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3  <title>pcretest specification</title>  <title>pcretest specification</title>
4  </head>  </head>
5  <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">  <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">
6  This HTML document has been generated automatically from the original man page.  <h1>pcretest man page</h1>
7  If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the man page, in case the  <p>
8  conversion went wrong.<br>  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
9    </p>
10    <p>
11    This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically
12    from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the
13    man page, in case the conversion went wrong.
14    <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
24    <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
25    <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">CALLOUTS</a>
26    <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
27    <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
28    <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SEE ALSO</a>
29    <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">AUTHOR</a>
30    <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">REVISION</a>
31  </ul>  </ul>
32  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
33  <P>  <P>
34  <b>pcretest [-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source] [destination]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [source] [destination]</b>
35  </P>  <br>
36  <P>  <br>
37  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
38  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
39  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
40  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the
41  <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>  <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
42  documentation. For details of PCRE and its options, see the  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
43    options, see the
44  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
45  documentation.  documentation.
46  </P>  </P>
47  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>
48  <P>  <P>
49    <b>-b</b>
50    Behave as if each regex has the <b>/B</b> (show bytecode) modifier; the internal
51    form is output after compilation.
52    </P>
53    <P>
54  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
55  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
56  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
57  </P>  </P>
58  <P>  <P>
59  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
60  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/D</b> modifier (see below); the internal  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
61  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
62    <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
63    </P>
64    <P>
65    <b>-dfa</b>
66    Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
67    alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of the
68    standard <b>pcre_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
69    </P>
70    <P>
71    <b>-help</b>
72    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
73  </P>  </P>
74  <P>  <P>
75  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
76  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
77  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
78  </P>  </P>
79  <P>  <P>
80    <b>-M</b>
81    Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes
82    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
83    calling <b>pcre_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.
84    </P>
85    <P>
86  <b>-m</b>  <b>-m</b>
87  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
88  equivalent to adding /M to each regular expression. For compatibility with  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility
89  earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.
90  </P>  </P>
91  <P>  <P>
92  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
93  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling PCRE  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
94  to be <i>osize</i>. The default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value
95  subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or
96  including \O in the data line (see below).  22 different matches for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>. The vector size can be
97    changed for individual matching calls by including \O in the data line (see
98    below).
99  </P>  </P>
100  <P>  <P>
101  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
102  Behave as if each regex has <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
103  to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is set.  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
104    set.
105    </P>
106    <P>
107    <b>-q</b>
108    Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
109    </P>
110    <P>
111    <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
112    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to <i>size</i>
113    megabytes.
114  </P>  </P>
115  <P>  <P>
116  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
117  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
118  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-t</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
119  <b>-m</b>, because you will then get the size output 20000 times and the timing  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
120  will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
121    used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
122    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
123    to iterate 500000 times.
124    </P>
125    <P>
126    <b>-tm</b>
127    This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
128    compile or study phases.
129  </P>  </P>
130  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
131  <P>  <P>
# Line 80  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp Line 136  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp
136  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.
137  </P>  </P>
138  <P>  <P>
139    When <b>pcretest</b> is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
140    be linked with the <b>libreadline</b> library. When this is done, if the input
141    is from a terminal, it is read using the <b>readline()</b> function. This
142    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the <b>-help</b>
143    option states whether or not <b>readline()</b> will be used.
144    </P>
145    <P>
146  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
147  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
148  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
149  </P>  </P>
150  <P>  <P>
151  Each line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
152  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
153  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
154  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
155    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
156  </P>  </P>
157  <P>  <P>
158  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
159  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
160  non-alphameric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
 </P>  
 <P>  
161  <pre>  <pre>
162    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
163  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
164  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may
165  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are
166  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern
167  by escaping it, for example  by escaping it, for example
 </P>  
 <P>  
168  <pre>  <pre>
169    /abc\/def/    /abc\/def/
170  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
171  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since
172  delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect its interpretation.
173  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for
174  example,  example,
 </P>  
 <P>  
175  <pre>  <pre>
176    /abc/\    /abc/\
177  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
178  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a
179  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a
180  backslash, because  backslash, because
 </P>  
 <P>  
181  <pre>  <pre>
182    /abc\/    /abc\/
183  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
184  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
185  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
186  </P>  </P>
187  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
188  <P>  <P>
189  The pattern may be followed by <b>i</b>, <b>m</b>, <b>s</b>, or <b>x</b> to set the  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
190  PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
191  respectively. For example:  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
192    always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may
193    appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
194    the modifiers themselves.
