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1 <html>
2 <head>
3 <title>pcretest specification</title>
4 </head>
5 <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">
6 <h1>pcretest man page</h1>
7 <p>
8 Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
9 </p>
10 <p>
11 This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically
12 from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the
13 man page, in case the conversion went wrong.
14 <br>
15 <ul>
16 <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17 <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES</a>
18 <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a>
19 <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">DESCRIPTION</a>
20 <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
21 <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">DATA LINES</a>
22 <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
23 <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
25 <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
26 <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">CALLOUTS</a>
27 <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
29 <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">SEE ALSO</a>
30 <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">AUTHOR</a>
31 <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">REVISION</a>
32 </ul>
33 <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
34 <P>
35 <b>pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]</b>
36 <br>
37 <br>
38 <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
39 library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
40 expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
41 details of the regular expressions themselves, see the
42 <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
43 documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
44 options, see the
45 <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
46 ,
47 <a href="pcre16.html"><b>pcre16</b></a>
48 and
49 <a href="pcre32.html"><b>pcre32</b></a>
50 documentation.
51 </P>
52 <P>
53 The input for <b>pcretest</b> is a sequence of regular expression patterns and
54 strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each
55 match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
56 exactly what is output.
57 </P>
58 <P>
59 As PCRE has evolved, it has acquired many different features, and as a result,
60 <b>pcretest</b> now has rather a lot of obscure options for testing every
61 possible feature. Some of these options are specifically designed for use in
62 conjunction with the test script and data files that are distributed as part of
63 PCRE, and are unlikely to be of use otherwise. They are all documented here,
64 but without much justification.
65 </P>
66 <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES</a><br>
67 <P>
68 From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The original one
69 supports 8-bit character strings, whereas the newer 16-bit library supports
70 character strings encoded in 16-bit units. From release 8.32, a third
71 library can be built, supporting character strings encoded in 32-bit units.
72 The <b>pcretest</b> program can be
73 used to test all three libraries. However, it is itself still an 8-bit program,
74 reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output. When testing the 16-bit or 32-bit
75 library, the patterns and data strings are converted to 16- or 32-bit format
76 before being passed to the PCRE library functions. Results are converted to
77 8-bit for output.
78 </P>
79 <P>
80 References to functions and structures of the form <b>pcre[16|32]_xx</b> below
81 mean "<b>pcre_xx</b> when using the 8-bit library or <b>pcre16_xx</b> when using
82 the 16-bit library".
83 </P>
84 <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a><br>
85 <P>
86 <b>-8</b>
87 If both the 8-bit library has been built, this option causes the 8-bit library
88 to be used (which is the default); if the 8-bit library has not been built,
89 this option causes an error.
90 </P>
91 <P>
92 <b>-16</b>
93 If both the 8-bit or the 32-bit, and the 16-bit libraries have been built, this
94 option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the 16-bit library has been
95 built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 32-bit
96 library has been built, this option causes an error.
97 </P>
98 <P>
99 <b>-32</b>
100 If both the 8-bit or the 16-bit, and the 32-bit libraries have been built, this
101 option causes the 32-bit library to be used. If only the 32-bit library has been
102 built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 16-bit
103 library has been built, this option causes an error.
104 </P>
105 <P>
106 <b>-b</b>
107 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/B</b> (show byte code) modifier; the
108 internal form is output after compilation.
109 </P>
110 <P>
111 <b>-C</b>
112 Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
113 about the optional features that are included, and then exit. All other options
114 are ignored.
