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revision 90 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:41:21 2007 UTC revision 91 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:41:34 2007 UTC
# Line 15  man page, in case the conversion went wr Line 15  man page, in case the conversion went wr
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">PCRE NATIVE API</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">PCRE NATIVE API</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE API OVERVIEW</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE API OVERVIEW</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">MULTITHREADING</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">NEWLINES</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">MULTITHREADING</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">COMPILING A PATTERN</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">COMPILATION ERROR CODES</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">COMPILING A PATTERN</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">STUDYING A PATTERN</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">COMPILATION ERROR CODES</a>
24  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">LOCALE SUPPORT</a>  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">STUDYING A PATTERN</a>
25  <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN</a>  <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">LOCALE SUPPORT</a>
26  <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN</a>
27  <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">REFERENCE COUNTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION</a>
28  <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE TRADITIONAL FUNCTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">REFERENCE COUNTS</a>
29  <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER</a>  <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE TRADITIONAL FUNCTION</a>
30  <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME</a>  <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER</a>
31  <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">FINDING ALL POSSIBLE MATCHES</a>  <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME</a>
32  <li><a name="TOC17" href="#SEC17">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC17" href="#SEC17">DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES</a>
33    <li><a name="TOC18" href="#SEC18">FINDING ALL POSSIBLE MATCHES</a>
34    <li><a name="TOC19" href="#SEC19">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION</a>
35  </ul>  </ul>
36  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">PCRE NATIVE API</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">PCRE NATIVE API</a><br>
37  <P>  <P>
# Line 83  man page, in case the conversion went wr Line 85  man page, in case the conversion went wr
85  <b>const char *<i>name</i>);</b>  <b>const char *<i>name</i>);</b>
86  </P>  </P>
87  <P>  <P>
88    <b>int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>
89    <b>const char *<i>name</i>, char **<i>first</i>, char **<i>last</i>);</b>
90    </P>
91    <P>
92  <b>int pcre_get_substring(const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_get_substring(const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
93  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>,</b>  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>,</b>
94  <b>const char **<i>stringptr</i>);</b>  <b>const char **<i>stringptr</i>);</b>
# Line 163  documentation describes how to run it. Line 169  documentation describes how to run it.
169  <P>  <P>
170  A second matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, which is not  A second matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, which is not
171  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the
172  matching. This allows it to find all possible matches (at a given point in the  matching. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given
173  subject), not just one. However, this algorithm does not return captured  point in the subject). However, this algorithm does not return captured
174  substrings. A description of the two matching algorithms and their advantages  substrings. A description of the two matching algorithms and their advantages
175  and disadvantages is given in the  and disadvantages is given in the
176  <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>  <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
# Line 181  matched by <b>pcre_exec()</b>. They are: Line 187  matched by <b>pcre_exec()</b>. They are:
187    <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b>    <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b>
188    <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b>    <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b>
189    <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b>    <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b>
190      <b>pcre_get_stringtable_entries()</b>
191  </pre>  </pre>
192  <b>pcre_free_substring()</b> and <b>pcre_free_substring_list()</b> are also  <b>pcre_free_substring()</b> and <b>pcre_free_substring_list()</b> are also
193  provided, to free the memory used for extracted strings.  provided, to free the memory used for extracted strings.
# Line 215  should be done before calling any PCRE f Line 222  should be done before calling any PCRE f
222  The global variables <b>pcre_stack_malloc</b> and <b>pcre_stack_free</b> are also  The global variables <b>pcre_stack_malloc</b> and <b>pcre_stack_free</b> are also
223  indirections to memory management functions. These special functions are used  indirections to memory management functions. These special functions are used
224  only when PCRE is compiled to use the heap for remembering data, instead of  only when PCRE is compiled to use the heap for remembering data, instead of
225  recursive function calls, when running the <b>pcre_exec()</b> function. This is  recursive function calls, when running the <b>pcre_exec()</b> function. See the
226  a non-standard way of building PCRE, for use in environments that have limited  <a href="pcrebuild.html"><b>pcrebuild</b></a>
227  stacks. Because of the greater use of memory management, it runs more slowly.  documentation for details of how to do this. It is a non-standard way of
228  Separate functions are provided so that special-purpose external code can be  building PCRE, for use in environments that have limited stacks. Because of the
229  used for this case. When used, these functions are always called in a  greater use of memory management, it runs more slowly. Separate functions are
230  stack-like manner (last obtained, first freed), and always for memory blocks of  provided so that special-purpose external code can be used for this case. When
231  the same size.  used, these functions are always called in a stack-like manner (last obtained,
232    first freed), and always for memory blocks of the same size. There is a
233    discussion about PCRE's stack usage in the
234    <a href="pcrestack.html"><b>pcrestack</b></a>
235    documentation.
