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1 <html>
2 <head>
3 <title>pcretest specification</title>
4 </head>
5 <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">
6 <h1>pcretest man page</h1>
7 <p>
8 Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
9 </p>
10 <p>
11 This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically
12 from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the
13 man page, in case the conversion went wrong.
14 <br>
15 <ul>
16 <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17 <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES</a>
18 <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a>
19 <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">DESCRIPTION</a>
20 <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
21 <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">DATA LINES</a>
22 <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
23 <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
25 <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
26 <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">CALLOUTS</a>
27 <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
29 <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">SEE ALSO</a>
30 <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">AUTHOR</a>
31 <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">REVISION</a>
32 </ul>
33 <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
34 <P>
35 <b>pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]</b>
36 <br>
37 <br>
38 <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
39 library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
40 expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
41 details of the regular expressions themselves, see the
42 <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
43 documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
44 options, see the
45 <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
46 ,
47 <a href="pcre16.html"><b>pcre16</b></a>
48 and
49 <a href="pcre32.html"><b>pcre32</b></a>
50 documentation.
51 </P>
52 <P>
53 The input for <b>pcretest</b> is a sequence of regular expression patterns and
54 strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each
55 match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
56 exactly what is output.
57 </P>
58 <P>
59 As PCRE has evolved, it has acquired many different features, and as a result,
60 <b>pcretest</b> now has rather a lot of obscure options for testing every
61 possible feature. Some of these options are specifically designed for use in
62 conjunction with the test script and data files that are distributed as part of
63 PCRE, and are unlikely to be of use otherwise. They are all documented here,
64 but without much justification.
65 </P>
66 <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES</a><br>
67 <P>
68 From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The original one
69 supports 8-bit character strings, whereas the newer 16-bit library supports
70 character strings encoded in 16-bit units. From release 8.32, a third
71 library can be built, supporting character strings encoded in 32-bit units.
72 The <b>pcretest</b> program can be
73 used to test all three libraries. However, it is itself still an 8-bit program,
74 reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output. When testing the 16-bit or 32-bit
75 library, the patterns and data strings are converted to 16- or 32-bit format
76 before being passed to the PCRE library functions. Results are converted to
77 8-bit for output.
78 </P>
79 <P>
80 References to functions and structures of the form <b>pcre[16|32]_xx</b> below
81 mean "<b>pcre_xx</b> when using the 8-bit library or <b>pcre16_xx</b> when using
82 the 16-bit library".
83 </P>
84 <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a><br>
85 <P>
86 <b>-8</b>
87 If both the 8-bit library has been built, this option causes the 8-bit library
88 to be used (which is the default); if the 8-bit library has not been built,
89 this option causes an error.
90 </P>
91 <P>
92 <b>-16</b>
93 If both the 8-bit or the 32-bit, and the 16-bit libraries have been built, this
94 option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the 16-bit library has been
95 built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 32-bit
96 library has been built, this option causes an error.
97 </P>
98 <P>
99 <b>-32</b>
100 If both the 8-bit or the 16-bit, and the 32-bit libraries have been built, this
101 option causes the 32-bit library to be used. If only the 32-bit library has been
102 built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 16-bit
103 library has been built, this option causes an error.
104 </P>
105 <P>
106 <b>-b</b>
107 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/B</b> (show byte code) modifier; the
108 internal form is output after compilation.
109 </P>
110 <P>
111 <b>-C</b>
112 Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
113 about the optional features that are included, and then exit with zero exit
114 code. All other options are ignored.