195  </P>  </P>
196  <P>  <P>
197    The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
198    PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
199    <b>pcre_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
200    effect as they do in Perl. For example:
201  <pre>  <pre>
202    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
203  </PRE>  </pre>
204  </P>  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do
205  <P>  not correspond to anything in Perl:
206  These modifier letters have the same effect as they do in Perl. There are  <pre>
207  others which set PCRE options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:    <b>/A</b>              PCRE_ANCHORED
208  <b>/A</b>, <b>/E</b>, and <b>/X</b> set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and    <b>/C</b>              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
209  PCRE_EXTRA respectively.    <b>/E</b>              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
210      <b>/f</b>              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
211      <b>/J</b>              PCRE_DUPNAMES
212      <b>/N</b>              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
213      <b>/U</b>              PCRE_UNGREEDY
214      <b>/X</b>              PCRE_EXTRA
215      <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
216      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
217      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
218      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
219      <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
220      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
221      <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
222      <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
223    </pre>
224    Those specifying line ending sequences are literal strings as shown, but the
225    letters can be in either case. This example sets multiline matching with CRLF
226    as the line ending sequence:
227    <pre>
228      /^abc/m&#60;crlf&#62;
229    </pre>
230    Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the
231    <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
232    documentation.
233  </P>  </P>
234    <br><b>
235    Finding all matches in a string
236    </b><br>
237  <P>  <P>
238  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
239  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
# Line 165  begins with a lookbehind assertion (incl Line 246  begins with a lookbehind assertion (incl
246  </P>  </P>
247  <P>  <P>
248  If any call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches an  If any call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches an
249  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
250  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
251  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one
252  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  character, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles
253  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.  such cases when using the <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.
254  </P>  </P>
255    <br><b>
256    Other modifiers
257    </b><br>
258  <P>  <P>
259  There are a number of other modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
260  operates.  operates.
261  </P>  </P>
262  <P>  <P>
263    The <b>/8</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8
264    option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,
265    provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also
266    causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
267    \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.
268    </P>
269    <P>
270    If the <b>/?</b> modifier is used with <b>/8</b>, it causes <b>pcretest</b> to
271    call <b>pcre_compile()</b> with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the
272    checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.
273    </P>
274    <P>
275  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
276  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of
277  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains
278  multiple copies of the same substring.  multiple copies of the same substring.
279  </P>  </P>
280  <P>  <P>
281  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
282  example,  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally
283    this information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is
284    also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for
285    use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated
286    for different internal link sizes.
287    </P>
288    <P>
289    The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
290    <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the <b>/B</b> and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
291    </P>
292    <P>
293    The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
294    fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This
295    facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns
296    that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not
297    available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
298    <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
299    reloading compiled patterns below.
300  </P>  </P>
301  <P>  <P>
302  <pre>  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
303    /pattern/Lfr  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
304  </PRE>  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
305    pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
306    </P>
307    <P>
308    The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking
309    control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre_exec()</b>. It causes
310    <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre_extra</b> block if one has not already been
311    created by a call to <b>pcre_study()</b>, and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag
312    and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that <b>pcre_exec()</b> is
313    called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field points to is non-NULL for a
314    match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b> prints the string to which
315    it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".
316    For a non-match it is added to the message.
317  </P>  </P>
318  <P>  <P>
319  For this reason, it must be the last modifier letter. The given locale is set,  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
320    example,
321    <pre>
322      /pattern/Lfr_FR
323    </pre>
324    For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
325  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the
326  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the
327  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables
328  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression on which it appears.  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression on which it appears.
329  </P>  </P>
330  <P>  <P>
 The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the  
 compiled expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  
 so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling an  
 expression, and outputting the information it gets back. If the pattern is  
 studied, the results of that are also output.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes <b>/I</b>.  
 It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  
 compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  
 output.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the  
 expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  
 matched.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
331  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled
332  pattern to be output.  pattern to be output.
333  </P>  </P>
# Line 227  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if <b>/m Line 339  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if <b>/m
339  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.
340  </P>  </P>
341  <P>  <P>
342  The <b>/8</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the
343  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
344  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also  matched.
 causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the  
 \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.  
