MULTILINE is set.
508  set. There is no equivalent to this option in Perl, and no way to set it within  There is no equivalent to this option in Perl, and no way to set it within a
509  a pattern.  pattern.
 </P>  
 <P>  
510  <pre>  <pre>
511    PCRE_DOTALL    PCRE_DOTALL
512  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
513  If this bit is set, a dot metacharater in the pattern matches all characters,  If this bit is set, a dot metacharater in the pattern matches all characters,
514  including newlines. Without it, newlines are excluded. This option is  including those that indicate newline. Without it, a dot does not match when
515  equivalent to Perl's /s option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a  the current position is at a newline. This option is equivalent to Perl's /s
516  (?s) option setting. A negative class such as [^a] always matches a newline  option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a (?s) option setting. A
517  character, independent of the setting of this option.  negative class such as [^a] always matches newline characters, independent of
518  </P>  the setting of this option.
519  <P>  <pre>
520      PCRE_DUPNAMES
521    </pre>
522    If this bit is set, names used to identify capturing subpatterns need not be
523    unique. This can be helpful for certain types of pattern when it is known that
524    only one instance of the named subpattern can ever be matched. There are more
525    details of named subpatterns below; see also the
526    <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
527    documentation.
528  <pre>  <pre>
529    PCRE_EXTENDED    PCRE_EXTENDED
530  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
531  If this bit is set, whitespace data characters in the pattern are totally  If this bit is set, whitespace data characters in the pattern are totally
532  ignored except when escaped or inside a character class. Whitespace does not  ignored except when escaped or inside a character class. Whitespace does not
533  include the VT character (code 11). In addition, characters between an  include the VT character (code 11). In addition, characters between an
534  unescaped # outside a character class and the next newline character,  unescaped # outside a character class and the next newline, inclusive, are also
535  inclusive, are also ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x option, and it can  ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x option, and it can be changed within a
536  be changed within a pattern by a (?x) option setting.  pattern by a (?x) option setting.
537  </P>  </P>
538  <P>  <P>
539  This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated patterns.  This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated patterns.
540  Note, however, that this applies only to data characters. Whitespace characters  Note, however, that this applies only to data characters. Whitespace characters
541  may never appear within special character sequences in a pattern, for example  may never appear within special character sequences in a pattern, for example
542  within the sequence (?( which introduces a conditional subpattern.  within the sequence (?( which introduces a conditional subpattern.
 </P>  
 <P>  
543  <pre>  <pre>
544    PCRE_EXTRA    PCRE_EXTRA
545  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
546  This option was invented in order to turn on additional functionality of PCRE  This option was invented in order to turn on additional functionality of PCRE
547  that is incompatible with Perl, but it is currently of very little use. When  that is incompatible with Perl, but it is currently of very little use. When
548  set, any backslash in a pattern that is followed by a letter that has no  set, any backslash in a pattern that is followed by a letter that has no
549  special meaning causes an error, thus reserving these combinations for future  special meaning causes an error, thus reserving these combinations for future
550  expansion. By default, as in Perl, a backslash followed by a letter with no  expansion. By default, as in Perl, a backslash followed by a letter with no
551  special meaning is treated as a literal. There are at present no other features  special meaning is treated as a literal. (Perl can, however, be persuaded to
552  controlled by this option. It can also be set by a (?X) option setting within a  give a warning for this.) There are at present no other features controlled by
553  pattern.  this option. It can also be set by a (?X) option setting within a pattern.
554  </P>  <pre>
555  <P>    PCRE_FIRSTLINE
556    </pre>
557    If this option is set, an unanchored pattern is required to match before or at
558    the first newline in the subject string, though the matched text may continue
559    over the newline.
560    <pre>
561      PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
562    </pre>
563    If this option is set, PCRE's behaviour is changed in some ways so that it is
564    compatible with JavaScript rather than Perl. The changes are as follows:
565    </P>
566    <P>
567    (1) A lone closing square bracket in a pattern causes a compile-time error,
568    because this is illegal in JavaScript (by default it is treated as a data
569    character). Thus, the pattern AB]CD becomes illegal when this option is set.
570    </P>
571    <P>
572    (2) At run time, a back reference to an unset subpattern group matches an empty
573    string (by default this causes the current matching alternative to fail). A
574    pattern such as (\1)(a) succeeds when this option is set (assuming it can find
575    an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by default, for Perl compatibility.
576  <pre>  <pre>
577    PCRE_MULTILINE    PCRE_MULTILINE
578  </PRE>  </pre>
579  </P>  By default, PCRE treats the subject string as consisting of a single line of
580  <P>  characters (even if it actually contains newlines). The "start of line"
 By default, PCRE treats the subject string as consisting of a single "line" of  
 characters (even if it actually contains several newlines). The "start of line"  
581  metacharacter (^) matches only at the start of the string, while the "end of  metacharacter (^) matches only at the start of the string, while the "end of
582  line" metacharacter ($) matches only at the end of the string, or before a  line" metacharacter ($) matches only at the end of the string, or before a
583  terminating newline (unless PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY is set). This is the same as  terminating newline (unless PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY is set). This is the same as
# Line 428  Perl. Line 585  Perl.
585  </P>  </P>
586  <P>  <P>
587  When PCRE_MULTILINE it is set, the "start of line" and "end of line" constructs  When PCRE_MULTILINE it is set, the "start of line" and "end of line" constructs
588  match immediately following or immediately before any newline in the subject  match immediately following or immediately before internal newlines in the
589  string, respectively, as well as at the very start and end. This is equivalent  subject string, respectively, as well as at the very start and end. This is
590  to Perl's /m option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a (?m) option  equivalent to Perl's /m option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a
591  setting. If there are no "\n" characters in a subject string, or no  (?m) option setting. If there are no newlines in a subject string, or no
592  occurrences of ^ or $ in a pattern, setting PCRE_MULTILINE has no effect.  occurrences of ^ or $ in a pattern, setting PCRE_MULTILINE has no effect.
593    <pre>
594      PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
595      PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
596      PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
597      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
598      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
599    </pre>
600    These options override the default newline definition that was chosen when PCRE
601    was built. Setting the first or the second specifies that a newline is
602    indicated by a single character (CR or LF, respectively). Setting
603    PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF specifies that a newline is indicated by the two-character
604    CRLF sequence. Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF specifies that any of the three
605    preceding sequences should be recognized. Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY specifies
606    that any Unicode newline sequence should be recognized. The Unicode newline
607    sequences are the three just mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical
608    tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line
609    separator, U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029). The last two are
610    recognized only in UTF-8 mode.
611    </P>
612    <P>
613    The newline setting in the options word uses three bits that are treated
614    as a number, giving eight possibilities. Currently only six are used (default
615    plus the five values above). This means that if you set more than one newline
616    option, the combination may or may not be sensible. For example,
617    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR with PCRE_NEWLINE_LF is equivalent to PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, but
618    other combinations may yield unused numbers and cause an error.
619    </P>
620    <P>
621    The only time that a line break is specially recognized when compiling a
622    pattern is if PCRE_EXTENDED is set, and an unescaped # outside a character
623    class is encountered. This indicates a comment that lasts until after the next
624    line break sequence. In other circumstances, line break sequences are treated
625    as literal data, except that in PCRE_EXTENDED mode, both CR and LF are treated
626    as whitespace characters and are therefore ignored.
627  </P>  </P>
628  <P>  <P>
629    The newline option that is set at compile time becomes the default that is used
630    for <b>pcre_exec()</b> and <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, but it can be overridden.
631  <pre>  <pre>
632    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
633  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
634  If this option is set, it disables the use of numbered capturing parentheses in  If this option is set, it disables the use of numbered capturing parentheses in
635  the pattern. Any opening parenthesis that is not followed by ? behaves as if it  the pattern. Any opening parenthesis that is not followed by ? behaves as if it
636  were followed by ?: but named parentheses can still be used for capturing (and  were followed by ?: but named parentheses can still be used for capturing (and
637  they acquire numbers in the usual way). There is no equivalent of this option  they acquire numbers in the usual way). There is no equivalent of this option
638  in Perl.  in Perl.
 </P>  
 <P>  
639  <pre>  <pre>
640    PCRE_UNGREEDY    PCRE_UNGREEDY
641  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
642  This option inverts the "greediness" of the quantifiers so that they are not  This option inverts the "greediness" of the quantifiers so that they are not
643  greedy by default, but become greedy if followed by "?". It is not compatible  greedy by default, but become greedy if followed by "?". It is not compatible
644  with Perl. It can also be set by a (?U) option setting within the pattern.  with Perl. It can also be set by a (?U) option setting within the pattern.
 </P>  
 <P>  
645  <pre>  <pre>
646    PCRE_UTF8    PCRE_UTF8
647  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
648  This option causes PCRE to regard both the pattern and the subject as strings  This option causes PCRE to regard both the pattern and the subject as strings
649  of UTF-8 characters instead of single-byte character strings. However, it is  of UTF-8 characters instead of single-byte character strings. However, it is
650  available only if PCRE has been built to include UTF-8 support. If not, the use  available only when PCRE is built to include UTF-8 support. If not, the use
651  of this option provokes an error. Details of how this option changes the  of this option provokes an error. Details of how this option changes the
652  behaviour of PCRE are given in the  behaviour of PCRE are given in the
653  <a href="pcre.html#utf8support">section on UTF-8 support</a>  <a href="pcre.html#utf8support">section on UTF-8 support</a>
654  in the main  in the main
655  <a href="pcre.html"><b>pcre</b></a>  <a href="pcre.html"><b>pcre</b></a>
656  page.  page.
 </P>  
 <P>  
657  <pre>  <pre>
658    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
659  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
660  When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8 string is  When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8 string is
661  automatically checked. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found,  automatically checked. There is a discussion about the
662  <b>pcre_compile()</b> returns an error. If you already know that your pattern is  <a href="pcre.html#utf8strings">validity of UTF-8 strings</a>
663  valid, and you want to skip this check for performance reasons, you can set the  in the main
664  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option. When it is set, the effect of passing an invalid  <a href="pcre.html"><b>pcre</b></a>
665  UTF-8 string as a pattern is undefined. It may cause your program to crash.  page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found, <b>pcre_compile()</b>
666  Note that there is a similar option for suppressing the checking of subject  returns an error. If you already know that your pattern is valid, and you want
667  strings passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>.  to skip this check for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
668    option. When it is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a
669    pattern is undefined. It may cause your program to crash. Note that this option
670    can also be passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> and <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to suppress
671    the UTF-8 validity checking of subject strings.
672    </P>
673    <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">COMPILATION ERROR CODES</a><br>
674    <P>
675    The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by
676    <b>pcre_compile2()</b>, along with the error messages that may be returned by
677    both compiling functions. As PCRE has developed, some error codes have fallen
678    out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been re-used.
