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1 <html>
2 <head>
3 <title>pcrejit specification</title>
4 </head>
5 <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">
6 <h1>pcrejit man page</h1>
7 <p>
8 Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
9 </p>
10 <p>
11 This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically
12 from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the
13 man page, in case the conversion went wrong.
14 <br>
15 <ul>
16 <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">PCRE JUST-IN-TIME COMPILER SUPPORT</a>
17 <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">AVAILABILITY OF JIT SUPPORT</a>
18 <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">SIMPLE USE OF JIT</a>
19 <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">UNSUPPORTED OPTIONS AND PATTERN ITEMS</a>
20 <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">RETURN VALUES FROM JIT EXECUTION</a>
21 <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">SAVING AND RESTORING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
22 <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">CONTROLLING THE JIT STACK</a>
23 <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">EXAMPLE CODE</a>
24 <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">SEE ALSO</a>
25 <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">AUTHOR</a>
26 <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">REVISION</a>
27 </ul>
28 <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">PCRE JUST-IN-TIME COMPILER SUPPORT</a><br>
29 <P>
30 Just-in-time compiling is a heavyweight optimization that can greatly speed up
31 pattern matching. However, it comes at the cost of extra processing before the
32 match is performed. Therefore, it is of most benefit when the same pattern is
33 going to be matched many times. This does not necessarily mean many calls of
34 \fPpcre_exec()\fP; if the pattern is not anchored, matching attempts may take
35 place many times at various positions in the subject, even for a single call to
36 <b>pcre_exec()</b>. If the subject string is very long, it may still pay to use
37 JIT for one-off matches.
38 </P>
39 <P>
40 JIT support applies only to the traditional matching function,
41 <b>pcre_exec()</b>. It does not apply when <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> is being used.
42 The code for this support was written by Zoltan Herczeg.
43 </P>
44 <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">AVAILABILITY OF JIT SUPPORT</a><br>
45 <P>
46 JIT support is an optional feature of PCRE. The "configure" option --enable-jit
47 (or equivalent CMake option) must be set when PCRE is built if you want to use
48 JIT. The support is limited to the following hardware platforms:
49 <pre>
50 ARM v5, v7, and Thumb2
51 Intel x86 32-bit and 64-bit
52 MIPS 32-bit
53 Power PC 32-bit and 64-bit (experimental)
54 </pre>
55 The Power PC support is designated as experimental because it has not been
56 fully tested. If --enable-jit is set on an unsupported platform, compilation
57 fails.
58 </P>
59 <P>
60 A program can tell if JIT support is available by calling <b>pcre_config()</b>
61 with the PCRE_CONFIG_JIT option. The result is 1 when JIT is available, and 0
62 otherwise. However, a simple program does not need to check this in order to
63 use JIT. The API is implemented in a way that falls back to the ordinary PCRE
64 code if JIT is not available.
65 </P>
66 <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">SIMPLE USE OF JIT</a><br>
67 <P>
68 You have to do two things to make use of the JIT support in the simplest way:
69 <pre>
70 (1) Call <b>pcre_study()</b> with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option for
71 each compiled pattern, and pass the resulting <b>pcre_extra</b> block to
72 <b>pcre_exec()</b>.
73
74 (2) Use <b>pcre_free_study()</b> to free the <b>pcre_extra</b> block when it is
75 no longer needed instead of just freeing it yourself. This
76 ensures that any JIT data is also freed.
77 </pre>
78 In some circumstances you may need to call additional functions. These are
79 described in the section entitled
80 <a href="#stackcontrol">"Controlling the JIT stack"</a>
81 below.
82 </P>
83 <P>
84 If JIT support is not available, PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE is ignored, and no JIT
85 data is set up. Otherwise, the compiled pattern is passed to the JIT compiler,
86 which turns it into machine code that executes much faster than the normal
87 interpretive code. When <b>pcre_exec()</b> is passed a <b>pcre_extra</b> block
88 containing a pointer to JIT code, it obeys that instead of the normal code. The
89 result is identical, but the code runs much faster.