115 </P>
116 <P>
117 <b>-C</b> <i>option</i>
118 Output information about a specific build-time option, then exit. This
119 functionality is intended for use in scripts such as <b>RunTest</b>. The
120 following options output the value and set the exit code as indicated:
121 <pre>
122 ebcdic-nl the code for LF (= NL) in an EBCDIC environment:
123 0x15 or 0x25
124 0 if used in an ASCII environment
125 exit code is always 0
126 linksize the configured internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
127 exit code is set to the link size
128 newline the default newline setting:
130 exit code is always 0
131 </pre>
132 The following options output 1 for true or 0 for false, and set the exit code
133 to the same value:
134 <pre>
135 ebcdic compiled for an EBCDIC environment
136 jit just-in-time support is available
137 pcre16 the 16-bit library was built
138 pcre32 the 32-bit library was built
139 pcre8 the 8-bit library was built
140 ucp Unicode property support is available
141 utf UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 and/or UTF-32 support
142 is available
143 </pre>
144 If an unknown option is given, an error message is output; the exit code is 0.
145 </P>
146 <P>
147 <b>-d</b>
148 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
149 form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
150 <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
151 </P>
152 <P>
153 <b>-dfa</b>
154 Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
155 alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead
156 of the standard <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
157 </P>
158 <P>
159 <b>-help</b>
160 Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
161 </P>
162 <P>
163 <b>-i</b>
164 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
165 compiled pattern is given after compilation.
166 </P>
167 <P>
168 <b>-M</b>
169 Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes
170 PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
171 calling <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.
172 </P>
173 <P>
174 <b>-m</b>
175 Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
176 equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. The size is given in
177 bytes for both libraries.
178 </P>
179 <P>
180 <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
181 Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
182 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The
183 default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for
184 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or 22 different matches for
185 <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>.
186 The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by including \O
187 in the data line (see below).
188 </P>
189 <P>
190 <b>-p</b>
191 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
192 used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
193 set. This option can be used only with the 8-bit library.
194 </P>
195 <P>
196 <b>-q</b>
197 Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
198 </P>
199 <P>
200 <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
201 On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to <i>size</i>
202 megabytes.
203 </P>
204 <P>
205 <b>-s</b> or <b>-s+</b>
206 Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/S</b> modifier; in other words, force each
207 pattern to be studied. If <b>-s+</b> is used, all the JIT compile options are
208 passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b>, causing just-in-time optimization to be set
209 up if it is available, for both full and partial matching. Specific JIT compile
210 options can be selected by following <b>-s+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to
211 7, which selects the JIT compile modes as follows:
212 <pre>
213 1 normal match only
214 2 soft partial match only
215 3 normal match and soft partial match
216 4 hard partial match only
217 6 soft and hard partial match
218 7 all three modes (default)
219 </pre>
220 If <b>-s++</b> is used instead of <b>-s+</b> (with or without a following digit),
221 the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
222 when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
223 <br>
224 <br>
225 Note that there are pattern options that can override <b>-s</b>, either
226 specifying no studying at all, or suppressing JIT compilation.
227 <br>
228 <br>
229 If the <b>/I</b> or <b>/D</b> option is present on a pattern (requesting output
230 about the compiled pattern), information about the result of studying is not
231 included when studying is caused only by <b>-s</b> and neither <b>-i</b> nor
232 <b>-d</b> is present on the command line. This behaviour means that the output
233 from tests that are run with and without <b>-s</b> should be identical, except
234 when options that output information about the actual running of a match are
235 set.
236 <br>
237 <br>
238 The <b>-M</b>, <b>-t</b>, and <b>-tm</b> options, which give information about
239 resources used, are likely to produce different output with and without
240 <b>-s</b>. Output may also differ if the <b>/C</b> option is present on an
241 individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process, and
242 this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the pattern
243 contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same reason. The
244 <b>-s</b> command line option can be overridden for specific patterns that
245 should never be studied (see the <b>/S</b> pattern modifier below).
246 </P>
247 <P>
248 <b>-t</b>
249 Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
250 resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
251 <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
252 timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
253 used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
254 command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
255 to iterate 500000 times.
256 </P>
257 <P>
258 <b>-tm</b>
259 This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
260 compile or study phases.
261 </P>
262 <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
263 <P>
264 If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
265 writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
266 that file and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to
267 stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re&#62;" to prompt for regular
268 expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.