679    <pre>
680       0  no error
681       1  \ at end of pattern
682       2  \c at end of pattern
683       3  unrecognized character follows \
684       4  numbers out of order in {} quantifier
685       5  number too big in {} quantifier
686       6  missing terminating ] for character class
687       7  invalid escape sequence in character class
688       8  range out of order in character class
689       9  nothing to repeat
690      10  [this code is not in use]
691      11  internal error: unexpected repeat
692      12  unrecognized character after (? or (?-
693      13  POSIX named classes are supported only within a class
694      14  missing )
695      15  reference to non-existent subpattern
696      16  erroffset passed as NULL
697      17  unknown option bit(s) set
698      18  missing ) after comment
699      19  [this code is not in use]
700      20  regular expression is too large
701      21  failed to get memory
702      22  unmatched parentheses
703      23  internal error: code overflow
704      24  unrecognized character after (?&#60;
705      25  lookbehind assertion is not fixed length
706      26  malformed number or name after (?(
707      27  conditional group contains more than two branches
708      28  assertion expected after (?(
709      29  (?R or (?[+-]digits must be followed by )
710      30  unknown POSIX class name
711      31  POSIX collating elements are not supported
712      32  this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UTF8 support
713      33  [this code is not in use]
714      34  character value in \x{...} sequence is too large
715      35  invalid condition (?(0)
716      36  \C not allowed in lookbehind assertion
717      37  PCRE does not support \L, \l, \N, \U, or \u
718      38  number after (?C is &#62; 255
719      39  closing ) for (?C expected
720      40  recursive call could loop indefinitely
721      41  unrecognized character after (?P
722      42  syntax error in subpattern name (missing terminator)
723      43  two named subpatterns have the same name
724      44  invalid UTF-8 string
725      45  support for \P, \p, and \X has not been compiled
726      46  malformed \P or \p sequence
727      47  unknown property name after \P or \p
728      48  subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)
729      49  too many named subpatterns (maximum 10000)
730      50  [this code is not in use]
731      51  octal value is greater than \377 (not in UTF-8 mode)
732      52  internal error: overran compiling workspace
733      53  internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern not found
734      54  DEFINE group contains more than one branch
735      55  repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed
736      56  inconsistent NEWLINE options
737      57  \g is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted
738            name/number or by a plain number
739      58  a numbered reference must not be zero
740      59  (*VERB) with an argument is not supported
741      60  (*VERB) not recognized
742      61  number is too big
743      62  subpattern name expected
744      63  digit expected after (?+
745      64  ] is an invalid data character in JavaScript compatibility mode
746    </pre>
747    The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may
748    be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.
749  </P>  </P>
750  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">STUDYING A PATTERN</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">STUDYING A PATTERN</a><br>
751  <P>  <P>
752  <b>pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>  <b>pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>options</i></b>
753  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>);</b>  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>);</b>
754  </P>  </P>
755  <P>  <P>
756  When a pattern is going to be used several times, it is worth spending more  If a compiled pattern is going to be used several times, it is worth spending
757  time analyzing it in order to speed up the time taken for matching. The  more time analyzing it in order to speed up the time taken for matching. The
758  function <b>pcre_study()</b> takes a pointer to a compiled pattern as its first  function <b>pcre_study()</b> takes a pointer to a compiled pattern as its first
759  argument. If studing the pattern produces additional information that will help  argument. If studying the pattern produces additional information that will
760  speed up matching, <b>pcre_study()</b> returns a pointer to a <b>pcre_extra</b>  help speed up matching, <b>pcre_study()</b> returns a pointer to a
761  block, in which the <i>study_data</i> field points to the results of the study.  <b>pcre_extra</b> block, in which the <i>study_data</i> field points to the
762    results of the study.
763  </P>  </P>
764  <P>  <P>
765  The returned value from a <b>pcre_study()</b> can be passed directly to  The returned value from <b>pcre_study()</b> can be passed directly to
766  <b>pcre_exec()</b>. However, the <b>pcre_extra</b> block also contains other  <b>pcre_exec()</b>. However, a <b>pcre_extra</b> block also contains other
767  fields that can be set by the caller before the block is passed; these are  fields that can be set by the caller before the block is passed; these are
768  described below. If studying the pattern does not produce any additional  described
769  information, <b>pcre_study()</b> returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the  <a href="#extradata">below</a>
770  calling program wants to pass some of the other fields to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, it  in the section on matching a pattern.
771  must set up its own <b>pcre_extra</b> block.  </P>
772    <P>
773    If studying the pattern does not produce any additional information
774    <b>pcre_study()</b> returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the calling program
775    wants to pass any of the other fields to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, it must set up its
776    own <b>pcre_extra</b> block.
777  </P>  </P>
778  <P>  <P>
779  The second argument contains option bits. At present, no options are defined  The second argument of <b>pcre_study()</b> contains option bits. At present, no
780  for <b>pcre_study()</b>, and this argument should always be zero.  options are defined, and this argument should always be zero.
781  </P>  </P>
782  <P>  <P>
783  The third argument for <b>pcre_study()</b> is a pointer for an error message. If  The third argument for <b>pcre_study()</b> is a pointer for an error message. If
784  studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it points to is  studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it points to is
785  set to NULL. Otherwise it points to a textual error message. You should  set to NULL. Otherwise it is set to point to a textual error message. This is a
786  therefore test the error pointer for NULL after calling <b>pcre_study()</b>, to  static string that is part of the library. You must not try to free it. You
787  be sure that it has run successfully.  should test the error pointer for NULL after calling <b>pcre_study()</b>, to be
788    sure that it has run successfully.
789  </P>  </P>
790  <P>  <P>
791  This is a typical call to <b>pcre_study</b>():  This is a typical call to <b>pcre_study</b>():
 </P>  
 <P>  
792  <pre>  <pre>
793    pcre_extra *pe;    pcre_extra *pe;
794    pe = pcre_study(    pe = pcre_study(
795      re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */      re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */
796      0,              /* no options exist */      0,              /* no options exist */
797      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */
798  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
799  At present, studying a pattern is useful only for non-anchored patterns that do  At present, studying a pattern is useful only for non-anchored patterns that do
800  not have a single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting  not have a single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting
801  characters is created.  bytes is created.
802  </P>  <a name="localesupport"></a></P>
803  <a name="localesupport"></a><br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">LOCALE SUPPORT</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">LOCALE SUPPORT</a><br>
804  <P>  <P>
805  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters,  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters,
806  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables. When running in UTF-8  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed by character
807  mode, this applies only to characters with codes less than 256. The library  value. When running in UTF-8 mode, this applies only to characters with codes
808  contains a default set of tables that is created in the default C locale when  less than 128. Higher-valued codes never match escapes such as \w or \d, but
809  PCRE is compiled. This is used when the final argument of <b>pcre_compile()</b>  can be tested with \p if PCRE is built with Unicode character property
810  is NULL, and is sufficient for many applications.  support. The use of locales with Unicode is discouraged. If you are handling
811  </P>  characters with codes greater than 128, you should either use UTF-8 and
812  <P>  Unicode, or use locales, but not try to mix the two.
813  An alternative set of tables can, however, be supplied. Such tables are built  </P>
814  by calling the <b>pcre_maketables()</b> function, which has no arguments, in the  <P>
815  relevant locale. The result can then be passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> as often  PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used when the final argument
816  as necessary. For example, to build and use tables that are appropriate for the  of <b>pcre_compile()</b> is NULL. These are sufficient for many applications.
817  French locale (where accented characters with codes greater than 128 are  Normally, the internal tables recognize only ASCII characters. However, when
818  treated as letters), the following code could be used:  PCRE is built, it is possible to cause the internal tables to be rebuilt in the
819  </P>  default "C" locale of the local system, which may cause them to be different.
820  <P>  </P>
821    <P>
822    The internal tables can always be overridden by tables supplied by the
823    application that calls PCRE. These may be created in a different locale from
824    the default. As more and more applications change to using Unicode, the need
825    for this locale support is expected to die away.
826    </P>
827    <P>
828    External tables are built by calling the <b>pcre_maketables()</b> function,
829    which has no arguments, in the relevant locale. The result can then be passed
830    to <b>pcre_compile()</b> or <b>pcre_exec()</b> as often as necessary. For
831    example, to build and use tables that are appropriate for the French locale
832    (where accented characters with values greater than 128 are treated as letters),
833    the following code could be used:
834  <pre>  <pre>
835    setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "fr");    setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "fr_FR");
836    tables = pcre_maketables();    tables = pcre_maketables();
837    re = pcre_compile(..., tables);    re = pcre_compile(..., tables);
838  </PRE>  </pre>
839    The locale name "fr_FR" is used on Linux and other Unix-like systems; if you
840    are using Windows, the name for the French locale is "french".
841  </P>  </P>
842  <P>  <P>
843  The tables are built in memory that is obtained via <b>pcre_malloc</b>. The  When <b>pcre_maketables()</b> runs, the tables are built in memory that is
844  pointer that is passed to <b>pcre_compile</b> is saved with the compiled  obtained via <b>pcre_malloc</b>. It is the caller's responsibility to ensure
845    that the memory containing the tables remains available for as long as it is
846    needed.
847    </P>
848    <P>
849    The pointer that is passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> is saved with the compiled
850  pattern, and the same tables are used via this pointer by <b>pcre_study()</b>  pattern, and the same tables are used via this pointer by <b>pcre_study()</b>
851  and <b>pcre_exec()</b>. Thus, for any single pattern, compilation, studying and  and normally also by <b>pcre_exec()</b>. Thus, by default, for any single
852  matching all happen in the same locale, but different patterns can be compiled  pattern, compilation, studying and matching all happen in the same locale, but
853  in different locales. It is the caller's responsibility to ensure that the  different patterns can be compiled in different locales.
854  memory containing the tables remains available for as long as it is needed.  </P>
855    <P>
856    It is possible to pass a table pointer or NULL (indicating the use of the
857    internal tables) to <b>pcre_exec()</b>. Although not intended for this purpose,
858    this facility could be used to match a pattern in a different locale from the
859    one in which it was compiled. Passing table pointers at run time is discussed
860    below in the section on matching a pattern.