115 </P>
116 <P>
117 <b>-C</b> <i>option</i>
118 Output information about a specific build-time option, then exit. This
119 functionality is intended for use in scripts such as <b>RunTest</b>. The
120 following options output the value indicated:
121 <pre>
122 ebcdic-nl the code for LF (= NL) in an EBCDIC environment:
123 0x15 or 0x25
124 0 if used in an ASCII environment
125 linksize the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
126 newline the default newline setting:
128 </pre>
129 The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
130 <pre>
131 ebcdic compiled for an EBCDIC environment
132 jit just-in-time support is available
133 pcre16 the 16-bit library was built
134 pcre32 the 32-bit library was built
135 pcre8 the 8-bit library was built
136 ucp Unicode property support is available
137 utf UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 and/or UTF-32 support is available
138 </PRE>
139 </P>
140 <P>
141 <b>-d</b>
142 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
143 form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
144 <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
145 </P>
146 <P>
147 <b>-dfa</b>
148 Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
149 alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead
150 of the standard <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
151 </P>
152 <P>
153 <b>-help</b>
154 Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
155 </P>
156 <P>
157 <b>-i</b>
158 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
159 compiled pattern is given after compilation.
160 </P>
161 <P>
162 <b>-M</b>
163 Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes
164 PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
165 calling <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.
166 </P>
167 <P>
168 <b>-m</b>
169 Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
170 equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. The size is given in
171 bytes for both libraries.
172 </P>
173 <P>
174 <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
175 Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
176 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The
177 default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for
178 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or 22 different matches for
179 <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>.
180 The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by including \O
181 in the data line (see below).
182 </P>
183 <P>
184 <b>-p</b>
185 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
186 used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
187 set. This option can be used only with the 8-bit library.
188 </P>
189 <P>
190 <b>-q</b>
191 Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
192 </P>
193 <P>
194 <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
195 On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to <i>size</i>
196 megabytes.
197 </P>
198 <P>
199 <b>-s</b> or <b>-s+</b>
200 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/S</b> modifier; in other words, force each
201 pattern to be studied. If <b>-s+</b> is used, all the JIT compile options are
202 passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b>, causing just-in-time optimization to be set
203 up if it is available, for both full and partial matching. Specific JIT compile
204 options can be selected by following <b>-s+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to
205 7, which selects the JIT compile modes as follows:
206 <pre>
207 1 normal match only
208 2 soft partial match only
209 3 normal match and soft partial match
210 4 hard partial match only
211 6 soft and hard partial match
212 7 all three modes (default)
213 </pre>
214 If <b>-s++</b> is used instead of <b>-s+</b> (with or without a following digit),
215 the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
216 when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
217 <br>
218 <br>
219 Note that there are pattern options that can override <b>-s</b>, either
220 specifying no studying at all, or suppressing JIT compilation.
221 <br>
222 <br>
223 If the <b>/I</b> or <b>/D</b> option is present on a pattern (requesting output
224 about the compiled pattern), information about the result of studying is not
225 included when studying is caused only by <b>-s</b> and neither <b>-i</b> nor
226 <b>-d</b> is present on the command line. This behaviour means that the output
227 from tests that are run with and without <b>-s</b> should be identical, except
228 when options that output information about the actual running of a match are
229 set.
230 <br>
231 <br>
232 The <b>-M</b>, <b>-t</b>, and <b>-tm</b> options, which give information about
233 resources used, are likely to produce different output with and without
234 <b>-s</b>. Output may also differ if the <b>/C</b> option is present on an
235 individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process, and
236 this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the pattern
237 contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same reason. The
238 <b>-s</b> command line option can be overridden for specific patterns that
239 should never be studied (see the <b>/S</b> pattern modifier below).
240 </P>
241 <P>
242 <b>-t</b>
243 Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
244 resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
245 <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
246 timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
247 used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
248 command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
249 to iterate 500000 times.
250 </P>
251 <P>
252 <b>-tm</b>
253 This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
254 compile or study phases.
255 </P>
256 <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
257 <P>
258 If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
259 writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
260 that file and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to
261 stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re&#62;" to prompt for regular
262 expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.
263 </P>
264 <P>
265 When <b>pcretest</b> is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
266 be linked with the <b>libreadline</b> library. When this is done, if the input
267 is from a terminal, it is read using the <b>readline()</b> function. This
268 provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the <b>-help</b>
269 option states whether or not <b>readline()</b> will be used.