269 </P>
270 <P>
271 When <b>pcretest</b> is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
272 be linked with the <b>libreadline</b> library. When this is done, if the input
273 is from a terminal, it is read using the <b>readline()</b> function. This
274 provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the <b>-help</b>
275 option states whether or not <b>readline()</b> will be used.
276 </P>
277 <P>
278 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
279 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
280 lines to be matched against the pattern.
281 </P>
282 <P>
283 Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
284 multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
285 etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
286 newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
287 buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
288 </P>
289 <P>
290 An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
291 expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
292 non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
293 <pre>
294 /(a|bc)x+yz/
295 </pre>
296 White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may
297 be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are
298 included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern
299 by escaping it, for example
300 <pre>
301 /abc\/def/
302 </pre>
303 If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since
304 delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect its interpretation.
305 If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for
306 example,
307 <pre>
308 /abc/\
309 </pre>
310 then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a
311 way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a
312 backslash, because
313 <pre>
314 /abc\/
315 </pre>
316 is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
317 pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
318 </P>
319 <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
320 <P>
321 A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
322 characters, though some of these can be qualified by further characters.
323 Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example, "the
324 <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not always be
325 a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may appear
326 between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between the
327 modifiers themselves. For reference, here is a complete list of modifiers. They
328 fall into several groups that are described in detail in the following
329 sections.
330 <pre>
331 <b>/8</b> set UTF mode
332 <b>/?</b> disable UTF validity check
333 <b>/+</b> show remainder of subject after match
334 <b>/=</b> show all captures (not just those that are set)
336 <b>/A</b> set PCRE_ANCHORED
337 <b>/B</b> show compiled code
338 <b>/C</b> set PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
339 <b>/D</b> same as <b>/B</b> plus <b>/I</b>
340 <b>/E</b> set PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
341 <b>/F</b> flip byte order in compiled pattern
342 <b>/f</b> set PCRE_FIRSTLINE
343 <b>/G</b> find all matches (shorten string)
344 <b>/g</b> find all matches (use startoffset)
345 <b>/I</b> show information about pattern
346 <b>/i</b> set PCRE_CASELESS
347 <b>/J</b> set PCRE_DUPNAMES
348 <b>/K</b> show backtracking control names
349 <b>/L</b> set locale
350 <b>/M</b> show compiled memory size
351 <b>/m</b> set PCRE_MULTILINE
352 <b>/N</b> set PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
353 <b>/P</b> use the POSIX wrapper
354 <b>/S</b> study the pattern after compilation
355 <b>/s</b> set PCRE_DOTALL
356 <b>/T</b> select character tables
357 <b>/U</b> set PCRE_UNGREEDY
358 <b>/W</b> set PCRE_UCP
359 <b>/X</b> set PCRE_EXTRA
360 <b>/x</b> set PCRE_EXTENDED
361 <b>/Y</b> set PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
362 <b>/Z</b> don't show lengths in <b>/B</b> output
364 <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
365 <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
366 <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
367 <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
368 <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b> set PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
369 <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b> set PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
370 <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b> set PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
371 <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b> set PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
373 </PRE>
374 </P>
375 <br><b>
376 Perl-compatible modifiers
377 </b><br>
378 <P>
379 The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
380 PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
381 <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
382 effect as they do in Perl. For example:
383 <pre>
384 /caseless/i
386 </PRE>
387 </P>
388 <br><b>
389 Modifiers for other PCRE options
390 </b><br>
391 <P>
392 The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
393 options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
394 <pre>
395 <b>/8</b> PCRE_UTF8 ) when using the 8-bit
396 <b>/?</b> PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK ) library
398 <b>/8</b> PCRE_UTF16 ) when using the 16-bit
399 <b>/?</b> PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK ) library
401 <b>/8</b> PCRE_UTF32 ) when using the 32-bit
402 <b>/?</b> PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK ) library
404 <b>/A</b> PCRE_ANCHORED
407 <b>/f</b> PCRE_FIRSTLINE
408 <b>/J</b> PCRE_DUPNAMES
410 <b>/U</b> PCRE_UNGREEDY
411 <b>/W</b> PCRE_UCP
412 <b>/X</b> PCRE_EXTRA
414 <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
415 <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
416 <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
417 <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
418 <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b> PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
419 <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b> PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
420 <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b> PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
421 <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b> PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
422 </pre>
423 The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
424 including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
425 This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
426 <pre>
427 /^abc/m&#60;CRLF&#62;
428 </pre>
429 As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16/32 option, the <b>/8</b> modifier causes
430 all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
431 \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex without
432 the curly brackets.