861  </P>  </P>
862  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN</a><br>
863  <P>  <P>
864  <b>int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
865  <b>int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>  <b>int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>
# Line 587  the pattern was not studied. The third a Line 876  the pattern was not studied. The third a
876  information is required, and the fourth argument is a pointer to a variable  information is required, and the fourth argument is a pointer to a variable
877  to receive the data. The yield of the function is zero for success, or one of  to receive the data. The yield of the function is zero for success, or one of
878  the following negative numbers:  the following negative numbers:
 </P>  
 <P>  
879  <pre>  <pre>
880    PCRE_ERROR_NULL       the argument <i>code</i> was NULL    PCRE_ERROR_NULL       the argument <i>code</i> was NULL
881                          the argument <i>where</i> was NULL                          the argument <i>where</i> was NULL
882    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC   the "magic number" was not found    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC   the "magic number" was not found
883    PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION  the value of <i>what</i> was invalid    PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION  the value of <i>what</i> was invalid
884  </PRE>  </pre>
885  </P>  The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled pattern as an simple
886  <P>  check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. Here is a typical call of
887  Here is a typical call of <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b>, to obtain the length of the  <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b>, to obtain the length of the compiled pattern:
 compiled pattern:  
 </P>  
 <P>  
888  <pre>  <pre>
889    int rc;    int rc;
890    unsigned long int length;    size_t length;
891    rc = pcre_fullinfo(    rc = pcre_fullinfo(
892      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */
893      pe,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */      pe,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */
894      PCRE_INFO_SIZE,   /* what is required */      PCRE_INFO_SIZE,   /* what is required */
895      &length);         /* where to put the data */      &length);         /* where to put the data */
896  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
897  The possible values for the third argument are defined in <b>pcre.h</b>, and are  The possible values for the third argument are defined in <b>pcre.h</b>, and are
898  as follows:  as follows:
 </P>  
 <P>  
899  <pre>  <pre>
900    PCRE_INFO_BACKREFMAX    PCRE_INFO_BACKREFMAX
901  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
902  Return the number of the highest back reference in the pattern. The fourth  Return the number of the highest back reference in the pattern. The fourth
903  argument should point to an <b>int</b> variable. Zero is returned if there are  argument should point to an <b>int</b> variable. Zero is returned if there are
904  no back references.  no back references.
 </P>  
 <P>  
905  <pre>  <pre>
906    PCRE_INFO_CAPTURECOUNT    PCRE_INFO_CAPTURECOUNT
907  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
908  Return the number of capturing subpatterns in the pattern. The fourth argument  Return the number of capturing subpatterns in the pattern. The fourth argument
909  should point to an \fbint\fR variable.  should point to an <b>int</b> variable.
910  </P>  <pre>
911  <P>    PCRE_INFO_DEFAULT_TABLES
912    </pre>
913    Return a pointer to the internal default character tables within PCRE. The
914    fourth argument should point to an <b>unsigned char *</b> variable. This
915    information call is provided for internal use by the <b>pcre_study()</b>
916    function. External callers can cause PCRE to use its internal tables by passing
917    a NULL table pointer.
918  <pre>  <pre>
919    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE
920  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
921  Return information about the first byte of any matched string, for a  Return information about the first byte of any matched string, for a
922  non-anchored pattern. (This option used to be called PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR; the  non-anchored pattern. The fourth argument should point to an <b>int</b>
923  old name is still recognized for backwards compatibility.)  variable. (This option used to be called PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR; the old name is
924  </P>  still recognized for backwards compatibility.)
 <P>  
 If there is a fixed first byte, e.g. from a pattern such as (cat|cow|coyote),  
 it is returned in the integer pointed to by <i>where</i>. Otherwise, if either  
925  </P>  </P>
926  <P>  <P>
927    If there is a fixed first byte, for example, from a pattern such as
928    (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. Otherwise, if either
929    <br>
930    <br>
931  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch
932  starts with "^", or  starts with "^", or
933  </P>  <br>
934  <P>  <br>
935  (b) every branch of the pattern starts with ".*" and PCRE_DOTALL is not set  (b) every branch of the pattern starts with ".*" and PCRE_DOTALL is not set
936  (if it were set, the pattern would be anchored),  (if it were set, the pattern would be anchored),
937  </P>  <br>
938  <P>  <br>
939  -1 is returned, indicating that the pattern matches only at the start of a  -1 is returned, indicating that the pattern matches only at the start of a
940  subject string or after any newline within the string. Otherwise -2 is  subject string or after any newline within the string. Otherwise -2 is
941  returned. For anchored patterns, -2 is returned.  returned. For anchored patterns, -2 is returned.
 </P>  
 <P>  
942  <pre>  <pre>
943    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTTABLE    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTTABLE
944  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
945  If the pattern was studied, and this resulted in the construction of a 256-bit  If the pattern was studied, and this resulted in the construction of a 256-bit
946  table indicating a fixed set of bytes for the first byte in any matching  table indicating a fixed set of bytes for the first byte in any matching
947  string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned. The  string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned. The
948  fourth argument should point to an <b>unsigned char *</b> variable.  fourth argument should point to an <b>unsigned char *</b> variable.
949  </P>  <pre>
950  <P>    PCRE_INFO_HASCRORLF
951    </pre>
952    Return 1 if the pattern contains any explicit matches for CR or LF characters,
953    otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an <b>int</b> variable. An
954    explicit match is either a literal CR or LF character, or \r or \n.
955    <pre>
956      PCRE_INFO_JCHANGED
957    </pre>
958    Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option setting is used in the pattern, otherwise
959    0. The fourth argument should point to an <b>int</b> variable. (?J) and
960    (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.
961  <pre>  <pre>
962    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL
963  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
964  Return the value of the rightmost literal byte that must exist in any matched  Return the value of the rightmost literal byte that must exist in any matched
965  string, other than at its start, if such a byte has been recorded. The fourth  string, other than at its start, if such a byte has been recorded. The fourth
966  argument should point to an <b>int</b> variable. If there is no such byte, -1 is  argument should point to an <b>int</b> variable. If there is no such byte, -1 is
# Line 685  returned. For anchored patterns, a last Line 968  returned. For anchored patterns, a last
968  follows something of variable length. For example, for the pattern  follows something of variable length. For example, for the pattern
969  /^a\d+z\d+/ the returned value is "z", but for /^a\dz\d/ the returned value  /^a\d+z\d+/ the returned value is "z", but for /^a\dz\d/ the returned value
970  is -1.  is -1.
 </P>  
 <P>  
971  <pre>  <pre>
972    PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT    PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT
973    PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE    PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE
974    PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE    PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE
975  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
976  PCRE supports the use of named as well as numbered capturing parentheses. The  PCRE supports the use of named as well as numbered capturing parentheses. The
977  names are just an additional way of identifying the parentheses, which still  names are just an additional way of identifying the parentheses, which still
978  acquire a number. A caller that wants to extract data from a named subpattern  acquire numbers. Several convenience functions such as
979  must convert the name to a number in order to access the correct pointers in  <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b> are provided for extracting captured
980  the output vector (described with <b>pcre_exec()</b> below). In order to do  substrings by name. It is also possible to extract the data directly, by first
981  this, it must first use these three values to obtain the name-to-number mapping  converting the name to a number in order to access the correct pointers in the
982  table for the pattern.  output vector (described with <b>pcre_exec()</b> below). To do the conversion,
983    you need to use the name-to-number map, which is described by these three
984    values.
985  </P>  </P>
986  <P>  <P>
987  The map consists of a number of fixed-size entries. PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT gives  The map consists of a number of fixed-size entries. PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT gives
# Line 710  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NA Line 991  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NA
991  entry of the table (a pointer to <b>char</b>). The first two bytes of each entry  entry of the table (a pointer to <b>char</b>). The first two bytes of each entry
992  are the number of the capturing parenthesis, most significant byte first. The  are the number of the capturing parenthesis, most significant byte first. The
993  rest of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated. The names are in  rest of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated. The names are in
994  alphabetical order. For example, consider the following pattern (assume  alphabetical order. When PCRE_DUPNAMES is set, duplicate names are in order of
995    their parentheses numbers. For example, consider the following pattern (assume
996  PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including newlines - is ignored):  PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including newlines - is ignored):
 </P>  
 <P>  
997  <pre>  <pre>
998    (?P&#60;date&#62; (?P&#60;year&#62;(\d\d)?\d\d) -    (?&#60;date&#62; (?&#60;year&#62;(\d\d)?\d\d) - (?&#60;month&#62;\d\d) - (?&#60;day&#62;\d\d) )
999    (?P&#60;month&#62;\d\d) - (?P&#60;day&#62;\d\d) )  </pre>
 </PRE>  
 </P>  
 <P>  
1000  There are four named subpatterns, so the table has four entries, and each entry  There are four named subpatterns, so the table has four entries, and each entry
1001  in the table is eight bytes long. The table is as follows, with non-printing  in the table is eight bytes long. The table is as follows, with non-printing
1002  bytes shows in hex, and undefined bytes shown as ??:  bytes shows in hexadecimal, and undefined bytes shown as ??:
 </P>  
 <P>  
1003  <pre>  <pre>
1004    00 01 d  a  t  e  00 ??    00 01 d  a  t  e  00 ??
1005    00 05 d  a  y  00 ?? ??    00 05 d  a  y  00 ?? ??
1006    00 04 m  o  n  t  h  00    00 04 m  o  n  t  h  00
1007    00 02 y  e  a  r  00 ??    00 02 y  e  a  r  00 ??
1008  </PRE>  </pre>
1009  </P>  When writing code to extract data from named subpatterns using the
1010  <P>  name-to-number map, remember that the length of the entries is likely to be
1011  When writing code to extract data from named subpatterns, remember that the  different for each compiled pattern.
1012  length of each entry may be different for each compiled pattern.  <pre>
1013  </P>    PCRE_INFO_OKPARTIAL
1014  <P>  </pre>
1015    Return 1 if the pattern can be used for partial matching, otherwise 0. The
1016    fourth argument should point to an <b>int</b> variable. The
1017    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
1018    documentation lists the restrictions that apply to patterns when partial
1019    matching is used.
1020  <pre>  <pre>
1021    PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS    PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS
1022  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1023  Return a copy of the options with which the pattern was compiled. The fourth  Return a copy of the options with which the pattern was compiled. The fourth
1024  argument should point to an <b>unsigned long int</b> variable. These option bits  argument should point to an <b>unsigned long int</b> variable. These option bits
1025  are those specified in the call to <b>pcre_compile()</b>, modified by any  are those specified in the call to <b>pcre_compile()</b>, modified by any
1026  top-level option settings within the pattern itself.  top-level option settings at the start of the pattern itself. In other words,
1027    they are the options that will be in force when matching starts. For example,
1028    if the pattern /(?im)abc(?-i)d/ is compiled with the PCRE_EXTENDED option, the
1029    result is PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE, and PCRE_EXTENDED.