270 </P>
271 <P>
272 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
273 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
274 lines to be matched against the pattern.
275 </P>
276 <P>
277 Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
278 multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
279 etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
280 newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
281 buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
282 </P>
283 <P>
284 An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
285 expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
286 non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
287 <pre>
288 /(a|bc)x+yz/
289 </pre>
290 White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may
291 be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are
292 included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern
293 by escaping it, for example
294 <pre>
295 /abc\/def/
296 </pre>
297 If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since
298 delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect its interpretation.
299 If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for
300 example,
301 <pre>
302 /abc/\
303 </pre>
304 then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a
305 way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a
306 backslash, because
307 <pre>
308 /abc\/
309 </pre>
310 is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
311 pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
312 </P>
313 <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
314 <P>
315 A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
316 characters, though some of these can be qualified by further characters.
317 Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example, "the
318 <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not always be
319 a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may appear
320 between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between the
321 modifiers themselves. For reference, here is a complete list of modifiers. They
322 fall into several groups that are described in detail in the following
323 sections.
324 <pre>
325 <b>/8</b> set UTF mode
326 <b>/?</b> disable UTF validity check
327 <b>/+</b> show remainder of subject after match
328 <b>/=</b> show all captures (not just those that are set)
330 <b>/A</b> set PCRE_ANCHORED
331 <b>/B</b> show compiled code
332 <b>/C</b> set PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
333 <b>/D</b> same as <b>/B</b> plus <b>/I</b>
334 <b>/E</b> set PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
335 <b>/F</b> flip byte order in compiled pattern
336 <b>/f</b> set PCRE_FIRSTLINE
337 <b>/G</b> find all matches (shorten string)
338 <b>/g</b> find all matches (use startoffset)
339 <b>/I</b> show information about pattern
340 <b>/i</b> set PCRE_CASELESS
341 <b>/J</b> set PCRE_DUPNAMES
342 <b>/K</b> show backtracking control names
343 <b>/L</b> set locale
344 <b>/M</b> show compiled memory size
345 <b>/m</b> set PCRE_MULTILINE
346 <b>/N</b> set PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
347 <b>/P</b> use the POSIX wrapper
348 <b>/S</b> study the pattern after compilation
349 <b>/s</b> set PCRE_DOTALL
350 <b>/T</b> select character tables
351 <b>/U</b> set PCRE_UNGREEDY
352 <b>/W</b> set PCRE_UCP
353 <b>/X</b> set PCRE_EXTRA
354 <b>/x</b> set PCRE_EXTENDED
355 <b>/Y</b> set PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
356 <b>/Z</b> don't show lengths in <b>/B</b> output
358 <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
359 <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
360 <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
361 <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
362 <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
363 <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b> set PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
364 <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b> set PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
365 <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b> set PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
367 </PRE>
368 </P>
369 <br><b>
370 Perl-compatible modifiers
371 </b><br>
372 <P>
373 The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
374 PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
375 <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
376 effect as they do in Perl. For example:
377 <pre>
378 /caseless/i
380 </PRE>
381 </P>
382 <br><b>
383 Modifiers for other PCRE options
384 </b><br>
385 <P>
386 The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
387 options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
388 <pre>
389 <b>/8</b> PCRE_UTF8 ) when using the 8-bit
390 <b>/?</b> PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK ) library
392 <b>/8</b> PCRE_UTF16 ) when using the 16-bit
393 <b>/?</b> PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK ) library
395 <b>/8</b> PCRE_UTF32 ) when using the 32-bit
396 <b>/?</b> PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK ) library
398 <b>/A</b> PCRE_ANCHORED
401 <b>/f</b> PCRE_FIRSTLINE
402 <b>/J</b> PCRE_DUPNAMES
404 <b>/U</b> PCRE_UNGREEDY
405 <b>/W</b> PCRE_UCP
406 <b>/X</b> PCRE_EXTRA
408 <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
409 <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
410 <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
411 <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
412 <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
413 <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b> PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
414 <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b> PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
415 <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b> PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
416 </pre>
417 The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
418 including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
419 This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
420 <pre>
421 /^abc/m&#60;CRLF&#62;
422 </pre>
423 As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16/32 option, the <b>/8</b> modifier causes
424 all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
425 \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex without
426 the curly brackets.