236  </P>  </P>
237  <P>  <P>
238  The global variable <b>pcre_callout</b> initially contains NULL. It can be set  The global variable <b>pcre_callout</b> initially contains NULL. It can be set
# Line 230  points during a matching operation. Deta Line 241  points during a matching operation. Deta
241  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
242  documentation.  documentation.
243  </P>  </P>
244  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">MULTITHREADING</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">NEWLINES</a><br>
245    <P>
246    PCRE supports three different conventions for indicating line breaks in
247    strings: a single CR character, a single LF character, or the two-character
248    sequence CRLF. All three are used as "standard" by different operating systems.
249    When PCRE is built, a default can be specified. The default default is LF,
250    which is the Unix standard. When PCRE is run, the default can be overridden,
251    either when a pattern is compiled, or when it is matched.
252    <br>
253    <br>
254    In the PCRE documentation the word "newline" is used to mean "the character or
255    pair of characters that indicate a line break".
256    </P>
257    <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">MULTITHREADING</a><br>
258  <P>  <P>
259  The PCRE functions can be used in multi-threading applications, with the  The PCRE functions can be used in multi-threading applications, with the
260  proviso that the memory management functions pointed to by <b>pcre_malloc</b>,  proviso that the memory management functions pointed to by <b>pcre_malloc</b>,
# Line 241  callout function pointed to by <b>pcre_c Line 265  callout function pointed to by <b>pcre_c
265  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so
266  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.
267  </P>  </P>
268  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE</a><br>
269  <P>  <P>
270  The compiled form of a regular expression can be saved and re-used at a later  The compiled form of a regular expression can be saved and re-used at a later
271  time, possibly by a different program, and even on a host other than the one on  time, possibly by a different program, and even on a host other than the one on
# Line 249  which it was compiled. Details are given Line 273  which it was compiled. Details are given
273  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
274  documentation.  documentation.
275  </P>  </P>
276  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS</a><br>
277  <P>  <P>
278  <b>int pcre_config(int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>  <b>int pcre_config(int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>
279  </P>  </P>
# Line 276  properties is available; otherwise it is Line 300  properties is available; otherwise it is
300  <pre>  <pre>
301    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE
302  </pre>  </pre>
303  The output is an integer that is set to the value of the code that is used for  The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character sequence
304  the newline character. It is either linefeed (10) or carriage return (13), and  that is recognized as meaning "newline". The three values that are supported
305  should normally be the standard character for your operating system.  are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, and 3338 for CRLF. The default should normally be
306    the standard sequence for your operating system.
307  <pre>  <pre>
308    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE
309  </pre>  </pre>
# Line 318  of recursive function calls. In this cas Line 343  of recursive function calls. In this cas
343  <b>pcre_stack_free</b> are called to manage memory blocks on the heap, thus  <b>pcre_stack_free</b> are called to manage memory blocks on the heap, thus
344  avoiding the use of the stack.  avoiding the use of the stack.
345  </P>  </P>
346  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">COMPILING A PATTERN</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">COMPILING A PATTERN</a><br>
347  <P>  <P>
348  <b>pcre *pcre_compile(const char *<i>pattern</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>  <b>pcre *pcre_compile(const char *<i>pattern</i>, int <i>options</i>,</b>
349  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>, int *<i>erroffset</i>,</b>  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>, int *<i>erroffset</i>,</b>
# Line 340  The pattern is a C string terminated by Line 365  The pattern is a C string terminated by
365  via <b>pcre_malloc</b> is returned. This contains the compiled code and related  via <b>pcre_malloc</b> is returned. This contains the compiled code and related
366  data. The <b>pcre</b> type is defined for the returned block; this is a typedef  data. The <b>pcre</b> type is defined for the returned block; this is a typedef
367  for a structure whose contents are not externally defined. It is up to the  for a structure whose contents are not externally defined. It is up to the
368  caller to free the memory when it is no longer required.  caller to free the memory (via <b>pcre_free</b>) when it is no longer required.
369  </P>  </P>
370  <P>  <P>
371  Although the compiled code of a PCRE regex is relocatable, that is, it does not  Although the compiled code of a PCRE regex is relocatable, that is, it does not
# Line 357  the detailed description in the Line 382  the detailed description in the
382  <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>  <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
383  documentation). For these options, the contents of the <i>options</i> argument  documentation). For these options, the contents of the <i>options</i> argument
384  specifies their initial settings at the start of compilation and execution. The  specifies their initial settings at the start of compilation and execution. The
385  PCRE_ANCHORED option can be set at the time of matching as well as at compile  PCRE_ANCHORED and PCRE_NEWLINE_<i>xxx</i> options can be set at the time of
386  time.  matching as well as at compile time.