433 </P>
434 <P>
435 Full details of the PCRE options are given in the
436 <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
437 documentation.
438 </P>
439 <br><b>
440 Finding all matches in a string
441 </b><br>
442 <P>
443 Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
444 by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
445 again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
446 <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to
447 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire
448 string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a
449 shortened substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the
450 pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).
451 </P>
452 <P>
453 If any call to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches
454 an empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
455 PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
456 same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
457 normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
458 using the <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function. Normally, the start
459 offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
460 CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
461 of two is used.
462 </P>
463 <br><b>
464 Other modifiers
465 </b><br>
466 <P>
467 There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
468 operates.
469 </P>
470 <P>
471 The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
472 matched the entire pattern, <b>pcretest</b> should in addition output the
473 remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
474 contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the <b>+</b> modifier appears
475 twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
476 remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
477 capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
478 modifier because /S+ and /S++ have other meanings.
479 </P>
480 <P>
481 The <b>/=</b> modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
482 parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up to the highest
483 one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the return code
484 from <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>). Values in the offsets vector corresponding to
485 higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as "&#60;unset&#62;". This
486 modifier gives a way of checking that this is happening.
487 </P>
488 <P>
489 The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
490 output a representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally this
491 information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is also
492 present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in
493 the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated for
494 different internal link sizes.
495 </P>
496 <P>
497 The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
498 <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the <b>/B</b> and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
499 </P>
500 <P>
501 The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
502 2-byte and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
503 the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were compiled on a
504 host with a different endianness. This feature is not available when the POSIX
505 interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
506 specified. See also the section about saving and reloading compiled patterns
507 below.
508 </P>
509 <P>
510 The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
511 compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
512 so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre[16|32]_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
513 pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
514 </P>
515 <P>
516 The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking
517 control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>. It causes
518 <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre[16|32]_extra</b> block if one has not already
519 been created by a call to <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b>, and to set the
520 PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that
521 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> is called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field
522 points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b>
523 prints the string to which it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by
524 itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
525 </P>
526 <P>
527 The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
528 example,
529 <pre>
530 /pattern/Lfr_FR
531 </pre>
532 For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
533 <b>pcre[16|32]_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for
534 the locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b> when compiling
535 the regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> (or <b>/T</b>) modifier, NULL is
536 passed as the tables pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression
537 on which it appears.
538 </P>
539 <P>
540 The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to hold
541 the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the
542 <b>pcre[16|32]</b> block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is
543 successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the
544 JIT compiled code is also output.
545 </P>
546 <P>
547 The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> to be called after the
548 expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
549 matched. There are a number of qualifying characters that may follow <b>/S</b>.
550 They may appear in any order.
551 </P>
552 <P>
553 If <b>S</b> is followed by an exclamation mark, <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> is called
554 with the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to return a
555 <b>pcre_extra</b> block, even when studying discovers no useful information.
556 </P>
557 <P>
558 If <b>/S</b> is followed by a second S character, it suppresses studying, even
559 if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line option. This makes
560 it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
561 never studied, independently of <b>-s</b>. This feature is used in the test
562 files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
563 </P>
564 <P>
565 If the <b>/S</b> modifier is followed by a + character, the call to
566 <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> is made with all the JIT study options, requesting
567 just-in-time optimization support if it is available, for both normal and
568 partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling modes, you can
569 follow <b>/S+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
570 <pre>
571 1 normal match only
572 2 soft partial match only
573 3 normal match and soft partial match
574 4 hard partial match only
575 6 soft and hard partial match
576 7 all three modes (default)
577 </pre>
578 If <b>/S++</b> is used instead of <b>/S+</b> (with or without a following digit),
579 the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
580 when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
581 </P>
582 <P>
583 Note that there is also an independent <b>/+</b> modifier; it must not be given
584 immediately after <b>/S</b> or <b>/S+</b> because this will be misinterpreted.