427 </P>
428 <P>
429 Full details of the PCRE options are given in the
430 <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
431 documentation.
432 </P>
433 <br><b>
434 Finding all matches in a string
435 </b><br>
436 <P>
437 Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
438 by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
439 again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
440 <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to
441 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire
442 string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a
443 shortened substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the
444 pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).
445 </P>
446 <P>
447 If any call to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches
448 an empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
449 PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
450 same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
451 normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
452 using the <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function. Normally, the start
453 offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
454 CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
455 of two is used.
456 </P>
457 <br><b>
458 Other modifiers
459 </b><br>
460 <P>
461 There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
462 operates.
463 </P>
464 <P>
465 The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
466 matched the entire pattern, <b>pcretest</b> should in addition output the
467 remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
468 contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the <b>+</b> modifier appears
469 twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
470 remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
471 capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
472 modifier because /S+ and /S++ have other meanings.
473 </P>
474 <P>
475 The <b>/=</b> modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
476 parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up to the highest
477 one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the return code
478 from <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>). Values in the offsets vector corresponding to
479 higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as "&#60;unset&#62;". This
480 modifier gives a way of checking that this is happening.
481 </P>
482 <P>
483 The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
484 output a representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally this
485 information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is also
486 present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in
487 the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated for
488 different internal link sizes.
489 </P>
490 <P>
491 The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
492 <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the <b>/B</b> and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
493 </P>
494 <P>
495 The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
496 2-byte and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
497 the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were compiled on a
498 host with a different endianness. This feature is not available when the POSIX
499 interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
500 specified. See also the section about saving and reloading compiled patterns
501 below.
502 </P>
503 <P>
504 The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
505 compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
506 so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre[16|32]_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
507 pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
508 </P>
509 <P>
510 The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking
511 control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>. It causes
512 <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre[16|32]_extra</b> block if one has not already
513 been created by a call to <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b>, and to set the
514 PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that
515 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> is called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field
516 points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b>
517 prints the string to which it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by
518 itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
519 </P>
520 <P>
521 The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
522 example,
523 <pre>
524 /pattern/Lfr_FR
525 </pre>
526 For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
527 <b>pcre[16|32]_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for
528 the locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b> when compiling
529 the regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> (or <b>/T</b>) modifier, NULL is
530 passed as the tables pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression
531 on which it appears.
532 </P>
533 <P>
534 The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to hold
535 the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the
536 <b>pcre[16|32]</b> block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is
537 successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the
538 JIT compiled code is also output.
539 </P>
540 <P>
541 The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> to be called after the
542 expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
543 matched. There are a number of qualifying characters that may follow <b>/S</b>.
544 They may appear in any order.
545 </P>
546 <P>
547 If <b>S</b> is followed by an exclamation mark, <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> is called
548 with the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to return a
549 <b>pcre_extra</b> block, even when studying discovers no useful information.
550 </P>
551 <P>
552 If <b>/S</b> is followed by a second S character, it suppresses studying, even
553 if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line option. This makes
554 it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
555 never studied, independently of <b>-s</b>. This feature is used in the test
556 files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
557 </P>
558 <P>
559 If the <b>/S</b> modifier is followed by a + character, the call to
560 <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> is made with all the JIT study options, requesting
561 just-in-time optimization support if it is available, for both normal and
562 partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling modes, you can
563 follow <b>/S+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
564 <pre>
565 1 normal match only
566 2 soft partial match only
567 3 normal match and soft partial match
568 4 hard partial match only
569 6 soft and hard partial match
570 7 all three modes (default)
571 </pre>
572 If <b>/S++</b> is used instead of <b>/S+</b> (with or without a following digit),
573 the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
574 when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
575 </P>
576 <P>
577 Note that there is also an independent <b>/+</b> modifier; it must not be given
578 immediately after <b>/S</b> or <b>/S+</b> because this will be misinterpreted.