387  </P>  </P>
388  <P>  <P>
389  If <i>errptr</i> is NULL, <b>pcre_compile()</b> returns NULL immediately.  If <i>errptr</i> is NULL, <b>pcre_compile()</b> returns NULL immediately.
# Line 431  with UTF-8 support. Line 456  with UTF-8 support.
456  </pre>  </pre>
457  If this bit is set, a dollar metacharacter in the pattern matches only at the  If this bit is set, a dollar metacharacter in the pattern matches only at the
458  end of the subject string. Without this option, a dollar also matches  end of the subject string. Without this option, a dollar also matches
459  immediately before the final character if it is a newline (but not before any  immediately before a newline at the end of the string (but not before any other
460  other newlines). The PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option is ignored if PCRE_MULTILINE is  newlines). The PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option is ignored if PCRE_MULTILINE is set.
461  set. There is no equivalent to this option in Perl, and no way to set it within  There is no equivalent to this option in Perl, and no way to set it within a
462  a pattern.  pattern.
463  <pre>  <pre>
464    PCRE_DOTALL    PCRE_DOTALL
465  </pre>  </pre>
466  If this bit is set, a dot metacharater in the pattern matches all characters,  If this bit is set, a dot metacharater in the pattern matches all characters,
467  including newlines. Without it, newlines are excluded. This option is  including those that indicate newline. Without it, a dot does not match when
468  equivalent to Perl's /s option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a  the current position is at a newline. This option is equivalent to Perl's /s
469  (?s) option setting. A negative class such as [^a] always matches a newline  option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a (?s) option setting. A
470  character, independent of the setting of this option.  negative class such as [^a] always matches newlines, independent of the setting
471    of this option.
472    <pre>
473      PCRE_DUPNAMES
474    </pre>
475    If this bit is set, names used to identify capturing subpatterns need not be
476    unique. This can be helpful for certain types of pattern when it is known that
477    only one instance of the named subpattern can ever be matched. There are more
478    details of named subpatterns below; see also the
479    <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
480    documentation.
481  <pre>  <pre>
482    PCRE_EXTENDED    PCRE_EXTENDED
483  </pre>  </pre>
484  If this bit is set, whitespace data characters in the pattern are totally  If this bit is set, whitespace data characters in the pattern are totally
485  ignored except when escaped or inside a character class. Whitespace does not  ignored except when escaped or inside a character class. Whitespace does not
486  include the VT character (code 11). In addition, characters between an  include the VT character (code 11). In addition, characters between an
487  unescaped # outside a character class and the next newline character,  unescaped # outside a character class and the next newline, inclusive, are also
488  inclusive, are also ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x option, and it can  ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x option, and it can be changed within a
489  be changed within a pattern by a (?x) option setting.  pattern by a (?x) option setting.
490  </P>  </P>
491  <P>  <P>
492  This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated patterns.  This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated patterns.
# Line 466  that is incompatible with Perl, but it i Line 501  that is incompatible with Perl, but it i
501  set, any backslash in a pattern that is followed by a letter that has no  set, any backslash in a pattern that is followed by a letter that has no
502  special meaning causes an error, thus reserving these combinations for future  special meaning causes an error, thus reserving these combinations for future
503  expansion. By default, as in Perl, a backslash followed by a letter with no  expansion. By default, as in Perl, a backslash followed by a letter with no
504  special meaning is treated as a literal. There are at present no other features  special meaning is treated as a literal. (Perl can, however, be persuaded to
505  controlled by this option. It can also be set by a (?X) option setting within a  give a warning for this.) There are at present no other features controlled by
506  pattern.  this option. It can also be set by a (?X) option setting within a pattern.
507  <pre>  <pre>
508    PCRE_FIRSTLINE    PCRE_FIRSTLINE
509  </pre>  </pre>
510  If this option is set, an unanchored pattern is required to match before or at  If this option is set, an unanchored pattern is required to match before or at
511  the first newline character in the subject string, though the matched text may  the first newline in the subject string, though the matched text may continue
512  continue over the newline.  over the newline.
513  <pre>  <pre>
514    PCRE_MULTILINE    PCRE_MULTILINE
515  </pre>  </pre>
# Line 487  Perl. Line 522  Perl.
522  </P>  </P>
523  <P>  <P>
524  When PCRE_MULTILINE it is set, the "start of line" and "end of line" constructs  When PCRE_MULTILINE it is set, the "start of line" and "end of line" constructs
525  match immediately following or immediately before any newline in the subject  match immediately following or immediately before internal newlines in the
526  string, respectively, as well as at the very start and end. This is equivalent  subject string, respectively, as well as at the very start and end. This is
527  to Perl's /m option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a (?m) option  equivalent to Perl's /m option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a
528  setting. If there are no "\n" characters in a subject string, or no  (?m) option setting. If there are no newlines in a subject string, or no
529  occurrences of ^ or $ in a pattern, setting PCRE_MULTILINE has no effect.  occurrences of ^ or $ in a pattern, setting PCRE_MULTILINE has no effect.