585 </P>
586 <P>
587 If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically be used
588 when <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> is run, except when incompatible run-time options
589 are specified. For more details, see the
590 <a href="pcrejit.html"><b>pcrejit</b></a>
591 documentation. See also the <b>\J</b> escape sequence below for a way of
592 setting the size of the JIT stack.
593 </P>
594 <P>
595 Finally, if <b>/S</b> is followed by a minus character, JIT compilation is
596 suppressed, even if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line
597 option. This makes it possible to specify that JIT is never to be used for
598 certain patterns.
599 </P>
600 <P>
601 The <b>/T</b> modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
602 set of built-in character tables to be passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b>. It
603 is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
604 tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
605 <pre>
606 0 the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
607 pcre_chartables.c.dist
608 1 a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
609 </pre>
610 In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
611 letters, digits, spaces, etc.
612 </P>
613 <br><b>
614 Using the POSIX wrapper API
615 </b><br>
616 <P>
617 The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
618 API rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When
619 <b>/P</b> is set, the following modifiers set options for the <b>regcomp()</b>
620 function:
621 <pre>
622 /i REG_ICASE
625 /s REG_DOTALL )
626 /U REG_UNGREEDY ) These options are not part of
627 /W REG_UCP ) the POSIX standard
628 /8 REG_UTF8 )
629 </pre>
630 The <b>/+</b> modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
631 ignored.
632 </P>
633 <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
634 <P>
635 Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
636 white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these
637 are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
638 complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
639 expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
640 recognized:
641 <pre>
642 \a alarm (BEL, \x07)
643 \b backspace (\x08)
644 \e escape (\x27)
645 \f form feed (\x0c)
646 \n newline (\x0a)
647 \qdd set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
648 \r carriage return (\x0d)
649 \t tab (\x09)
650 \v vertical tab (\x0b)
651 \nnn octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
652 a byte unless &#62; 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit or 32-bit mode
653 \xhh hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
654 \x{hh...} hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
655 \A pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
656 \B pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
657 \Cdd call pcre[16|32]_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
658 \Cname call pcre[16|32]_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
659 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
660 \C+ show the current captured substrings at callout time
661 \C- do not supply a callout function
662 \C!n return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
663 \C!n!m return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
664 \C*n pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
665 \D use the <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b> match function
666 \F only shortest match for <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
667 \Gdd call pcre[16|32]_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
668 \Gname call pcre[16|32]_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
669 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
670 \Jdd set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any number of digits)
671 \L call pcre[16|32]_get_substringlist() after a successful match
672 \M discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
673 \N pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
675 \Odd set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
676 \P pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
678 \Qdd set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
679 \R pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
680 \S output details of memory get/free calls during matching
681 \Y pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
682 \Z pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
683 \? pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16|32]_CHECK option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
684 \&#62;dd start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then any number of digits); this sets the <i>startoffset</i>
685 argument for <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
686 \&#60;cr&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
687 \&#60;lf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
688 \&#60;crlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
689 \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
690 \&#60;any&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
691 </pre>
692 The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the <b>/8</b> modifier on
693 the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexadecimal
694 digits inside the braces; invalid values provoke error messages.
695 </P>
696 <P>
697 Note that \xhh specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8 mode;
698 this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing
699 purposes. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
700 UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127.
701 When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \x{hh} generates one byte
702 for values less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
703 </P>
704 <P>
705 In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
706 possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
707 </P>
708 <P>
709 In UTF-32 mode, all 4- to 8-digit \x{...} values are accepted. This makes it
710 possible to construct invalid UTF-32 sequences for testing purposes.