579 </P>
580 <P>
581 If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically be used
582 when <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> is run, except when incompatible run-time options
583 are specified. For more details, see the
584 <a href="pcrejit.html"><b>pcrejit</b></a>
585 documentation. See also the <b>\J</b> escape sequence below for a way of
586 setting the size of the JIT stack.
587 </P>
588 <P>
589 Finally, if <b>/S</b> is followed by a minus character, JIT compilation is
590 suppressed, even if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line
591 option. This makes it possible to specify that JIT is never to be used for
592 certain patterns.
593 </P>
594 <P>
595 The <b>/T</b> modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
596 set of built-in character tables to be passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b>. It
597 is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
598 tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
599 <pre>
600 0 the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
601 pcre_chartables.c.dist
602 1 a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
603 </pre>
604 In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
605 letters, digits, spaces, etc.
606 </P>
607 <br><b>
608 Using the POSIX wrapper API
609 </b><br>
610 <P>
611 The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
612 API rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When
613 <b>/P</b> is set, the following modifiers set options for the <b>regcomp()</b>
614 function:
615 <pre>
616 /i REG_ICASE
619 /s REG_DOTALL )
620 /U REG_UNGREEDY ) These options are not part of
621 /W REG_UCP ) the POSIX standard
622 /8 REG_UTF8 )
623 </pre>
624 The <b>/+</b> modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
625 ignored.
626 </P>
627 <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
628 <P>
629 Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
630 white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these
631 are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
632 complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
633 expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
634 recognized:
635 <pre>
636 \a alarm (BEL, \x07)
637 \b backspace (\x08)
638 \e escape (\x27)
639 \f form feed (\x0c)
640 \n newline (\x0a)
641 \qdd set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
642 \r carriage return (\x0d)
643 \t tab (\x09)
644 \v vertical tab (\x0b)
645 \nnn octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
646 a byte unless &#62; 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit or 32-bit mode
647 \xhh hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
648 \x{hh...} hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
649 \A pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
650 \B pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
651 \Cdd call pcre[16|32]_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
652 \Cname call pcre[16|32]_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
653 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
654 \C+ show the current captured substrings at callout time
655 \C- do not supply a callout function
656 \C!n return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
657 \C!n!m return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
658 \C*n pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
659 \D use the <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b> match function
660 \F only shortest match for <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
661 \Gdd call pcre[16|32]_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
662 \Gname call pcre[16|32]_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
663 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
664 \Jdd set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any number of digits)
665 \L call pcre[16|32]_get_substringlist() after a successful match
666 \M discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
667 \N pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
669 \Odd set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
670 \P pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
672 \Qdd set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
673 \R pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
674 \S output details of memory get/free calls during matching
675 \Y pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
676 \Z pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
677 \? pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16|32]_CHECK option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
678 \&#62;dd start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then any number of digits); this sets the <i>startoffset</i>
679 argument for <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
680 \&#60;cr&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
681 \&#60;lf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
682 \&#60;crlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
683 \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
684 \&#60;any&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
685 </pre>
686 The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the <b>/8</b> modifier on
687 the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexadecimal
688 digits inside the braces; invalid values provoke error messages.
689 </P>
690 <P>
691 Note that \xhh specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8 mode;
692 this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing
693 purposes. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
694 UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127.
695 When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \x{hh} generates one byte
696 for values less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
697 </P>
698 <P>
699 In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
700 possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
701 </P>
702 <P>
703 In UTF-32 mode, all 4- to 8-digit \x{...} values are accepted. This makes it
704 possible to construct invalid UTF-32 sequences for testing purposes.