 </P>  
 <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  
 <P>  
 If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  
 will be called. By default, it displays the callout number, and the start and  
 current positions in the text at the callout time. For example, the output  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 <pre>  
   ---&#62;pqrabcdef  
     0    ^  ^  
 </PRE>  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  
 fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  
 character. The callout function returns zero (carry on matching) by default.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 Inserting callouts may be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check  
 complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see  
 the  
 <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  
 documentation.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 For testing the PCRE library, additional control of callout behaviour is  
 available via escape sequences in the data, as described in the following  
 section. In particular, it is possible to pass in a number as callout data (the  
 default is zero). If the callout function receives a non-zero number, it  
 returns that value instead of zero.  
345  </P>  </P>
346  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
347  <P>  <P>
348  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
349  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are
# Line 272  pretty esoteric features, intended for c Line 351  pretty esoteric features, intended for c
351  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
352  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
353  recognized:  recognized:
 </P>  
 <P>  
354  <pre>  <pre>
355    \a         alarm (= BEL)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
356    \b         backspace    \b         backspace (\x08)
357    \e         escape    \e         escape (\x27)
358    \f         formfeed    \f         formfeed (\x0c)
359    \n         newline    \n         newline (\x0a)
360    \r         carriage return    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
361    \t         tab    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
362    \v         vertical tab    \t         tab (\x09)
363      \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
364    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
365    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
366    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode
367                 in UTF-8 mode    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
368    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
369    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
370    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
                after a successful match (any decimal number  
                less than 32)  
   \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring  
                "name" after a successful match (name termin-  
371                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
372    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time
                time  
373    \C-        do not supply a callout function    \C-        do not supply a callout function
374    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
375                 reached    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
376    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
377                 reached for the nth time    \D         use the <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> match function
378    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
379                 data    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
380    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
                after a successful match (any decimal number  
                less than 32)  
   \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring  
                "name" after a successful match (name termin-  
381                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
382    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match
383                 successful match    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
384    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
385    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>                 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
386    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
387                 <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of decimal    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
388                 digits)                 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
389    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
390  </PRE>    \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
391      \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
392      \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
393      \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
394      \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
395      \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);
396                   this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
397      \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
398      \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
399      \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
400      \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
401      \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
402    </pre>
403    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
404    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
405    </P>
406    <P>
407    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
408    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
409    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
410    input.
411  </P>  </P>
412  <P>  <P>
413  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with
414  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> field of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
415  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  fields of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
416  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. The
417  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes
418  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the
419  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
420  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of
421  </P>  subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how much
422  <P>  stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed
423  When \O is used, it may be higher or lower than the size set by the <b>-O</b>  to complete the match attempt.
424  option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b>  </P>
425  for the line in which it appears.  <P>
426  </P>  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
427  <P>  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
428  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
429  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  </P>
430  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  <P>
431  </P>  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
432  <P>  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B
433  If <b>/P</b> was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used,  and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to
434  only <b>\B</b>, and <b>\Z</b> have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL  <b>regexec()</b>.
 to be passed to <b>regexec()</b> respectively.  
435  </P>  </P>
436  <P>  <P>
437  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
438  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
439  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
440  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This
441    allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are
442    valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the
443    later rules in RFC 3629.
444    </P>
445    <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
446    <P>
447    By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
448    <b>pcre_exec()</b> to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
449    alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
450    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
451    functions are described in the
452    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
453    documentation.
454  </P>  </P>
 <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  
455  <P>  <P>
456  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
457  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is called.
458  the whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
459    escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
460    found. This is always the shortest possible match.
461  </P>  </P>
462    <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
463  <P>  <P>
464  <pre>  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
465    $ pcretest  <b>pcre_exec()</b>, is being used.
   PCRE version 4.00 08-Jan-2003  
 </PRE>  
466  </P>  </P>
467  <P>  <P>
468    When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that
469    <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched
470    the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
471    PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
472    substring when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. For any other
473    returns, it outputs the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example of an
474    interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
475  <pre>  <pre>
476      $ pcretest
477      PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
478    
479      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
480    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
481     0: abc123     0: abc123
482     1: 123     1: 123
483    data&#62; xyz    data&#62; xyz
484    No match    No match
485  </PRE>  </pre>
486  </P>  Note that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set
487  <P>  are not returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In
488    the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first
489    data line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal"
490    unset substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.