530  <pre>  <pre>
531      PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
532      PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
533      PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
534    </pre>
535    These options override the default newline definition that was chosen when PCRE
536    was built. Setting the first or the second specifies that a newline is
537    indicated by a single character (CR or LF, respectively). Setting both of them
538    specifies that a newline is indicated by the two-character CRLF sequence. For
539    convenience, PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF is defined to contain both bits. The only time
540    that a line break is relevant when compiling a pattern is if PCRE_EXTENDED is
541    set, and an unescaped # outside a character class is encountered. This
542    indicates a comment that lasts until after the next newline.
543    </P>
544    <P>
545    The newline option set at compile time becomes the default that is used for
546    <b>pcre_exec()</b> and <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, but it can be overridden.
547    <pre>
548    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
549  </pre>  </pre>
550  If this option is set, it disables the use of numbered capturing parentheses in  If this option is set, it disables the use of numbered capturing parentheses in
# Line 531  Note that this option can also be passed Line 583  Note that this option can also be passed
583  <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to suppress the UTF-8 validity checking of subject  <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to suppress the UTF-8 validity checking of subject
584  strings.  strings.
585  </P>  </P>
586  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">COMPILATION ERROR CODES</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">COMPILATION ERROR CODES</a><br>
587  <P>  <P>
588  The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by  The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by
589  <b>pcre_compile2()</b>, along with the error messages that may be returned by  <b>pcre_compile2()</b>, along with the error messages that may be returned by
# Line 563  both compiling functions. Line 615  both compiling functions.
615    23  internal error: code overflow    23  internal error: code overflow
616    24  unrecognized character after (?&#60;    24  unrecognized character after (?&#60;
617    25  lookbehind assertion is not fixed length    25  lookbehind assertion is not fixed length
618    26  malformed number after (?(    26  malformed number or name after (?(
619    27  conditional group contains more than two branches    27  conditional group contains more than two branches
620    28  assertion expected after (?(    28  assertion expected after (?(
621    29  (?R or (?digits must be followed by )    29  (?R or (?digits must be followed by )
# Line 580  both compiling functions. Line 632  both compiling functions.
632    40  recursive call could loop indefinitely    40  recursive call could loop indefinitely
633    41  unrecognized character after (?P    41  unrecognized character after (?P
634    42  syntax error after (?P    42  syntax error after (?P
635    43  two named groups have the same name    43  two named subpatterns have the same name
636    44  invalid UTF-8 string    44  invalid UTF-8 string
637    45  support for \P, \p, and \X has not been compiled    45  support for \P, \p, and \X has not been compiled
638    46  malformed \P or \p sequence    46  malformed \P or \p sequence
639    47  unknown property name after \P or \p    47  unknown property name after \P or \p
640      48  subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)
641      49  too many named subpatterns (maximum 10,000)
642      50  repeated subpattern is too long
643      51  octal value is greater than \377 (not in UTF-8 mode)
644  </PRE>  </PRE>
645  </P>  </P>
646  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">STUDYING A PATTERN</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">STUDYING A PATTERN</a><br>
647  <P>  <P>
648  <b>pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>options</i></b>  <b>pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>options</i></b>
649  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>);</b>  <b>const char **<i>errptr</i>);</b>
# Line 640  At present, studying a pattern is useful Line 696  At present, studying a pattern is useful
696  not have a single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting  not have a single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting
697  bytes is created.  bytes is created.
698  <a name="localesupport"></a></P>  <a name="localesupport"></a></P>
699  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">LOCALE SUPPORT</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">LOCALE SUPPORT</a><br>
700  <P>  <P>
701  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters
702  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed by character  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed by character
# Line 688  this facility could be used to match a p Line 744  this facility could be used to match a p
744  one in which it was compiled. Passing table pointers at run time is discussed  one in which it was compiled. Passing table pointers at run time is discussed
745  below in the section on matching a pattern.  below in the section on matching a pattern.
746  </P>  </P>
747  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN</a><br>
748  <P>  <P>
749  <b>int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
750  <b>int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>  <b>int <i>what</i>, void *<i>where</i>);</b>
# Line 716  check against passing an arbitrary memor Line 772  check against passing an arbitrary memor
772  <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b>, to obtain the length of the compiled pattern:  <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b>, to obtain the length of the compiled pattern:
773  <pre>  <pre>
774    int rc;    int rc;
775    unsigned long int length;    size_t length;
776    rc = pcre_fullinfo(    rc = pcre_fullinfo(
777      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */
778      pe,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */      pe,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */
# Line 748  a NULL table pointer. Line 804  a NULL table pointer.
804    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE
805  </pre>  </pre>
806  Return information about the first byte of any matched string, for a  Return information about the first byte of any matched string, for a
807  non-anchored pattern. (This option used to be called PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR; the  non-anchored pattern. The fourth argument should point to an <b>int</b>
808  old name is still recognized for backwards compatibility.)  variable. (This option used to be called PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR; the old name is
809    still recognized for backwards compatibility.)