1030  </P>  </P>
1031  <P>  <P>
1032  A pattern is automatically anchored by PCRE if all of its top-level  A pattern is automatically anchored by PCRE if all of its top-level
1033  alternatives begin with one of the following:  alternatives begin with one of the following:
 </P>  
 <P>  
1034  <pre>  <pre>
1035    ^     unless PCRE_MULTILINE is set    ^     unless PCRE_MULTILINE is set
1036    \A    always    \A    always
1037    \G    always    \G    always
1038    .*    if PCRE_DOTALL is set and there are no back    .*    if PCRE_DOTALL is set and there are no back references to the subpattern in which .* appears
1039            references to the subpattern in which .* appears  </pre>
 </PRE>  
 </P>  
 <P>  
1040  For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit is set in the options returned by  For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit is set in the options returned by
1041  <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b>.  <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b>.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1042  <pre>  <pre>
1043    PCRE_INFO_SIZE    PCRE_INFO_SIZE
1044  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1045  Return the size of the compiled pattern, that is, the value that was passed as  Return the size of the compiled pattern, that is, the value that was passed as
1046  the argument to <b>pcre_malloc()</b> when PCRE was getting memory in which to  the argument to <b>pcre_malloc()</b> when PCRE was getting memory in which to
1047  place the compiled data. The fourth argument should point to a <b>size_t</b>  place the compiled data. The fourth argument should point to a <b>size_t</b>
1048  variable.  variable.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1049  <pre>  <pre>
1050    PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE    PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE
1051  </PRE>  </pre>
1052  </P>  Return the size of the data block pointed to by the <i>study_data</i> field in
 <P>  
 Returns the size of the data block pointed to by the <i>study_data</i> field in  
1053  a <b>pcre_extra</b> block. That is, it is the value that was passed to  a <b>pcre_extra</b> block. That is, it is the value that was passed to
1054  <b>pcre_malloc()</b> when PCRE was getting memory into which to place the data  <b>pcre_malloc()</b> when PCRE was getting memory into which to place the data
1055  created by <b>pcre_study()</b>. The fourth argument should point to a  created by <b>pcre_study()</b>. The fourth argument should point to a
1056  <b>size_t</b> variable.  <b>size_t</b> variable.
1057  </P>  </P>
1058  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION</a><br>
1059  <P>  <P>
1060  <b>int pcre_info(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int *<i>optptr</i>, int</b>  <b>int pcre_info(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int *<i>optptr</i>, int</b>
1061  <b>*<i>firstcharptr</i>);</b>  <b>*<i>firstcharptr</i>);</b>
# Line 798  restrictive to return all the available Line 1066  restrictive to return all the available
1066  programs should use <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> instead. The yield of  programs should use <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> instead. The yield of
1067  <b>pcre_info()</b> is the number of capturing subpatterns, or one of the  <b>pcre_info()</b> is the number of capturing subpatterns, or one of the
1068  following negative numbers:  following negative numbers:
 </P>  
 <P>  
1069  <pre>  <pre>
1070    PCRE_ERROR_NULL       the argument <i>code</i> was NULL    PCRE_ERROR_NULL       the argument <i>code</i> was NULL
1071    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC   the "magic number" was not found    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC   the "magic number" was not found
1072  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1073  If the <i>optptr</i> argument is not NULL, a copy of the options with which the  If the <i>optptr</i> argument is not NULL, a copy of the options with which the
1074  pattern was compiled is placed in the integer it points to (see  pattern was compiled is placed in the integer it points to (see
1075  PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS above).  PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS above).
# Line 815  If the pattern is not anchored and the < Line 1079  If the pattern is not anchored and the <
1079  it is used to pass back information about the first character of any matched  it is used to pass back information about the first character of any matched
1080  string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above).  string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above).
1081  </P>  </P>
1082  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">MATCHING A PATTERN</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">REFERENCE COUNTS</a><br>
1083    <P>
1084    <b>int pcre_refcount(pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>adjust</i>);</b>
1085    </P>
1086    <P>
1087    The <b>pcre_refcount()</b> function is used to maintain a reference count in the
1088    data block that contains a compiled pattern. It is provided for the benefit of
1089    applications that operate in an object-oriented manner, where different parts
1090    of the application may be using the same compiled pattern, but you want to free
1091    the block when they are all done.
1092    </P>
1093    <P>
1094    When a pattern is compiled, the reference count field is initialized to zero.
1095    It is changed only by calling this function, whose action is to add the
1096    <i>adjust</i> value (which may be positive or negative) to it. The yield of the
1097    function is the new value. However, the value of the count is constrained to
1098    lie between 0 and 65535, inclusive. If the new value is outside these limits,
1099    it is forced to the appropriate limit value.
1100    </P>
1101    <P>
1102    Except when it is zero, the reference count is not correctly preserved if a
1103    pattern is compiled on one host and then transferred to a host whose byte-order
1104    is different. (This seems a highly unlikely scenario.)
1105    </P>
1106    <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE TRADITIONAL FUNCTION</a><br>
1107  <P>  <P>
1108  <b>int pcre_exec(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_exec(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
1109  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>
# Line 823  string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above). Line 1111  string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above).
1111  </P>  </P>
1112  <P>  <P>
1113  The function <b>pcre_exec()</b> is called to match a subject string against a  The function <b>pcre_exec()</b> is called to match a subject string against a
1114  pre-compiled pattern, which is passed in the <i>code</i> argument. If the  compiled pattern, which is passed in the <i>code</i> argument. If the
1115  pattern has been studied, the result of the study should be passed in the  pattern has been studied, the result of the study should be passed in the
1116  <i>extra</i> argument.  <i>extra</i> argument. This function is the main matching facility of the
1117    library, and it operates in a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is
1118    also an alternative matching function, which is described
1119    <a href="#dfamatch">below</a>
1120    in the section about the <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> function.
1121  </P>  </P>
1122  <P>  <P>
1123  Here is an example of a simple call to <b>pcre_exec()</b>:  In most applications, the pattern will have been compiled (and optionally
1124    studied) in the same process that calls <b>pcre_exec()</b>. However, it is
1125    possible to save compiled patterns and study data, and then use them later
1126    in different processes, possibly even on different hosts. For a discussion
1127    about this, see the
1128    <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
1129    documentation.
1130  </P>  </P>
1131  <P>  <P>
1132    Here is an example of a simple call to <b>pcre_exec()</b>:
1133  <pre>  <pre>
1134    int rc;    int rc;
1135    int ovector[30];    int ovector[30];
# Line 841  Here is an example of a simple call to < Line 1140  Here is an example of a simple call to <
1140      11,             /* the length of the subject string */      11,             /* the length of the subject string */
1141      0,              /* start at offset 0 in the subject */      0,              /* start at offset 0 in the subject */
1142      0,              /* default options */      0,              /* default options */
1143      ovector,        /* vector for substring information */      ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */
1144      30);            /* number of elements in the vector */      30);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
1145  </PRE>  <a name="extradata"></a></PRE>
1146  </P>  </P>
1147    <br><b>
1148    Extra data for <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1149    </b><br>
1150  <P>  <P>
1151  If the <i>extra</i> argument is not NULL, it must point to a <b>pcre_extra</b>  If the <i>extra</i> argument is not NULL, it must point to a <b>pcre_extra</b>
1152  data block. The <b>pcre_study()</b> function returns such a block (when it  data block. The <b>pcre_study()</b> function returns such a block (when it
1153  doesn't return NULL), but you can also create one for yourself, and pass  doesn't return NULL), but you can also create one for yourself, and pass
1154  additional information in it. The fields in the block are as follows:  additional information in it. The <b>pcre_extra</b> block contains the following
1155  </P>  fields (not necessarily in this order):
 <P>  
1156  <pre>  <pre>
1157    unsigned long int <i>flags</i>;    unsigned long int <i>flags</i>;
1158    void *<i>study_data</i>;    void *<i>study_data</i>;
1159    unsigned long int <i>match_limit</i>;    unsigned long int <i>match_limit</i>;
1160      unsigned long int <i>match_limit_recursion</i>;
1161    void *<i>callout_data</i>;    void *<i>callout_data</i>;
1162  </PRE>    const unsigned char *<i>tables</i>;
1163  </P>  </pre>
 <P>  
1164  The <i>flags</i> field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields  The <i>flags</i> field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields
1165  are set. The flag bits are:  are set. The flag bits are:
 </P>  
 <P>  
1166  <pre>  <pre>
1167    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA
1168    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT
1169      PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION
1170    PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA    PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA
1171  </PRE>    PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES
1172  </P>  </pre>
 <P>  
1173  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The <i>study_data</i> field is set in the  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The <i>study_data</i> field is set in the
1174  <b>pcre_extra</b> block that is returned by <b>pcre_study()</b>, together with  <b>pcre_extra</b> block that is returned by <b>pcre_study()</b>, together with
1175  the appropriate flag bit. You should not set this yourself, but you can add to  the appropriate flag bit. You should not set this yourself, but you may add to
1176  the block by setting the other fields.  the block by setting the other fields and their corresponding flag bits.
1177  </P>  </P>
1178  <P>  <P>
1179  The <i>match_limit</i> field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a  The <i>match_limit</i> field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a
1180  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,
1181  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The
1182  classic example is the use of nested unlimited repeats. Internally, PCRE uses a  classic example is the use of nested unlimited repeats.
 function called <b>match()</b> which it calls repeatedly (sometimes  
 recursively). The limit is imposed on the number of times this function is  
 called during a match, which has the effect of limiting the amount of recursion  
 and backtracking that can take place. For patterns that are not anchored, the  
 count starts from zero for each position in the subject string.  
1183  </P>  </P>
1184  <P>  <P>
1185  The default limit for the library can be set when PCRE is built; the default  Internally, PCRE uses a function called <b>match()</b> which it calls repeatedly
1186    (sometimes recursively). The limit set by <i>match_limit</i> is imposed on the
1187    number of times this function is called during a match, which has the effect of
1188    limiting the amount of backtracking that can take place. For patterns that are
1189    not anchored, the count restarts from zero for each position in the subject
1190    string.
1191    </P>
1192    <P>
1193    The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the default
1194  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can
1195  reduce the default by suppling <b>pcre_exec()</b> with a \fRpcre_extra\fR block  override the default by suppling <b>pcre_exec()</b> with a <b>pcre_extra</b>
1196  in which <i>match_limit</i> is set to a smaller value, and  block in which <i>match_limit</i> is set, and PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT is set in
1197  PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT is set in the <i>flags</i> field. If the limit is  the <i>flags</i> field. If the limit is exceeded, <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns
1198  exceeded, <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT.  PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT.
1199    </P>
1200    <P>
1201    The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> field is similar to <i>match_limit</i>, but
1202    instead of limiting the total number of times that <b>match()</b> is called, it
1203    limits the depth of recursion. The recursion depth is a smaller number than the
1204    total number of calls, because not all calls to <b>match()</b> are recursive.
1205    This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than <i>match_limit</i>.
1206    </P>
1207    <P>
1208    Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of stack that can be used, or,
1209    when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead of the stack, the
1210    amount of heap memory that can be used.
1211    </P>
1212    <P>
1213    The default value for <i>match_limit_recursion</i> can be set when PCRE is
1214    built; the default default is the same value as the default for
1215    <i>match_limit</i>. You can override the default by suppling <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1216    with a <b>pcre_extra</b> block in which <i>match_limit_recursion</i> is set, and
1217    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION is set in the <i>flags</i> field. If the limit
1218    is exceeded, <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT.