711 </P>
712 <P>
713 The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
714 shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
715 </P>
716 <P>
717 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
718 the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
719 passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
720 input.
721 </P>
722 <P>
723 The <b>\J</b> escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
724 used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
725 is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
726 necessary only for very complicated patterns.
727 </P>
728 <P>
729 If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> several times,
730 with different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
731 fields of the <b>pcre[16|32]_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
732 numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to complete without
733 error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
734 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might
735 have been set up by the <b>/S+</b> qualifier of <b>-s+</b> option is disabled.
736 </P>
737 <P>
738 The <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
739 that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
740 matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
741 matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
742 of subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how
743 much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
744 needed to complete the match attempt.
745 </P>
746 <P>
747 When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
748 by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
749 the call of <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
750 </P>
751 <P>
752 If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
753 API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B,
754 \N, and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
755 to be passed to <b>regexec()</b>.
756 </P>
757 <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
758 <P>
759 By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
760 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to match each data line. PCRE also supports an
761 alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
762 different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
763 functions are described in the
764 <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
765 documentation.
766 </P>
767 <P>
768 If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
769 contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is used.
770 This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
771 escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
772 found. This is always the shortest possible match.
773 </P>
774 <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
775 <P>
776 This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
777 <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, is being used.
778 </P>
779 <P>
780 When a match succeeds, <b>pcretest</b> outputs the list of captured substrings
781 that <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
782 matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
783 PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
784 substring when <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that
785 this is the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it
786 may include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
787 \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other return, <b>pcretest</b> outputs
788 the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
789 a failed UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
790 the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the output vector is
791 at least two. Here is an example of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
792 <pre>
793 $ pcretest
794 PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
796 re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
797 data&#62; abc123
798 0: abc123
799 1: 123
800 data&#62; xyz
801 No match
802 </pre>
803 Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
804 returned by <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In the
805 following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
806 line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
807 substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.
808 <pre>
809 re&#62; /(a)|(b)/
810 data&#62; a
811 0: a
812 1: a
813 data&#62; b
814 0: b
815 1: &#60;unset&#62;
816 2: b
817 </pre>
818 If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \xhh
819 escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set. Otherwise they
820 are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the definition of non-printing
821 characters. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring
822 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
823 this:
824 <pre>
825 re&#62; /cat/+
826 data&#62; cataract
827 0: cat
828 0+ aract
829 </pre>
830 If the pattern has the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier, the results of successive
831 matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
832 <pre>
833 re&#62; /\Bi(\w\w)/g
834 data&#62; Mississippi
835 0: iss
836 1: ss
837 0: iss
838 1: ss
839 0: ipp
840 1: pp
841 </pre>
842 "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
843 of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \&#62;4 is past the end of
844 the subject string):
845 <pre>
846 re&#62; /xyz/
847 data&#62; xyz\&#62;4
848 Error -24 (bad offset value)
849 </PRE>
850 </P>
851 <P>
852 If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a
853 data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the
854 convenience functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number
855 instead of a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string
856 length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in
857 parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
858 </P>
859 <P>
860 Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
861 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
862 included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
863 the newline sequence setting).
864 </P>
866 <P>
867 When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
868 means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
869 output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
870 the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
871 <pre>
872 re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
873 data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
874 0: tangerine
875 1: tang
876 2: tan
877 </pre>
878 (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
879 longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
880 PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
881 partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
882 inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
883 match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
884 </P>
885 <P>
886 If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
887 at the end of the longest match. For example:
888 <pre>
889 re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
890 data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
891 0: tangerine
892 1: tang
893 2: tan
894 0: tang
895 1: tan
896 0: tan
897 </pre>
898 Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
899 sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
900 </P>
901 <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
902 <P>
903 When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
904 indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
905 match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
906 example:
907 <pre>
908 re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
909 data&#62; 23ja\P\D
910 Partial match: 23ja
911 data&#62; n05\R\D
912 0: n05
913 </pre>
914 For further information about partial matching, see the
915 <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
916 documentation.