810  </P>  </P>
811  <P>  <P>
812  If there is a fixed first byte, for example, from a pattern such as  If there is a fixed first byte, for example, from a pattern such as
813  (cat|cow|coyote), it is returned in the integer pointed to by <i>where</i>.  (cat|cow|coyote). Otherwise, if either
 Otherwise, if either  
814  <br>  <br>
815  <br>  <br>
816  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch
# Line 792  is -1. Line 848  is -1.
848  </pre>  </pre>
849  PCRE supports the use of named as well as numbered capturing parentheses. The  PCRE supports the use of named as well as numbered capturing parentheses. The
850  names are just an additional way of identifying the parentheses, which still  names are just an additional way of identifying the parentheses, which still
851  acquire numbers. A convenience function called <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b>  acquire numbers. Several convenience functions such as
852  is provided for extracting an individual captured substring by name. It is also  <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b> are provided for extracting captured
853  possible to extract the data directly, by first converting the name to a number  substrings by name. It is also possible to extract the data directly, by first
854  in order to access the correct pointers in the output vector (described with  converting the name to a number in order to access the correct pointers in the
855  <b>pcre_exec()</b> below). To do the conversion, you need to use the  output vector (described with <b>pcre_exec()</b> below). To do the conversion,
856  name-to-number map, which is described by these three values.  you need to use the name-to-number map, which is described by these three
857    values.
858  </P>  </P>
859  <P>  <P>
860  The map consists of a number of fixed-size entries. PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT gives  The map consists of a number of fixed-size entries. PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT gives
# Line 807  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NA Line 864  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NA
864  entry of the table (a pointer to <b>char</b>). The first two bytes of each entry  entry of the table (a pointer to <b>char</b>). The first two bytes of each entry
865  are the number of the capturing parenthesis, most significant byte first. The  are the number of the capturing parenthesis, most significant byte first. The
866  rest of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated. The names are in  rest of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated. The names are in
867  alphabetical order. For example, consider the following pattern (assume  alphabetical order. When PCRE_DUPNAMES is set, duplicate names are in order of
868    their parentheses numbers. For example, consider the following pattern (assume
869  PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including newlines - is ignored):  PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including newlines - is ignored):
870  <pre>  <pre>
871    (?P&#60;date&#62; (?P&#60;year&#62;(\d\d)?\d\d) - (?P&#60;month&#62;\d\d) - (?P&#60;day&#62;\d\d) )    (?P&#60;date&#62; (?P&#60;year&#62;(\d\d)?\d\d) - (?P&#60;month&#62;\d\d) - (?P&#60;day&#62;\d\d) )
# Line 822  bytes shows in hexadecimal, and undefine Line 880  bytes shows in hexadecimal, and undefine
880    00 02 y  e  a  r  00 ??    00 02 y  e  a  r  00 ??
881  </pre>  </pre>
882  When writing code to extract data from named subpatterns using the  When writing code to extract data from named subpatterns using the
883  name-to-number map, remember that the length of each entry is likely to be  name-to-number map, remember that the length of the entries is likely to be
884  different for each compiled pattern.  different for each compiled pattern.
885  <pre>  <pre>
886    PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS    PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS
# Line 859  a <b>pcre_extra</b> block. That is, it i Line 917  a <b>pcre_extra</b> block. That is, it i
917  created by <b>pcre_study()</b>. The fourth argument should point to a  created by <b>pcre_study()</b>. The fourth argument should point to a
918  <b>size_t</b> variable.  <b>size_t</b> variable.
919  </P>  </P>
920  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION</a><br>
921  <P>  <P>
922  <b>int pcre_info(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int *<i>optptr</i>, int</b>  <b>int pcre_info(const pcre *<i>code</i>, int *<i>optptr</i>, int</b>
923  <b>*<i>firstcharptr</i>);</b>  <b>*<i>firstcharptr</i>);</b>
# Line 883  If the pattern is not anchored and the < Line 941  If the pattern is not anchored and the <
941  it is used to pass back information about the first character of any matched  it is used to pass back information about the first character of any matched
942  string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above).  string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above).
943  </P>  </P>
944  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">REFERENCE COUNTS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">REFERENCE COUNTS</a><br>
945  <P>  <P>
946  <b>int pcre_refcount(pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>adjust</i>);</b>  <b>int pcre_refcount(pcre *<i>code</i>, int <i>adjust</i>);</b>
947  </P>  </P>
# Line 907  Except when it is zero, the reference co Line 965  Except when it is zero, the reference co
965  pattern is compiled on one host and then transferred to a host whose byte-order  pattern is compiled on one host and then transferred to a host whose byte-order
966  is different. (This seems a highly unlikely scenario.)  is different. (This seems a highly unlikely scenario.)