1219  </P>  </P>
1220  <P>  <P>
1221  The <i>pcre_callout</i> field is used in conjunction with the "callout" feature,  The <i>pcre_callout</i> field is used in conjunction with the "callout" feature,
1222  which is described in the <b>pcrecallout</b> documentation.  which is described in the
1223    <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
1224    documentation.
1225  </P>  </P>
1226  <P>  <P>
1227  The PCRE_ANCHORED option can be passed in the <i>options</i> argument, whose  The <i>tables</i> field is used to pass a character tables pointer to
1228  unused bits must be zero. This limits <b>pcre_exec()</b> to matching at the  <b>pcre_exec()</b>; this overrides the value that is stored with the compiled
1229  first matching position. However, if a pattern was compiled with PCRE_ANCHORED,  pattern. A non-NULL value is stored with the compiled pattern only if custom
1230  or turned out to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made  tables were supplied to <b>pcre_compile()</b> via its <i>tableptr</i> argument.
1231  unachored at matching time.  If NULL is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> using this mechanism, it forces PCRE's
1232    internal tables to be used. This facility is helpful when re-using patterns
1233    that have been saved after compiling with an external set of tables, because
1234    the external tables might be at a different address when <b>pcre_exec()</b> is
1235    called. See the
1236    <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
1237    documentation for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.
1238    <a name="execoptions"></a></P>
1239    <br><b>
1240    Option bits for <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1241    </b><br>
1242    <P>
1243    The unused bits of the <i>options</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> must be
1244    zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_<i>xxx</i>,
1245    PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK and PCRE_PARTIAL.
1246    <pre>
1247      PCRE_ANCHORED
1248    </pre>
1249    The PCRE_ANCHORED option limits <b>pcre_exec()</b> to matching at the first
1250    matching position. If a pattern was compiled with PCRE_ANCHORED, or turned out
1251    to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made unachored at
1252    matching time.
1253    <pre>
1254      PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
1255      PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
1256    </pre>
1257    These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \R escape
1258    sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF, or to
1259    match any Unicode newline sequence. These options override the choice that was
1260    made or defaulted when the pattern was compiled.
1261    <pre>
1262      PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
1263      PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
1264      PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
1265      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
1266      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
1267    </pre>
1268    These options override the newline definition that was chosen or defaulted when
1269    the pattern was compiled. For details, see the description of
1270    <b>pcre_compile()</b> above. During matching, the newline choice affects the
1271    behaviour of the dot, circumflex, and dollar metacharacters. It may also alter
1272    the way the match position is advanced after a match failure for an unanchored
1273    pattern.
1274  </P>  </P>
1275  <P>  <P>
1276  When PCRE_UTF8 was set at compile time, the validity of the subject as a UTF-8  When PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF, or PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY is set, and a
1277  string is automatically checked, and the value of <i>startoffset</i> is also  match attempt for an unanchored pattern fails when the current position is at a
1278  checked to ensure that it points to the start of a UTF-8 character. If an  CRLF sequence, and the pattern contains no explicit matches for CR or LF
1279  invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found, <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns the error  characters, the match position is advanced by two characters instead of one, in
1280  PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8. If <i>startoffset</i> contains an invalid value,  other words, to after the CRLF.
 PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET is returned.  
1281  </P>  </P>
1282  <P>  <P>
1283  If you already know that your subject is valid, and you want to skip these  The above rule is a compromise that makes the most common cases work as
1284  checks for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option when  expected. For example, if the pattern is .+A (and the PCRE_DOTALL option is not
1285  calling <b>pcre_exec()</b>. You might want to do this for the second and  set), it does not match the string "\r\nA" because, after failing at the
1286  subsequent calls to <b>pcre_exec()</b> if you are making repeated calls to find  start, it skips both the CR and the LF before retrying. However, the pattern
1287  all the matches in a single subject string. However, you should be sure that  [\r\n]A does match that string, because it contains an explicit CR or LF
1288  the value of <i>startoffset</i> points to the start of a UTF-8 character. When  reference, and so advances only by one character after the first failure.
 PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a  
 subject, or a value of <i>startoffset</i> that does not point to the start of a  
 UTF-8 character, is undefined. Your program may crash.  
1289  </P>  </P>
1290  <P>  <P>
1291  There are also three further options that can be set only at matching time:  An explicit match for CR of LF is either a literal appearance of one of those
1292    characters, or one of the \r or \n escape sequences. Implicit matches such as
1293    [^X] do not count, nor does \s (which includes CR and LF in the characters
1294    that it matches).
1295  </P>  </P>
1296  <P>  <P>
1297    Notwithstanding the above, anomalous effects may still occur when CRLF is a
1298    valid newline sequence and explicit \r or \n escapes appear in the pattern.
1299  <pre>  <pre>
1300    PCRE_NOTBOL    PCRE_NOTBOL
1301  </PRE>  </pre>
1302  </P>  This option specifies that first character of the subject string is not the
1303  <P>  beginning of a line, so the circumflex metacharacter should not match before
1304  The first character of the string is not the beginning of a line, so the  it. Setting this without PCRE_MULTILINE (at compile time) causes circumflex
1305  circumflex metacharacter should not match before it. Setting this without  never to match. This option affects only the behaviour of the circumflex
1306  PCRE_MULTILINE (at compile time) causes circumflex never to match.  metacharacter. It does not affect \A.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1307  <pre>  <pre>
1308    PCRE_NOTEOL    PCRE_NOTEOL
1309  </PRE>  </pre>
1310  </P>  This option specifies that the end of the subject string is not the end of a
1311  <P>  line, so the dollar metacharacter should not match it nor (except in multiline
1312  The end of the string is not the end of a line, so the dollar metacharacter  mode) a newline immediately before it. Setting this without PCRE_MULTILINE (at
1313  should not match it nor (except in multiline mode) a newline immediately before  compile time) causes dollar never to match. This option affects only the
1314  it. Setting this without PCRE_MULTILINE (at compile time) causes dollar never  behaviour of the dollar metacharacter. It does not affect \Z or \z.
 to match.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
1315  <pre>  <pre>
1316    PCRE_NOTEMPTY    PCRE_NOTEMPTY
1317  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1318  An empty string is not considered to be a valid match if this option is set. If  An empty string is not considered to be a valid match if this option is set. If
1319  there are alternatives in the pattern, they are tried. If all the alternatives  there are alternatives in the pattern, they are tried. If all the alternatives
1320  match the empty string, the entire match fails. For example, if the pattern  match the empty string, the entire match fails. For example, if the pattern
 </P>  
 <P>  
1321  <pre>  <pre>
1322    a?b?    a?b?
1323  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1324  is applied to a string not beginning with "a" or "b", it matches the empty  is applied to a string not beginning with "a" or "b", it matches the empty
1325  string at the start of the subject. With PCRE_NOTEMPTY set, this match is not  string at the start of the subject. With PCRE_NOTEMPTY set, this match is not
1326  valid, so PCRE searches further into the string for occurrences of "a" or "b".  valid, so PCRE searches further into the string for occurrences of "a" or "b".
# Line 974  Perl has no direct equivalent of PCRE_NO Line 1330  Perl has no direct equivalent of PCRE_NO
1330  of a pattern match of the empty string within its <b>split()</b> function, and  of a pattern match of the empty string within its <b>split()</b> function, and
1331  when using the /g modifier. It is possible to emulate Perl's behaviour after  when using the /g modifier. It is possible to emulate Perl's behaviour after
1332  matching a null string by first trying the match again at the same offset with  matching a null string by first trying the match again at the same offset with
1333  PCRE_NOTEMPTY set, and then if that fails by advancing the starting offset (see  PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED, and then if that fails by advancing the
1334  below) and trying an ordinary match again.  starting offset (see below) and trying an ordinary match again. There is some
1335    code that demonstrates how to do this in the <i>pcredemo.c</i> sample program.
1336    <pre>
1337      PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
1338    </pre>
1339    When PCRE_UTF8 is set at compile time, the validity of the subject as a UTF-8
1340    string is automatically checked when <b>pcre_exec()</b> is subsequently called.
1341    The value of <i>startoffset</i> is also checked to ensure that it points to the
1342    start of a UTF-8 character. There is a discussion about the validity of UTF-8
1343    strings in the
1344    <a href="pcre.html#utf8strings">section on UTF-8 support</a>
1345    in the main
1346    <a href="pcre.html"><b>pcre</b></a>
1347    page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found, <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns
1348    the error PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8. If <i>startoffset</i> contains an invalid value,
1349    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET is returned.
1350  </P>  </P>
1351  <P>  <P>
1352  The subject string is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> as a pointer in  If you already know that your subject is valid, and you want to skip these
1353  <i>subject</i>, a length in <i>length</i>, and a starting byte offset in  checks for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option when
1354  <i>startoffset</i>. Unlike the pattern string, the subject may contain binary  calling <b>pcre_exec()</b>. You might want to do this for the second and
1355  zero bytes. When the starting offset is zero, the search for a match starts at  subsequent calls to <b>pcre_exec()</b> if you are making repeated calls to find
1356  the beginning of the subject, and this is by far the most common case.  all the matches in a single subject string. However, you should be sure that
1357    the value of <i>startoffset</i> points to the start of a UTF-8 character. When
1358    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a
1359    subject, or a value of <i>startoffset</i> that does not point to the start of a
1360    UTF-8 character, is undefined. Your program may crash.
1361    <pre>
1362      PCRE_PARTIAL
1363    </pre>
1364    This option turns on the partial matching feature. If the subject string fails
1365    to match the pattern, but at some point during the matching process the end of
1366    the subject was reached (that is, the subject partially matches the pattern and
1367    the failure to match occurred only because there were not enough subject
1368    characters), <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL instead of
1369    PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH. When PCRE_PARTIAL is used, there are restrictions on what
1370    may appear in the pattern. These are discussed in the
1371    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
1372    documentation.
1373  </P>  </P>
1374    <br><b>
1375    The string to be matched by <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1376    </b><br>
1377  <P>  <P>
1378  If the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_UTF8 option, the subject must be a  The subject string is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> as a pointer in
1379  sequence of bytes that is a valid UTF-8 string, and the starting offset must  <i>subject</i>, a length in <i>length</i>, and a starting byte offset in
1380  point to the beginning of a UTF-8 character. If an invalid UTF-8 string or  <i>startoffset</i>. In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset must point to the start of a
1381  offset is passed, an error (either PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or  UTF-8 character. Unlike the pattern string, the subject may contain binary zero
1382  PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET) is returned, unless the option PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is  bytes. When the starting offset is zero, the search for a match starts at the
1383  set, in which case PCRE's behaviour is not defined.  beginning of the subject, and this is by far the most common case.