90 </P>
91 <P>
92 There are some <b>pcre_exec()</b> options that are not supported for JIT
93 execution. There are also some pattern items that JIT cannot handle. Details
94 are given below. In both cases, execution automatically falls back to the
95 interpretive code.
96 </P>
97 <P>
98 If the JIT compiler finds an unsupported item, no JIT data is generated. You
99 can find out if JIT execution is available after studying a pattern by calling
100 <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> with the PCRE_INFO_JIT option. A result of 1 means that
101 JIT compilation was successful. A result of 0 means that JIT support is not
102 available, or the pattern was not studied with PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE, or the
103 JIT compiler was not able to handle the pattern.
104 </P>
105 <P>
106 Once a pattern has been studied, with or without JIT, it can be used as many
107 times as you like for matching different subject strings.
108 </P>
109 <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">UNSUPPORTED OPTIONS AND PATTERN ITEMS</a><br>
110 <P>
111 The only <b>pcre_exec()</b> options that are supported for JIT execution are
112 PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, and
113 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART. Note in particular that partial matching is not
114 supported.
115 </P>
116 <P>
117 The unsupported pattern items are:
118 <pre>
119 \C match a single byte, even in UTF-8 mode
120 (?Cn) callouts
121 (?(&#60;name&#62;)... conditional test on setting of a named subpattern
122 (?(R)... conditional test on whole pattern recursion
123 (?(Rn)... conditional test on recursion, by number
124 (?(R&name)... conditional test on recursion, by name
125 (*COMMIT) )
126 (*MARK) )
127 (*PRUNE) ) the backtracking control verbs
128 (*SKIP) )
129 (*THEN) )
130 </pre>
131 Support for some of these may be added in future.
132 </P>
133 <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">RETURN VALUES FROM JIT EXECUTION</a><br>
134 <P>
135 When a pattern is matched using JIT execution, the return values are the same
136 as those given by the interpretive <b>pcre_exec()</b> code, with the addition of
137 one new error code: PCRE_ERROR_JIT_STACKLIMIT. This means that the memory used
138 for the JIT stack was insufficient. See
139 <a href="#stackcontrol">"Controlling the JIT stack"</a>
140 below for a discussion of JIT stack usage. For compatibility with the
141 interpretive <b>pcre_exec()</b> code, no more than two-thirds of the
142 <i>ovector</i> argument is used for passing back captured substrings.
143 </P>
144 <P>
145 The error code PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT is returned by the JIT code if searching a
146 very large pattern tree goes on for too long, as it is in the same circumstance
147 when JIT is not used, but the details of exactly what is counted are not the
148 same. The PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT error code is never returned by JIT
149 execution.
150 </P>
151 <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RESTORING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
152 <P>
153 The code that is generated by the JIT compiler is architecture-specific, and is
154 also position dependent. For those reasons it cannot be saved (in a file or
155 database) and restored later like the bytecode and other data of a compiled
156 pattern. Saving and restoring compiled patterns is not something many people
157 do. More detail about this facility is given in the
158 <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
159 documentation. It should be possible to run <b>pcre_study()</b> on a saved and
160 restored pattern, and thereby recreate the JIT data, but because JIT
161 compilation uses significant resources, it is probably not worth doing this;
162 you might as well recompile the original pattern.
163 <a name="stackcontrol"></a></P>
164 <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">CONTROLLING THE JIT STACK</a><br>
165 <P>
166 When the compiled JIT code runs, it needs a block of memory to use as a stack.
167 By default, it uses 32K on the machine stack. However, some large or
168 complicated patterns need more than this. The error PCRE_ERROR_JIT_STACKLIMIT
169 is given when there is not enough stack. Three functions are provided for
170 managing blocks of memory for use as JIT stacks.
171 </P>
172 <P>
173 The <b>pcre_jit_stack_alloc()</b> function creates a JIT stack. Its arguments
174 are a starting size and a maximum size, and it returns a pointer to an opaque
175 structure of type <b>pcre_jit_stack</b>, or NULL if there is an error. The
176 <b>pcre_jit_stack_free()</b> function can be used to free a stack that is no
177 longer needed. (For the technically minded: the address space is allocated by
178 mmap or VirtualAlloc.)