967  </P>  </P>
968  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE TRADITIONAL FUNCTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE TRADITIONAL FUNCTION</a><br>
969  <P>  <P>
970  <b>int pcre_exec(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_exec(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
971  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>
# Line 1045  Option bits for <b>pcre_exec()</b> Line 1103  Option bits for <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1103  </b><br>  </b><br>
1104  <P>  <P>
1105  The unused bits of the <i>options</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> must be  The unused bits of the <i>options</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> must be
1106  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NOTBOL,  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_<i>xxx</i>,
1107  PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK and PCRE_PARTIAL.  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK and PCRE_PARTIAL.
1108  <pre>  <pre>
1109    PCRE_ANCHORED    PCRE_ANCHORED
1110  </pre>  </pre>
# Line 1055  matching position. If a pattern was comp Line 1113  matching position. If a pattern was comp
1113  to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made unachored at  to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made unachored at
1114  matching time.  matching time.
1115  <pre>  <pre>
1116      PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
1117      PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
1118      PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
1119    </pre>
1120    These options override the newline definition that was chosen or defaulted when
1121    the pattern was compiled. For details, see the description <b>pcre_compile()</b>
1122    above. During matching, the newline choice affects the behaviour of the dot,
1123    circumflex, and dollar metacharacters.
1124    <pre>
1125    PCRE_NOTBOL    PCRE_NOTBOL
1126  </pre>  </pre>
1127  This option specifies that first character of the subject string is not the  This option specifies that first character of the subject string is not the
# Line 1193  is set to the offset of the first charac Line 1260  is set to the offset of the first charac
1260  first pair, <i>ovector[0]</i> and <i>ovector[1]</i>, identify the portion of the  first pair, <i>ovector[0]</i> and <i>ovector[1]</i>, identify the portion of the
1261  subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next pair is used for the  subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next pair is used for the
1262  first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>  first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1263  is the number of pairs that have been set. If there are no capturing  is one more than the highest numbered pair that has been set. For example, if
1264  subpatterns, the return value from a successful match is 1, indicating that  two substrings have been captured, the returned value is 3. If there are no
1265  just the first pair of offsets has been set.  capturing subpatterns, the return value from a successful match is 1,
1266  </P>  indicating that just the first pair of offsets has been set.
 <P>  
 Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings  
 as separate strings. These are described in the following section.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 It is possible for an capturing subpattern number <i>n+1</i> to match some  
 part of the subject when subpattern <i>n</i> has not been used at all. For  
 example, if the string "abc" is matched against the pattern (a|(z))(bc)  
 subpatterns 1 and 3 are matched, but 2 is not. When this happens, both offset  
 values corresponding to the unused subpattern are set to -1.  
1267  </P>  </P>
1268  <P>  <P>
1269  If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion of the  If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion of the
# Line 1223  has to get additional memory for use dur Line 1280  has to get additional memory for use dur
1280  advisable to supply an <i>ovector</i>.  advisable to supply an <i>ovector</i>.
1281  </P>  </P>
1282  <P>  <P>
1283  Note that <b>pcre_info()</b> can be used to find out how many capturing  The <b>pcre_info()</b> function can be used to find out how many capturing
1284  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for
1285  <i>ovector</i> that will allow for <i>n</i> captured substrings, in addition to  <i>ovector</i> that will allow for <i>n</i> captured substrings, in addition to
1286  the offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (<i>n</i>+1)*3.  the offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (<i>n</i>+1)*3.
1287    </P>
1288    <P>
1289    It is possible for capturing subpattern number <i>n+1</i> to match some part of
1290    the subject when subpattern <i>n</i> has not been used at all. For example, if
1291    the string "abc" is matched against the pattern (a|(z))(bc) the return from the
1292    function is 4, and subpatterns 1 and 3 are matched, but 2 is not. When this
1293    happens, both values in the offset pairs corresponding to unused subpatterns
1294    are set to -1.
1295    </P>
1296    <P>
1297    Offset values that correspond to unused subpatterns at the end of the
1298    expression are also set to -1. For example, if the string "abc" is matched
1299    against the pattern (abc)(x(yz)?)? subpatterns 2 and 3 are not matched. The
1300    return from the function is 2, because the highest used capturing subpattern
1301    number is 1. However, you can refer to the offsets for the second and third
1302    capturing subpatterns if you wish (assuming the vector is large enough, of
1303    course).
1304    </P>
1305    <P>
1306    Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings
1307    as separate strings. These are described below.