705 </P>
706 <P>
707 The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
708 shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
709 </P>
710 <P>
711 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
712 the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
713 passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
714 input.
715 </P>
716 <P>
717 The <b>\J</b> escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
718 used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
719 is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
720 necessary only for very complicated patterns.
721 </P>
722 <P>
723 If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> several times,
724 with different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
725 fields of the <b>pcre[16|32]_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
726 numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to complete without
727 error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
728 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might
729 have been set up by the <b>/S+</b> qualifier of <b>-s+</b> option is disabled.
730 </P>
731 <P>
732 The <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
733 that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
734 matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
735 matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
736 of subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how
737 much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
738 needed to complete the match attempt.
739 </P>
740 <P>
741 When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
742 by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
743 the call of <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
744 </P>
745 <P>
746 If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
747 API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B,
748 \N, and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
749 to be passed to <b>regexec()</b>.
750 </P>
751 <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
752 <P>
753 By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
754 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to match each data line. PCRE also supports an
755 alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
756 different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
757 functions are described in the
758 <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
759 documentation.
760 </P>
761 <P>
762 If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
763 contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is used.
764 This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
765 escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
766 found. This is always the shortest possible match.
767 </P>
768 <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
769 <P>
770 This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
771 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, is being used.
772 </P>
773 <P>
774 When a match succeeds, <b>pcretest</b> outputs the list of captured substrings
775 that <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
776 matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
777 PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
778 substring when <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that
779 this is the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it
780 may include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
781 \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other return, <b>pcretest</b> outputs
782 the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
783 a failed UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
784 the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the output vector is
785 at least two. Here is an example of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
786 <pre>
787 $ pcretest
788 PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
790 re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
791 data&#62; abc123
792 0: abc123
793 1: 123
794 data&#62; xyz
795 No match
796 </pre>
797 Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
798 returned by <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In the
799 following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
800 line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
801 substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.
802 <pre>
803 re&#62; /(a)|(b)/
804 data&#62; a
805 0: a
806 1: a
807 data&#62; b
808 0: b
809 1: &#60;unset&#62;
810 2: b
811 </pre>
812 If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \xhh
813 escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set. Otherwise they
814 are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the definition of non-printing
815 characters. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring
816 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
817 this:
818 <pre>
819 re&#62; /cat/+
820 data&#62; cataract
821 0: cat
822 0+ aract
823 </pre>
824 If the pattern has the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier, the results of successive
825 matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
826 <pre>
827 re&#62; /\Bi(\w\w)/g
828 data&#62; Mississippi
829 0: iss
830 1: ss
831 0: iss
832 1: ss
833 0: ipp
834 1: pp
835 </pre>
836 "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
837 of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \&#62;4 is past the end of
838 the subject string):
839 <pre>
840 re&#62; /xyz/
841 data&#62; xyz\&#62;4
842 Error -24 (bad offset value)
843 </PRE>
844 </P>
845 <P>
846 If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a
847 data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the
848 convenience functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number
849 instead of a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string
850 length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in
851 parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
852 </P>
853 <P>
854 Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
855 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
856 included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
857 the newline sequence setting).
858 </P>
860 <P>
861 When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
862 means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
863 output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
864 the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
865 <pre>
866 re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
867 data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
868 0: tangerine
869 1: tang
870 2: tan
871 </pre>
872 (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
873 longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
874 PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
875 partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
876 inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
877 match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
878 </P>
879 <P>
880 If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
881 at the end of the longest match. For example:
882 <pre>
883 re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
884 data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
885 0: tangerine
886 1: tang
887 2: tan
888 0: tang
889 1: tan
890 0: tan
891 </pre>
892 Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
893 sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
894 </P>
895 <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
896 <P>
897 When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
898 indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
899 match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
900 example:
901 <pre>
902 re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
903 data&#62; 23ja\P\D
904 Partial match: 23ja
905 data&#62; n05\R\D
906 0: n05
907 </pre>
908 For further information about partial matching, see the
909 <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
910 documentation.