1384  </P>  </P>
1385  <P>  <P>
1386  A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match in the  A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match in the
# Line 998  same subject by calling <b>pcre_exec()</ Line 1388  same subject by calling <b>pcre_exec()</
1388  Setting <i>startoffset</i> differs from just passing over a shortened string and  Setting <i>startoffset</i> differs from just passing over a shortened string and
1389  setting PCRE_NOTBOL in the case of a pattern that begins with any kind of  setting PCRE_NOTBOL in the case of a pattern that begins with any kind of
1390  lookbehind. For example, consider the pattern  lookbehind. For example, consider the pattern
 </P>  
 <P>  
1391  <pre>  <pre>
1392    \Biss\B    \Biss\B
1393  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1394  which finds occurrences of "iss" in the middle of words. (\B matches only if  which finds occurrences of "iss" in the middle of words. (\B matches only if
1395  the current position in the subject is not a word boundary.) When applied to  the current position in the subject is not a word boundary.) When applied to
1396  the string "Mississipi" the first call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> finds the first  the string "Mississipi" the first call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> finds the first
# Line 1017  behind the starting point to discover th Line 1403  behind the starting point to discover th
1403  </P>  </P>
1404  <P>  <P>
1405  If a non-zero starting offset is passed when the pattern is anchored, one  If a non-zero starting offset is passed when the pattern is anchored, one
1406  attempt to match at the given offset is tried. This can only succeed if the  attempt to match at the given offset is made. This can only succeed if the
1407  pattern does not require the match to be at the start of the subject.  pattern does not require the match to be at the start of the subject.
1408  </P>  </P>
1409    <br><b>
1410    How <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns captured substrings
1411    </b><br>
1412  <P>  <P>
1413  In general, a pattern matches a certain portion of the subject, and in  In general, a pattern matches a certain portion of the subject, and in
1414  addition, further substrings from the subject may be picked out by parts of the  addition, further substrings from the subject may be picked out by parts of the
# Line 1031  kinds of parenthesized subpattern that d Line 1420  kinds of parenthesized subpattern that d
1420  <P>  <P>
1421  Captured substrings are returned to the caller via a vector of integer offsets  Captured substrings are returned to the caller via a vector of integer offsets
1422  whose address is passed in <i>ovector</i>. The number of elements in the vector  whose address is passed in <i>ovector</i>. The number of elements in the vector
1423  is passed in <i>ovecsize</i>. The first two-thirds of the vector is used to pass  is passed in <i>ovecsize</i>, which must be a non-negative number. <b>Note</b>:
1424  back captured substrings, each substring using a pair of integers. The  this argument is NOT the size of <i>ovector</i> in bytes.
 remaining third of the vector is used as workspace by <b>pcre_exec()</b> while  
 matching capturing subpatterns, and is not available for passing back  
 information. The length passed in <i>ovecsize</i> should always be a multiple of  
 three. If it is not, it is rounded down.  
1425  </P>  </P>
1426  <P>  <P>
1427  When a match has been successful, information about captured substrings is  The first two-thirds of the vector is used to pass back captured substrings,
1428  returned in pairs of integers, starting at the beginning of <i>ovector</i>, and  each substring using a pair of integers. The remaining third of the vector is
1429    used as workspace by <b>pcre_exec()</b> while matching capturing subpatterns,
1430    and is not available for passing back information. The length passed in
1431    <i>ovecsize</i> should always be a multiple of three. If it is not, it is
1432    rounded down.
1433    </P>
1434    <P>
1435    When a match is successful, information about captured substrings is returned
1436    in pairs of integers, starting at the beginning of <i>ovector</i>, and
1437  continuing up to two-thirds of its length at the most. The first element of a  continuing up to two-thirds of its length at the most. The first element of a
1438  pair is set to the offset of the first character in a substring, and the second  pair is set to the offset of the first character in a substring, and the second
1439  is set to the offset of the first character after the end of a substring. The  is set to the offset of the first character after the end of a substring. The
1440  first pair, <i>ovector[0]</i> and <i>ovector[1]</i>, identify the portion of the  first pair, <i>ovector[0]</i> and <i>ovector[1]</i>, identify the portion of the
1441  subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next pair is used for the  subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next pair is used for the
1442  first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>  first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1443  is the number of pairs that have been set. If there are no capturing  is one more than the highest numbered pair that has been set. For example, if
1444  subpatterns, the return value from a successful match is 1, indicating that  two substrings have been captured, the returned value is 3. If there are no
1445  just the first pair of offsets has been set.  capturing subpatterns, the return value from a successful match is 1,
1446  </P>  indicating that just the first pair of offsets has been set.
 <P>  
 Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings  
 as separate strings. These are described in the following section.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 It is possible for an capturing subpattern number <i>n+1</i> to match some  
 part of the subject when subpattern <i>n</i> has not been used at all. For  
 example, if the string "abc" is matched against the pattern (a|(z))(bc)  
 subpatterns 1 and 3 are matched, but 2 is not. When this happens, both offset  
 values corresponding to the unused subpattern are set to -1.  
1447  </P>  </P>
1448  <P>  <P>
1449  If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion of the  If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion of the
1450  string that it matched that gets returned.  string that it matched that is returned.
1451  </P>  </P>
1452  <P>  <P>
1453  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substrings, it is used as  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets, it is
1454  far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function returns a  used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function
1455  value of zero. In particular, if the substring offsets are not of interest,  returns a value of zero. In particular, if the substring offsets are not of
1456  <b>pcre_exec()</b> may be called with <i>ovector</i> passed as NULL and  interest, <b>pcre_exec()</b> may be called with <i>ovector</i> passed as NULL and
1457  <i>ovecsize</i> as zero. However, if the pattern contains back references and  <i>ovecsize</i> as zero. However, if the pattern contains back references and
1458  the <i>ovector</i> isn't big enough to remember the related substrings, PCRE has  the <i>ovector</i> is not big enough to remember the related substrings, PCRE
1459  to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usually advisable  has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usually
1460  to supply an <i>ovector</i>.  advisable to supply an <i>ovector</i>.
1461  </P>  </P>
1462  <P>  <P>
1463  Note that <b>pcre_info()</b> can be used to find out how many capturing  The <b>pcre_info()</b> function can be used to find out how many capturing
1464  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for
1465  <i>ovector</i> that will allow for <i>n</i> captured substrings, in addition to  <i>ovector</i> that will allow for <i>n</i> captured substrings, in addition to
1466  the offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (<i>n</i>+1)*3.  the offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (<i>n</i>+1)*3.
1467  </P>  </P>
1468  <P>  <P>
1469  If <b>pcre_exec()</b> fails, it returns a negative number. The following are  It is possible for capturing subpattern number <i>n+1</i> to match some part of
1470  defined in the header file:  the subject when subpattern <i>n</i> has not been used at all. For example, if
1471    the string "abc" is matched against the pattern (a|(z))(bc) the return from the
1472    function is 4, and subpatterns 1 and 3 are matched, but 2 is not. When this
1473    happens, both values in the offset pairs corresponding to unused subpatterns
1474    are set to -1.
1475  </P>  </P>
1476  <P>  <P>
1477  <pre>  Offset values that correspond to unused subpatterns at the end of the
1478    PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH        (-1)  expression are also set to -1. For example, if the string "abc" is matched
1479  </PRE>  against the pattern (abc)(x(yz)?)? subpatterns 2 and 3 are not matched. The
1480    return from the function is 2, because the highest used capturing subpattern
1481    number is 1. However, you can refer to the offsets for the second and third
1482    capturing subpatterns if you wish (assuming the vector is large enough, of
1483    course).
1484  </P>  </P>
1485  <P>  <P>
1486  The subject string did not match the pattern.  Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings
1487  </P>  as separate strings. These are described below.
1488    <a name="errorlist"></a></P>
1489    <br><b>
1490    Error return values from <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1491    </b><br>
1492  <P>  <P>
1493    If <b>pcre_exec()</b> fails, it returns a negative number. The following are
1494    defined in the header file:
1495    <pre>
1496      PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH        (-1)
1497    </pre>
1498    The subject string did not match the pattern.
1499  <pre>  <pre>
1500    PCRE_ERROR_NULL           (-2)    PCRE_ERROR_NULL           (-2)
1501  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1502  Either <i>code</i> or <i>subject</i> was passed as NULL, or <i>ovector</i> was  Either <i>code</i> or <i>subject</i> was passed as NULL, or <i>ovector</i> was
1503  NULL and <i>ovecsize</i> was not zero.  NULL and <i>ovecsize</i> was not zero.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1504  <pre>  <pre>
1505    PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION      (-3)    PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION      (-3)
1506  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1507  An unrecognized bit was set in the <i>options</i> argument.  An unrecognized bit was set in the <i>options</i> argument.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1508  <pre>  <pre>
1509    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC       (-4)    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC       (-4)
1510  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1511  PCRE stores a 4-byte "magic number" at the start of the compiled code, to catch  PCRE stores a 4-byte "magic number" at the start of the compiled code, to catch
1512  the case when it is passed a junk pointer. This is the error it gives when the  the case when it is passed a junk pointer and to detect when a pattern that was
1513  magic number isn't present.  compiled in an environment of one endianness is run in an environment with the
1514  </P>  other endianness. This is the error that PCRE gives when the magic number is
1515  <P>  not present.
1516  <pre>  <pre>
1517    PCRE_ERROR_UNKNOWN_NODE   (-5)    PCRE_ERROR_UNKNOWN_OPCODE (-5)
1518  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1519  While running the pattern match, an unknown item was encountered in the  While running the pattern match, an unknown item was encountered in the
1520  compiled pattern. This error could be caused by a bug in PCRE or by overwriting  compiled pattern. This error could be caused by a bug in PCRE or by overwriting
1521  of the compiled pattern.  of the compiled pattern.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1522  <pre>  <pre>
1523    PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY       (-6)    PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY       (-6)
1524  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1525  If a pattern contains back references, but the <i>ovector</i> that is passed to  If a pattern contains back references, but the <i>ovector</i> that is passed to
1526  <b>pcre_exec()</b> is not big enough to remember the referenced substrings, PCRE  <b>pcre_exec()</b> is not big enough to remember the referenced substrings, PCRE
1527  gets a block of memory at the start of matching to use for this purpose. If the  gets a block of memory at the start of matching to use for this purpose. If the
1528  call via <b>pcre_malloc()</b> fails, this error is given. The memory is freed at  call via <b>pcre_malloc()</b> fails, this error is given. The memory is
1529  the end of matching.  automatically freed at the end of matching.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1530  <pre>  <pre>
1531    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)
1532  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1533  This error is used by the <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b>,  This error is used by the <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b>,
1534  <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>, and <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> functions (see  <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>, and <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> functions (see
1535  below). It is never returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>.  below). It is never returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1536  <pre>  <pre>
1537    PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT     (-8)    PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT     (-8)
1538  </PRE>  </pre>
1539  </P>  The backtracking limit, as specified by the <i>match_limit</i> field in a
1540  <P>  <b>pcre_extra</b> structure (or defaulted) was reached. See the description
1541  The recursion and backtracking limit, as specified by the <i>match_limit</i>  above.
 field in a <b>pcre_extra</b> structure (or defaulted) was reached. See the  
 description above.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
1542  <pre>  <pre>
1543    PCRE_ERROR_CALLOUT        (-9)    PCRE_ERROR_CALLOUT        (-9)
1544  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1545  This error is never generated by <b>pcre_exec()</b> itself. It is provided for  This error is never generated by <b>pcre_exec()</b> itself. It is provided for
1546  use by callout functions that want to yield a distinctive error code. See the  use by callout functions that want to yield a distinctive error code. See the
1547  <b>pcrecallout</b> documentation for details.  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
1548  </P>  documentation for details.