1308  <a name="errorlist"></a></P>  <a name="errorlist"></a></P>
1309  <br><b>  <br><b>
1310  Return values from <b>pcre_exec()</b>  Error return values from <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1311  </b><br>  </b><br>
1312  <P>  <P>
1313  If <b>pcre_exec()</b> fails, it returns a negative number. The following are  If <b>pcre_exec()</b> fails, it returns a negative number. The following are
# Line 1326  in PCRE or by overwriting of the compile Line 1404  in PCRE or by overwriting of the compile
1404  </pre>  </pre>
1405  This error is given if the value of the <i>ovecsize</i> argument is negative.  This error is given if the value of the <i>ovecsize</i> argument is negative.
1406  </P>  </P>
1407  <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER</a><br>
1408  <P>  <P>
1409  <b>int pcre_copy_substring(const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_copy_substring(const char *<i>subject</i>, int *<i>ovector</i>,</b>
1410  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>, char *<i>buffer</i>,</b>  <b>int <i>stringcount</i>, int <i>stringnumber</i>, char *<i>buffer</i>,</b>
# Line 1348  Captured substrings can be accessed dire Line 1426  Captured substrings can be accessed dire
1426  <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> are provided for extracting captured substrings  <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> are provided for extracting captured substrings
1427  as new, separate, zero-terminated strings. These functions identify substrings  as new, separate, zero-terminated strings. These functions identify substrings
1428  by number. The next section describes functions for extracting named  by number. The next section describes functions for extracting named
1429  substrings. A substring that contains a binary zero is correctly extracted and  substrings.
1430  has a further zero added on the end, but the result is not, of course,  </P>
1431  a C string.  <P>
1432    A substring that contains a binary zero is correctly extracted and has a
1433    further zero added on the end, but the result is not, of course, a C string.
1434    However, you can process such a string by referring to the length that is
1435    returned by <b>pcre_copy_substring()</b> and <b>pcre_get_substring()</b>.
1436    Unfortunately, the interface to <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b> is not adequate
1437    for handling strings containing binary zeros, because the end of the final
1438    string is not independently indicated.
1439  </P>  </P>
1440  <P>  <P>
1441  The first three arguments are the same for all three of these functions:  The first three arguments are the same for all three of these functions:
# Line 1410  a previous call of <b>pcre_get_substring Line 1495  a previous call of <b>pcre_get_substring
1495  <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b>, respectively. They do nothing more than call  <b>pcre_get_substring_list()</b>, respectively. They do nothing more than call
1496  the function pointed to by <b>pcre_free</b>, which of course could be called  the function pointed to by <b>pcre_free</b>, which of course could be called
1497  directly from a C program. However, PCRE is used in some situations where it is  directly from a C program. However, PCRE is used in some situations where it is
1498  linked via a special interface to another programming language which cannot use  linked via a special interface to another programming language that cannot use
1499  <b>pcre_free</b> directly; it is for these cases that the functions are  <b>pcre_free</b> directly; it is for these cases that the functions are
1500  provided.  provided.
1501  </P>  </P>
1502  <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME</a><br>
1503  <P>  <P>
1504  <b>int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>
1505  <b>const char *<i>name</i>);</b>  <b>const char *<i>name</i>);</b>
# Line 1437  For example, for this pattern Line 1522  For example, for this pattern
1522  <pre>  <pre>
1523    (a+)b(?P&#60;xxx&#62;\d+)...    (a+)b(?P&#60;xxx&#62;\d+)...
1524  </pre>  </pre>
1525  the number of the subpattern called "xxx" is 2. You can find the number from  the number of the subpattern called "xxx" is 2. If the name is known to be
1526  the name by calling <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b>. The first argument is the  unique (PCRE_DUPNAMES was not set), you can find the number from the name by
1527  compiled pattern, and the second is the name. The yield of the function is the  calling <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b>. The first argument is the compiled
1528    pattern, and the second is the name. The yield of the function is the
1529  subpattern number, or PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if there is no subpattern of  subpattern number, or PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if there is no subpattern of
1530  that name.  that name.
1531  </P>  </P>
# Line 1449  functions described in the previous sect Line 1535  functions described in the previous sect
1535  two functions that do the whole job.  two functions that do the whole job.
1536  </P>  </P>
1537  <P>  <P>
1538  Most of the arguments of <i>pcre_copy_named_substring()</i> and  Most of the arguments of <b>pcre_copy_named_substring()</b> and
1539  <i>pcre_get_named_substring()</i> are the same as those for the similarly named  <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b> are the same as those for the similarly named
1540  functions that extract by number. As these are described in the previous  functions that extract by number. As these are described in the previous
1541  section, they are not re-described here. There are just two differences:  section, they are not re-described here. There are just two differences:
1542  </P>  </P>
# Line 1465  These functions call <b>pcre_get_stringn Line 1551  These functions call <b>pcre_get_stringn
1551  then call <i>pcre_copy_substring()</i> or <i>pcre_get_substring()</i>, as  then call <i>pcre_copy_substring()</i> or <i>pcre_get_substring()</i>, as
1552  appropriate.  appropriate.