911 </P>
912 <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
913 <P>
914 If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
915 is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
916 the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
917 positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
918 tested. For example:
919 <pre>
920 ---&#62;pqrabcdef
921 0 ^ ^ \d
922 </pre>
923 This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt
924 starting at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
925 the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just
926 one circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
927 </P>
928 <P>
929 Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
930 result of the <b>/C</b> pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the
931 callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is output. For
932 example:
933 <pre>
934 re&#62; /\d?[A-E]\*/C
935 data&#62; E*
936 ---&#62;E*
937 +0 ^ \d?
938 +3 ^ [A-E]
939 +8 ^^ \*
940 +10 ^ ^
941 0: E*
942 </pre>
943 If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
944 a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
945 <pre>
946 re&#62; /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
947 data&#62; abc
948 ---&#62;abc
949 +0 ^ a
950 +1 ^^ (*MARK:X)
951 +10 ^^ b
952 Latest Mark: X
953 +11 ^ ^ c
954 +12 ^ ^
955 0: abc
956 </pre>
957 The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
958 of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
959 mark reverts to being unset, the text "&#60;unset&#62;" is output.
960 </P>
961 <P>
962 The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
963 default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
964 change this and other parameters of the callout.
965 </P>
966 <P>
967 Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
968 complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
969 the
970 <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
971 documentation.
972 </P>
973 <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
974 <P>
975 When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
976 bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
977 therefore shown as hex escapes.
978 </P>
979 <P>
980 When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
981 string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
982 the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
983 function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
984 </P>
985 <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
986 <P>
987 The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
988 interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
989 specified.
990 </P>
991 <P>
992 When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause <b>pcretest</b> to write a
993 compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with &#62; and a file name.
994 For example:
995 <pre>
996 /pattern/im &#62;/some/file
997 </pre>
998 See the
999 <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
1000 documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
1001 Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
1002 JIT data cannot be saved.
1003 </P>
1004 <P>
1005 The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
1006 compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
1007 written as four bytes in big-endian order (most significant byte first). If
1008 there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
1009 return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
1010 exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
1011 (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
1012 writing the file, <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
1013 </P>
1014 <P>
1015 A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifying &#60; and a file
1016 name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
1017 as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
1018 characters.
1019 For example:
1020 <pre>
1021 re&#62; &#60;/some/file
1022 Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
1023 No study data
1024 </pre>
1025 If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
1026 information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
1027 been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
1028 </P>
1029 <P>
1030 You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
1031 there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
1032 pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
1033 a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a host with different
1034 endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
1035 <pre>
1036 Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
1037 </pre>
1038 The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
1039 endianness. These are reloaded using "&#60;!" instead of just "&#60;". This suppresses
1040 the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on all hosts. It also
1041 forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.
1042 </P>
1043 <P>
1044 File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
1045 the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not
1046 available.
1047 </P>
1048 <P>
1049 The ability to save and reload files in <b>pcretest</b> is intended for testing
1050 and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because only a
1051 single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is no facility for
1052 supplying custom character tables for use with a reloaded pattern. If the
1053 original pattern was compiled with custom tables, an attempt to match a subject
1054 string using a reloaded pattern is likely to cause <b>pcretest</b> to crash.
1055 Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
1056 result is undefined.
1057 </P>
1058 <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
1059 <P>
1060 <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcre16</b>(3), <b>pcre32</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3),
1061 <b>pcrecallout</b>(3),
1062 <b>pcrejit</b>, <b>pcrematching</b>(3), <b>pcrepartial</b>(d),
1063 <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
1064 </P>
1065 <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
1066 <P>
1067 Philip Hazel
1068 <br>
1069 University Computing Service
1070 <br>
1071 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
1072 <br>
1073 </P>
1074 <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
1075 <P>
1076 Last updated: 10 September 2012
1077 <br>
1078 Copyright &copy; 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.
1079 <br>
1080 <p>
1081 Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
1082 </p>


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