 <P>  
1549  <pre>  <pre>
1550    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8        (-10)    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8        (-10)
1551  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1552  A string that contains an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence was passed as a subject.  A string that contains an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence was passed as a subject.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1553  <pre>  <pre>
1554    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)
1555  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1556  The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was valid, but the value  The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was valid, but the value
1557  of <i>startoffset</i> did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 character.  of <i>startoffset</i> did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 character.
1558    <pre>
1559      PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL        (-12)
1560    </pre>
1561    The subject string did not match, but it did match partially. See the
1562    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
1563    documentation for details of partial matching.
1564    <pre>
1565      PCRE_ERROR_BADPARTIAL     (-13)
1566    </pre>
1567    The PCRE_PARTIAL option was used with a compiled pattern containing items that
1568    are not supported for partial matching. See the
1569    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
1570    documentation for details of partial matching.
1571    <pre>
1572      PCRE_ERROR_INTERNAL       (-14)
1573    </pre>
1574    An unexpected internal error has occurred. This error could be caused by a bug
1575    in PCRE or by overwriting of the compiled pattern.
1576    <pre>
1577      PCRE_ERROR_BADCOUNT       (-15)
1578    </pre>
1579    This error is given if the value of the <i>ovecsize</i> argument is negative.
1580    <pre>
1581      PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT (-21)
1582    </pre>
1583    The internal recursion limit, as specified by the <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
1584    field in a <b>pcre_extra</b> structure (or defaulted) was reached. See the
1585    description above.
1586    <pre>
1587      PCRE_ERROR_BADNEWLINE     (-23)
1588    </pre>
1589    An invalid combination of PCRE_NEWLINE_<i>xxx</i> options was given.
1590  </P>  </P>
1591  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER</a><br>  <P>
1592    Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by <b>pcre_exec()</b>.
1593    </P>
1594    <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER</a><br>
1595  <P>  <P>
1596  <b>int pcre_copy_substring(const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_copy_substring(const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
1597  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>, char *<i>buffer</i>,</b>  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>, char *<i>buffer</i>,</b>
# Line 1212  Captured substrings can be accessed dire Line 1613  Captured substrings can be accessed dire
1613  <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> are provided for extracting captured substrings  <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> are provided for extracting captured substrings
1614  as new, separate, zero-terminated strings. These functions identify substrings  as new, separate, zero-terminated strings. These functions identify substrings
1615  by number. The next section describes functions for extracting named  by number. The next section describes functions for extracting named
1616  substrings. A substring that contains a binary zero is correctly extracted and  substrings.
1617  has a further zero added on the end, but the result is not, of course,  </P>
1618  a C string.  <P>
1619    A substring that contains a binary zero is correctly extracted and has a
1620    further zero added on the end, but the result is not, of course, a C string.
1621    However, you can process such a string by referring to the length that is
1622    returned by <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b> and <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>.
1623    Unfortunately, the interface to <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> is not adequate
1624    for handling strings containing binary zeros, because the end of the final
1625    string is not independently indicated.
1626  </P>  </P>
1627  <P>  <P>
1628  The first three arguments are the same for all three of these functions:  The first three arguments are the same for all three of these functions:
1629  <i>subject</i> is the subject string which has just been successfully matched,  <i>subject</i> is the subject string that has just been successfully matched,
1630  <i>ovector</i> is a pointer to the vector of integer offsets that was passed to  <i>ovector</i> is a pointer to the vector of integer offsets that was passed to
1631  <b>pcre_exec()</b>, and <i>stringcount</i> is the number of substrings that were  <b>pcre_exec()</b>, and <i>stringcount</i> is the number of substrings that were
1632  captured by the match, including the substring that matched the entire regular  captured by the match, including the substring that matched the entire regular
1633  expression. This is the value returned by <b>pcre_exec</b> if it is greater than  expression. This is the value returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b> if it is greater
1634  zero. If <b>pcre_exec()</b> returned zero, indicating that it ran out of space  than zero. If <b>pcre_exec()</b> returned zero, indicating that it ran out of
1635  in <i>ovector</i>, the value passed as <i>stringcount</i> should be the size of  space in <i>ovector</i>, the value passed as <i>stringcount</i> should be the
1636  the vector divided by three.  number of elements in the vector divided by three.
1637  </P>  </P>
1638  <P>  <P>
1639  The functions <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b> and <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>  The functions <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b> and <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>
1640  extract a single substring, whose number is given as <i>stringnumber</i>. A  extract a single substring, whose number is given as <i>stringnumber</i>. A
1641  value of zero extracts the substring that matched the entire pattern, while  value of zero extracts the substring that matched the entire pattern, whereas
1642  higher values extract the captured substrings. For <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b>,  higher values extract the captured substrings. For <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b>,
1643  the string is placed in <i>buffer</i>, whose length is given by  the string is placed in <i>buffer</i>, whose length is given by
1644  <i>buffersize</i>, while for <b>pcre_get_substring()</b> a new block of memory is  <i>buffersize</i>, while for <b>pcre_get_substring()</b> a new block of memory is
1645  obtained via <b>pcre_malloc</b>, and its address is returned via  obtained via <b>pcre_malloc</b>, and its address is returned via
1646  <i>stringptr</i>. The yield of the function is the length of the string, not  <i>stringptr</i>. The yield of the function is the length of the string, not
1647  including the terminating zero, or one of  including the terminating zero, or one of these error codes:
 </P>  
 <P>  
1648  <pre>  <pre>
1649    PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY       (-6)    PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY       (-6)
1650  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1651  The buffer was too small for <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b>, or the attempt to get  The buffer was too small for <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b>, or the attempt to get
1652  memory failed for <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>.  memory failed for <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>.
 </P>  
 <P>  
1653  <pre>  <pre>
1654    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)
1655  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1656  There is no substring whose number is <i>stringnumber</i>.  There is no substring whose number is <i>stringnumber</i>.
1657  </P>  </P>
1658  <P>  <P>
1659  The <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> function extracts all available substrings  The <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> function extracts all available substrings
1660  and builds a list of pointers to them. All this is done in a single block of  and builds a list of pointers to them. All this is done in a single block of
1661  memory which is obtained via <b>pcre_malloc</b>. The address of the memory block  memory that is obtained via <b>pcre_malloc</b>. The address of the memory block
1662  is returned via <i>listptr</i>, which is also the start of the list of string  is returned via <i>listptr</i>, which is also the start of the list of string
1663  pointers. The end of the list is marked by a NULL pointer. The yield of the  pointers. The end of the list is marked by a NULL pointer. The yield of the
1664  function is zero if all went well, or  function is zero if all went well, or the error code
 </P>  
 <P>  
1665  <pre>  <pre>
1666    PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY       (-6)    PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY       (-6)
1667  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
1668  if the attempt to get the memory block failed.  if the attempt to get the memory block failed.
1669  </P>  </P>
1670  <P>  <P>
# Line 1286  a previous call of <b>pcre_get_substring Line 1682  a previous call of <b>pcre_get_substring
1682  <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b>, respectively. They do nothing more than call  <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b>, respectively. They do nothing more than call
1683  the function pointed to by <b>pcre_free</b>, which of course could be called  the function pointed to by <b>pcre_free</b>, which of course could be called
1684  directly from a C program. However, PCRE is used in some situations where it is  directly from a C program. However, PCRE is used in some situations where it is
1685  linked via a special interface to another programming language which cannot use  linked via a special interface to another programming language that cannot use
1686  <b>pcre_free</b> directly; it is for these cases that the functions are  <b>pcre_free</b> directly; it is for these cases that the functions are
1687  provided.  provided.
1688  </P>  </P>
1689  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME</a><br>
1690    <P>
1691    <b>int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>
1692    <b>const char *<i>name</i>);</b>
1693    </P>
1694  <P>  <P>
1695  <b>int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>
1696  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
# Line 1298  provided. Line 1698  provided.
1698  <b>char *<i>buffer</i>, int <i>buffersize</i>);</b>  <b>char *<i>buffer</i>, int <i>buffersize</i>);</b>
1699  </P>  </P>
1700  <P>  <P>
 <b>int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>  
 <b>const char *<i>name</i>);</b>  
 </P>  
 <P>  
1701  <b>int pcre_get_named_substring(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_get_named_substring(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>
1702  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
1703  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, const char *<i>stringname</i>,</b>  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, const char *<i>stringname</i>,</b>
1704  <b>const char **<i>stringptr</i>);</b>  <b>const char **<i>stringptr</i>);</b>
1705  </P>  </P>
1706  <P>  <P>
1707  To extract a substring by name, you first have to find associated number. This  To extract a substring by name, you first have to find associated number.
1708  can be done by calling <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b>. The first argument is the  For example, for this pattern
 compiled pattern, and the second is the name. For example, for this pattern  
 </P>  
 <P>  
1709  <pre>  <pre>
1710    ab(?&#60;xxx&#62;\d+)...    (a+)b(?&#60;xxx&#62;\d+)...
1711  </PRE>  </pre>
1712  </P>  the number of the subpattern called "xxx" is 2. If the name is known to be
1713  <P>  unique (PCRE_DUPNAMES was not set), you can find the number from the name by
1714  the number of the subpattern called "xxx" is 1. Given the number, you can then  calling <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b>. The first argument is the compiled
1715  extract the substring directly, or use one of the functions described in the  pattern, and the second is the name. The yield of the function is the
1716  previous section. For convenience, there are also two functions that do the  subpattern number, or PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if there is no subpattern of
1717  whole job.  that name.
1718  </P>  </P>
1719  <P>  <P>
1720  Most of the arguments of <i>pcre_copy_named_substring()</i> and  Given the number, you can extract the substring directly, or use one of the
1721  <i>pcre_get_named_substring()</i> are the same as those for the functions that  functions described in the previous section. For convenience, there are also
1722  extract by number, and so are not re-described here. There are just two  two functions that do the whole job.