1553  </P>  </P>
1554  <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">FINDING ALL POSSIBLE MATCHES</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC17" href="#TOC1">DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES</a><br>
1555    <P>
1556    <b>int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *<i>code</i>,</b>
1557    <b>const char *<i>name</i>, char **<i>first</i>, char **<i>last</i>);</b>
1558    </P>
1559    <P>
1560    When a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_DUPNAMES option, names for subpatterns
1561    are not required to be unique. Normally, patterns with duplicate names are such
1562    that in any one match, only one of the named subpatterns participates. An
1563    example is shown in the
1564    <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
1565    documentation. When duplicates are present, <b>pcre_copy_named_substring()</b>
1566    and <b>pcre_get_named_substring()</b> return the first substring corresponding
1567    to the given name that is set. If none are set, an empty string is returned.
1568    The <b>pcre_get_stringnumber()</b> function returns one of the numbers that are
1569    associated with the name, but it is not defined which it is.
1570    <br>
1571    <br>
1572    If you want to get full details of all captured substrings for a given name,
1573    you must use the <b>pcre_get_stringtable_entries()</b> function. The first
1574    argument is the compiled pattern, and the second is the name. The third and
1575    fourth are pointers to variables which are updated by the function. After it
1576    has run, they point to the first and last entries in the name-to-number table
1577    for the given name. The function itself returns the length of each entry, or
1578    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING if there are none. The format of the table is described
1579    above in the section entitled <i>Information about a pattern</i>. Given all the
1580    relevant entries for the name, you can extract each of their numbers, and hence
1581    the captured data, if any.
1582    </P>
1583    <br><a name="SEC18" href="#TOC1">FINDING ALL POSSIBLE MATCHES</a><br>
1584  <P>  <P>
1585  The traditional matching function uses a similar algorithm to Perl, which stops  The traditional matching function uses a similar algorithm to Perl, which stops
1586  when it finds the first match, starting at a given point in the subject. If you  when it finds the first match, starting at a given point in the subject. If you
# Line 1484  substring. Then return 1, which forces < Line 1599  substring. Then return 1, which forces <
1599  other alternatives. Ultimately, when it runs out of matches, <b>pcre_exec()</b>  other alternatives. Ultimately, when it runs out of matches, <b>pcre_exec()</b>
1600  will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.  will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.
1601  <a name="dfamatch"></a></P>  <a name="dfamatch"></a></P>
1602  <br><a name="SEC17" href="#TOC1">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC19" href="#TOC1">MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION</a><br>
1603  <P>  <P>
1604  <b>int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>  <b>int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *<i>code</i>, const pcre_extra *<i>extra</i>,</b>
1605  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>  <b>const char *<i>subject</i>, int <i>length</i>, int <i>startoffset</i>,</b>
# Line 1512  here. Line 1627  here.
1627  The two additional arguments provide workspace for the function. The workspace  The two additional arguments provide workspace for the function. The workspace
1628  vector should contain at least 20 elements. It is used for keeping track of  vector should contain at least 20 elements. It is used for keeping track of
1629  multiple paths through the pattern tree. More workspace will be needed for  multiple paths through the pattern tree. More workspace will be needed for
1630  patterns and subjects where there are a lot of possible matches.  patterns and subjects where there are a lot of potential matches.
1631  </P>  </P>
1632  <P>  <P>
1633  Here is an example of a simple call to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>:  Here is an example of a simple call to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>:
# Line 1538  Option bits for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> Line 1653  Option bits for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
1653  </b><br>  </b><br>
1654  <P>  <P>
1655  The unused bits of the <i>options</i> argument for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> must be  The unused bits of the <i>options</i> argument for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> must be
1656  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NOTBOL,  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_<i>xxx</i>,
1657  PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL,  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL,
1658  PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST, and PCRE_DFA_RESTART. All but the last three of these are  PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST, and PCRE_DFA_RESTART. All but the last three of these are
1659  the same as for <b>pcre_exec()</b>, so their description is not repeated here.  the same as for <b>pcre_exec()</b>, so their description is not repeated here.
1660  <pre>  <pre>
# Line 1647  error is given if the output vector is n Line 1762  error is given if the output vector is n
1762  extremely rare, as a vector of size 1000 is used.  extremely rare, as a vector of size 1000 is used.
1763  </P>  </P>
1764  <P>  <P>
1765  Last updated: 18 January 2006  Last updated: 08 June 2006
1766  <br>  <br>
1767  Copyright &copy; 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.  Copyright &copy; 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.
1768  <p>  <p>

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