917 </P>
918 <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
919 <P>
920 If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
921 is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
922 the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
923 positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
924 tested. For example:
925 <pre>
926 ---&#62;pqrabcdef
927 0 ^ ^ \d
928 </pre>
929 This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt
930 starting at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
931 the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just
932 one circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
933 </P>
934 <P>
935 Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
936 result of the <b>/C</b> pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the
937 callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is output. For
938 example:
939 <pre>
940 re&#62; /\d?[A-E]\*/C
941 data&#62; E*
942 ---&#62;E*
943 +0 ^ \d?
944 +3 ^ [A-E]
945 +8 ^^ \*
946 +10 ^ ^
947 0: E*
948 </pre>
949 If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
950 a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
951 <pre>
952 re&#62; /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
953 data&#62; abc
954 ---&#62;abc
955 +0 ^ a
956 +1 ^^ (*MARK:X)
957 +10 ^^ b
958 Latest Mark: X
959 +11 ^ ^ c
960 +12 ^ ^
961 0: abc
962 </pre>
963 The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
964 of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
965 mark reverts to being unset, the text "&#60;unset&#62;" is output.
966 </P>
967 <P>
968 The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
969 default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
970 change this and other parameters of the callout.
971 </P>
972 <P>
973 Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
974 complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
975 the
976 <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
977 documentation.
978 </P>
979 <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
980 <P>
981 When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
982 bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
983 therefore shown as hex escapes.
984 </P>
985 <P>
986 When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
987 string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
988 the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
989 function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
990 </P>
991 <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
992 <P>
993 The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
994 interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
995 specified.
996 </P>
997 <P>
998 When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause <b>pcretest</b> to write a
999 compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with &#62; and a file name.
1000 For example:
1001 <pre>
1002 /pattern/im &#62;/some/file
1003 </pre>
1004 See the
1005 <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
1006 documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
1007 Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
1008 JIT data cannot be saved.
1009 </P>
1010 <P>
1011 The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
1012 compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
1013 written as four bytes in big-endian order (most significant byte first). If
1014 there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
1015 return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
1016 exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
1017 (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
1018 writing the file, <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
1019 </P>
1020 <P>
1021 A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifying &#60; and a file
1022 name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
1023 as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
1024 characters.
1025 For example:
1026 <pre>
1027 re&#62; &#60;/some/file
1028 Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
1029 No study data
1030 </pre>
1031 If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
1032 information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
1033 been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
1034 </P>
1035 <P>
1036 You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
1037 there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
1038 pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
1039 a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a host with different
1040 endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
1041 <pre>
1042 Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
1043 </pre>
1044 The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
1045 endianness. These are reloaded using "&#60;!" instead of just "&#60;". This suppresses
1046 the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on all hosts. It also
1047 forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.
1048 </P>
1049 <P>
1050 File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
1051 the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not
1052 available.
1053 </P>
1054 <P>
1055 The ability to save and reload files in <b>pcretest</b> is intended for testing
1056 and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because only a
1057 single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is no facility for
1058 supplying custom character tables for use with a reloaded pattern. If the
1059 original pattern was compiled with custom tables, an attempt to match a subject
1060 string using a reloaded pattern is likely to cause <b>pcretest</b> to crash.
1061 Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
1062 result is undefined.
1063 </P>
1064 <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
1065 <P>
1066 <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcre16</b>(3), <b>pcre32</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3),
1067 <b>pcrecallout</b>(3),
1068 <b>pcrejit</b>, <b>pcrematching</b>(3), <b>pcrepartial</b>(d),
1069 <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
1070 </P>
1071 <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
1072 <P>
1073 Philip Hazel
1074 <br>
1075 University Computing Service
1076 <br>
1077 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
1078 <br>
1079 </P>
1080 <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
1081 <P>
1082 Last updated: 22 February 2013
1083 <br>
1084 Copyright &copy; 1997-2013 University of Cambridge.
1085 <br>
1086 <p>
1087 Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
1088 </p>


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