179 </P>
180 <P>
181 JIT uses far less memory for recursion than the interpretive code,
182 and a maximum stack size of 512K to 1M should be more than enough for any
183 pattern.
184 </P>
185 <P>
186 The <b>pcre_assign_jit_stack()</b> function specifies which stack JIT code
187 should use. Its arguments are as follows:
188 <pre>
189 pcre_extra *extra
190 pcre_jit_callback callback
191 void *data
192 </pre>
193 The <i>extra</i> argument must be the result of studying a pattern with
194 PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE. There are three cases for the values of the other two
195 options:
196 <pre>
197 (1) If <i>callback</i> is NULL and <i>data</i> is NULL, an internal 32K block
198 on the machine stack is used.
199
200 (2) If <i>callback</i> is NULL and <i>data</i> is not NULL, <i>data</i> must be
201 a valid JIT stack, the result of calling <b>pcre_jit_stack_alloc()</b>.
202
203 (3) If <i>callback</i> not NULL, it must point to a function that is called
204 with <i>data</i> as an argument at the start of matching, in order to
205 set up a JIT stack. If the result is NULL, the internal 32K stack
206 is used; otherwise the return value must be a valid JIT stack,
207 the result of calling <b>pcre_jit_stack_alloc()</b>.
208 </pre>
209 You may safely assign the same JIT stack to more than one pattern, as long as
210 they are all matched sequentially in the same thread. In a multithread
211 application, each thread must use its own JIT stack.
212 </P>
213 <P>
214 Strictly speaking, even more is allowed. You can assign the same stack to any
215 number of patterns as long as they are not used for matching by multiple
216 threads at the same time. For example, you can assign the same stack to all
217 compiled patterns, and use a global mutex in the callback to wait until the
218 stack is available for use. However, this is an inefficient solution, and
219 not recommended.
220 </P>
221 <P>
222 This is a suggestion for how a typical multithreaded program might operate:
223 <pre>
224 During thread initalization
225 thread_local_var = pcre_jit_stack_alloc(...)
226
227 During thread exit
228 pcre_jit_stack_free(thread_local_var)
229
230 Use a one-line callback function
231 return thread_local_var
232 </pre>
233 All the functions described in this section do nothing if JIT is not available,
234 and <b>pcre_assign_jit_stack()</b> does nothing unless the <b>extra</b> argument
235 is non-NULL and points to a <b>pcre_extra</b> block that is the result of a
236 successful study with PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE.
237 </P>
238 <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">EXAMPLE CODE</a><br>
239 <P>
240 This is a single-threaded example that specifies a JIT stack without using a
241 callback.
242 <pre>
243 int rc;
244 int ovector[30];
245 pcre *re;
246 pcre_extra *extra;
247 pcre_jit_stack *jit_stack;
248
249 re = pcre_compile(pattern, 0, &error, &erroffset, NULL);
250 /* Check for errors */
251 extra = pcre_study(re, PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE, &error);
252 jit_stack = pcre_jit_stack_alloc(32*1024, 512*1024);
253 /* Check for error (NULL) */
254 pcre_assign_jit_stack(extra, NULL, jit_stack);
255 rc = pcre_exec(re, extra, subject, length, 0, 0, ovector, 30);
256 /* Check results */
257 pcre_free(re);
258 pcre_free_study(extra);
259 pcre_jit_stack_free(jit_stack);
260
261 </PRE>
262 </P>
263 <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
264 <P>
265 <b>pcreapi</b>(3)
266 </P>
267 <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
268 <P>
269 Philip Hazel
270 <br>
271 University Computing Service
272 <br>
273 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
274 <br>
275 </P>
276 <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
277 <P>
278 Last updated: 05 October 2011
279 <br>
280 Copyright &copy; 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
281 <br>
282 <p>
283 Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
284 </p>

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