1723  differences.  </P>
1724    <P>
1725    Most of the arguments of <b>pcre_copy_named_substring()</b> and
1726    <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b> are the same as those for the similarly named
1727    functions that extract by number. As these are described in the previous
1728    section, they are not re-described here. There are just two differences:
1729  </P>  </P>
1730  <P>  <P>
1731  First, instead of a substring number, a substring name is given. Second, there  First, instead of a substring number, a substring name is given. Second, there
# Line 1337  translation table. Line 1735  translation table.
1735  </P>  </P>
1736  <P>  <P>
1737  These functions call <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b>, and if it succeeds, they  These functions call <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b>, and if it succeeds, they
1738  then call <i>pcre_copy_substring()</i> or <i>pcre_get_substring()</i>, as  then call <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b> or <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>, as
1739  appropriate.  appropriate. <b>NOTE:</b> If PCRE_DUPNAMES is set and there are duplicate names,
1740    the behaviour may not be what you want (see the next section).
1741    </P>
1742    <br><a name="SEC17" href="#TOC1">DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES</a><br>
1743    <P>
1744    <b>int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>
1745    <b>const char *<i>name</i>, char **<i>first</i>, char **<i>last</i>);</b>
1746    </P>
1747    <P>
1748    When a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_DUPNAMES option, names for subpatterns
1749    are not required to be unique. Normally, patterns with duplicate names are such
1750    that in any one match, only one of the named subpatterns participates. An
1751    example is shown in the
1752    <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
1753    documentation.
1754    </P>
1755    <P>
1756    When duplicates are present, <b>pcre_copy_named_substring()</b> and
1757    <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b> return the first substring corresponding to
1758    the given name that is set. If none are set, PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) is
1759    returned; no data is returned. The <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b> function
1760    returns one of the numbers that are associated with the name, but it is not
1761    defined which it is.
1762    </P>
1763    <P>
1764    If you want to get full details of all captured substrings for a given name,
1765    you must use the <b>pcre_get_stringtable_entries()</b> function. The first
1766    argument is the compiled pattern, and the second is the name. The third and
1767    fourth are pointers to variables which are updated by the function. After it
1768    has run, they point to the first and last entries in the name-to-number table
1769    for the given name. The function itself returns the length of each entry, or
1770    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if there are none. The format of the table is
1771    described above in the section entitled <i>Information about a pattern</i>.
1772    Given all the relevant entries for the name, you can extract each of their
1773    numbers, and hence the captured data, if any.
1774    </P>
1775    <br><a name="SEC18" href="#TOC1">FINDING ALL POSSIBLE MATCHES</a><br>
1776    <P>
1777    The traditional matching function uses a similar algorithm to Perl, which stops
1778    when it finds the first match, starting at a given point in the subject. If you
1779    want to find all possible matches, or the longest possible match, consider
1780    using the alternative matching function (see below) instead. If you cannot use
1781    the alternative function, but still need to find all possible matches, you
1782    can kludge it up by making use of the callout facility, which is described in
1783    the
1784    <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
1785    documentation.
1786  </P>  </P>
1787  <P>  <P>
1788  Last updated: 09 December 2003  What you have to do is to insert a callout right at the end of the pattern.
1789    When your callout function is called, extract and save the current matched
1790    substring. Then return 1, which forces <b>pcre_exec()</b> to backtrack and try
1791    other alternatives. Ultimately, when it runs out of matches, <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1792    will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.
1793    <a name="dfamatch"></a></P>
1794    <br><a name="SEC19" href="#TOC1">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION</a><br>
1795    <P>
1796    <b>int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
1797    <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>
1798    <b>int <i>options</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>, int <i>ovecsize</i>,</b>
1799    <b>int *<i>workspace</i>, int <i>wscount</i>);</b>
1800    </P>
1801    <P>
1802    The function <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> is called to match a subject string against
1803    a compiled pattern, using a matching algorithm that scans the subject string
1804    just once, and does not backtrack. This has different characteristics to the
1805    normal algorithm, and is not compatible with Perl. Some of the features of PCRE
1806    patterns are not supported. Nevertheless, there are times when this kind of
1807    matching can be useful. For a discussion of the two matching algorithms, see
1808    the
1809    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
1810    documentation.
1811    </P>
1812    <P>
1813    The arguments for the <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> function are the same as for
1814    <b>pcre_exec()</b>, plus two extras. The <i>ovector</i> argument is used in a
1815    different way, and this is described below. The other common arguments are used
1816    in the same way as for <b>pcre_exec()</b>, so their description is not repeated
1817    here.
1818    </P>
1819    <P>
1820    The two additional arguments provide workspace for the function. The workspace
1821    vector should contain at least 20 elements. It is used for keeping track of
1822    multiple paths through the pattern tree. More workspace will be needed for
1823    patterns and subjects where there are a lot of potential matches.
1824    </P>
1825    <P>
1826    Here is an example of a simple call to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>:
1827    <pre>
1828      int rc;
1829      int ovector[10];
1830      int wspace[20];
1831      rc = pcre_dfa_exec(
1832        re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */
1833        NULL,           /* we didn't study the pattern */
1834        "some string",  /* the subject string */
1835        11,             /* the length of the subject string */
1836        0,              /* start at offset 0 in the subject */
1837        0,              /* default options */
1838        ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */
1839        10,             /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
1840        wspace,         /* working space vector */
1841        20);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
1842    </PRE>
1843    </P>
1844    <br><b>
1845    Option bits for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
1846    </b><br>
1847    <P>
1848    The unused bits of the <i>options</i> argument for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> must be
1849    zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_<i>xxx</i>,
1850    PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL,
1851    PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST, and PCRE_DFA_RESTART. All but the last three of these are
1852    the same as for <b>pcre_exec()</b>, so their description is not repeated here.
1853    <pre>
1854      PCRE_PARTIAL
1855    </pre>
1856    This has the same general effect as it does for <b>pcre_exec()</b>, but the
1857    details are slightly different. When PCRE_PARTIAL is set for
1858    <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, the return code PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH is converted into
1859    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end of the subject is reached, there have been no
1860    complete matches, but there is still at least one matching possibility. The
1861    portion of the string that provided the partial match is set as the first
1862    matching string.
1863    <pre>
1864      PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST
1865    </pre>
1866    Setting the PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST option causes the matching algorithm to stop as
1867    soon as it has found one match. Because of the way the alternative algorithm
1868    works, this is necessarily the shortest possible match at the first possible
1869    matching point in the subject string.
1870    <pre>
1871      PCRE_DFA_RESTART
1872    </pre>
1873    When <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> is called with the PCRE_PARTIAL option, and returns
1874    a partial match, it is possible to call it again, with additional subject
1875    characters, and have it continue with the same match. The PCRE_DFA_RESTART
1876    option requests this action; when it is set, the <i>workspace</i> and
1877    <i>wscount</i> options must reference the same vector as before because data
1878    about the match so far is left in them after a partial match. There is more
1879    discussion of this facility in the
1880    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
1881    documentation.
1882    </P>
1883    <br><b>
1884    Successful returns from <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
1885    </b><br>
1886    <P>
1887    When <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> succeeds, it may have matched more than one
1888    substring in the subject. Note, however, that all the matches from one run of
1889    the function start at the same point in the subject. The shorter matches are
1890    all initial substrings of the longer matches. For example, if the pattern
1891    <pre>
1892      &#60;.*&#62;
1893    </pre>
1894    is matched against the string
1895    <pre>
1896      This is &#60;something&#62; &#60;something else&#62; &#60;something further&#62; no more
1897    </pre>
1898    the three matched strings are
1899    <pre>
1900      &#60;something&#62;
1901      &#60;something&#62; &#60;something else&#62;
1902      &#60;something&#62; &#60;something else&#62; &#60;something further&#62;
1903    </pre>
1904    On success, the yield of the function is a number greater than zero, which is
1905    the number of matched substrings. The substrings themselves are returned in
1906    <i>ovector</i>. Each string uses two elements; the first is the offset to the
1907    start, and the second is the offset to the end. In fact, all the strings have
1908    the same start offset. (Space could have been saved by giving this only once,
1909    but it was decided to retain some compatibility with the way <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1910    returns data, even though the meaning of the strings is different.)
1911    </P>
1912    <P>
1913    The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the longest
1914    matching string is given first. If there were too many matches to fit into
1915    <i>ovector</i>, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is filled with
1916    the longest matches.
1917    </P>
1918    <br><b>
1919    Error returns from <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
1920    </b><br>
1921    <P>
1922    The <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> function returns a negative number when it fails.
1923    Many of the errors are the same as for <b>pcre_exec()</b>, and these are
1924    described
1925    <a href="#errorlist">above.</a>
1926    There are in addition the following errors that are specific to
1927    <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>:
1928    <pre>
1929      PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UITEM      (-16)
1930    </pre>
1931    This return is given if <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> encounters an item in the pattern
1932    that it does not support, for instance, the use of \C or a back reference.
1933    <pre>
1934      PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UCOND      (-17)
1935    </pre>
1936    This return is given if <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> encounters a condition item that
1937    uses a back reference for the condition, or a test for recursion in a specific
1938    group. These are not supported.
1939    <pre>
1940      PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UMLIMIT    (-18)
1941    </pre>
1942    This return is given if <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> is called with an <i>extra</i>
1943    block that contains a setting of the <i>match_limit</i> field. This is not
1944    supported (it is meaningless).
1945    <pre>
1946      PCRE_ERROR_DFA_WSSIZE     (-19)
1947    </pre>
1948    This return is given if <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> runs out of space in the
1949    <i>workspace</i> vector.
1950    <pre>
1951      PCRE_ERROR_DFA_RECURSE    (-20)
1952    </pre>
1953    When a recursive subpattern is processed, the matching function calls itself
1954    recursively, using private vectors for <i>ovector</i> and <i>workspace</i>. This
1955    error is given if the output vector is not large enough. This should be
1956    extremely rare, as a vector of size 1000 is used.
1957    </P>
1958    <br><a name="SEC20" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
1959    <P>
1960    <b>pcrebuild</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3), <b>pcrecpp(3)</b>(3),
1961    <b>pcrematching</b>(3), <b>pcrepartial</b>(3), <b>pcreposix</b>(3),
1962    <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3), <b>pcresample</b>(3), <b>pcrestack</b>(3).
1963    </P>
1964    <br><a name="SEC21" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
1965    <P>
1966    Philip Hazel
1967    <br>
1968    University Computing Service
1969    <br>
1970    Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
1971    <br>
1972    </P>
1973    <br><a name="SEC22" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
1974    <P>
1975    Last updated: 12 April 2008
1976    <br>
1977    Copyright &copy; 1997-2008 University of Cambridge.
1978  <br>  <br>
1979  Copyright &copy; 1997-2003 University of Cambridge.  <p>
1980    Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
1981    </p>

Legend:
Removed from v.73  
changed lines
  Added in v.345

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.5