491    <pre>
492        re&#62; /(a)|(b)/
493      data&#62; a
494       0: a
495       1: a
496      data&#62; b
497       0: b
498       1: &#60;unset&#62;
499       2: b
500    </pre>
501  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x
502  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the
503  pattern. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, then the output for  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
504  substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by  pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
505  "0+" like this:  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
 </P>  
 <P>  
506  <pre>  <pre>
507      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
508    data&#62; cataract    data&#62; cataract
509     0: cat     0: cat
510     0+ aract     0+ aract
511  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
512  If the pattern has the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier, the results of successive  If the pattern has the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier, the results of successive
513  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
 </P>  
 <P>  
514  <pre>  <pre>
515      re&#62; /\Bi(\w\w)/g      re&#62; /\Bi(\w\w)/g
516    data&#62; Mississippi    data&#62; Mississippi
# Line 402  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 520  matching attempts are output in sequence
520     1: ss     1: ss
521     0: ipp     0: ipp
522     1: pp     1: pp
523  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
524  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.
525  </P>  </P>
526  <P>  <P>
# Line 416  length (that is, the return from the ext Line 532  length (that is, the return from the ext
532  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
533  </P>  </P>
534  <P>  <P>
535  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
536  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
537  included in data by means of the \n escape.  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
538    the newline sequence setting).
539  </P>  </P>
540  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
541  <P>  <P>
542  Philip Hazel &#60;ph10@cam.ac.uk&#62;  When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
543    means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
544    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
545    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
546    <pre>
547        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
548      data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
549       0: tangerine
550       1: tang
551       2: tan
552    </pre>
553    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
554    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
555    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
556    partially matching substring.
557    </P>
558    <P>
559    If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
560    at the end of the longest match. For example:
561    <pre>
562        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
563      data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
564       0: tangerine
565       1: tang
566       2: tan
567       0: tang
568       1: tan
569       0: tan
570    </pre>
571    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
572    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
573    </P>
574    <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
575    <P>
576    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
577    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
578    match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
579    example:
580    <pre>
581        re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
582      data&#62; 23ja\P\D
583      Partial match: 23ja
584      data&#62; n05\R\D
585       0: n05
586    </pre>
587    For further information about partial matching, see the
588    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
589    documentation.
590    </P>
591    <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
592    <P>
593    If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
594    is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
595    the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
596    positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
597    tested. For example, the output
598    <pre>
599      ---&#62;pqrabcdef
600        0    ^  ^     \d
601    </pre>
602    indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the
603    fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh
604    character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just one
605    circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
606    </P>
607    <P>
608    Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
609    result of the <b>/C</b> pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the
610    callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is output. For
611    example:
612    <pre>
613        re&#62; /\d?[A-E]\*/C
614      data&#62; E*
615      ---&#62;E*
616       +0 ^      \d?
617       +3 ^      [A-E]
618       +8 ^^     \*
619      +10 ^ ^
620       0: E*
621    </pre>
622    The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
623    default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
624    change this.
625    </P>
626    <P>
627    Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
628    complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
629    the
630    <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
631    documentation.
632    </P>
633    <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
634    <P>
635    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
636    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
637    therefore shown as hex escapes.
638    </P>
639    <P>
640    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
641    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
642    the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
643    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
644    </P>
645    <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
646    <P>
647    The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
648    inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
649    specified.
650    </P>
651    <P>
652    When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause <b>pcretest</b> to write a
653    compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with &#62; and a file name.
654    For example:
655    <pre>
656      /pattern/im &#62;/some/file
657    </pre>
658    See the
659    <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
660    documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
661    </P>
662    <P>
663    The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
664    compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
665    written as four bytes in big-endian order (most significant byte first). If
666    there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
667    return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
668    exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
669    follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,
670    <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
671    </P>
672    <P>
673    A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifing &#60; and a file
674    name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
675    as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
676    characters.
677    For example:
678    <pre>
679       re&#62; &#60;/some/file
680      Compiled regex loaded from /some/file
681      No study data
682    </pre>
683    When the pattern has been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in
684    the usual way.
685    </P>
686    <P>
687    You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
688    there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
689    pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
690    a SPARC machine.
691    </P>
692    <P>
693    File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
694    the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not
695    available.
696    </P>
697    <P>
698    The ability to save and reload files in <b>pcretest</b> is intended for testing
699    and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because only a
700    single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is no facility for
701    supplying custom character tables for use with a reloaded pattern. If the
702    original pattern was compiled with custom tables, an attempt to match a subject
703    string using a reloaded pattern is likely to cause <b>pcretest</b> to crash.
704    Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
705    result is undefined.
706    </P>
707    <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
708    <P>
709    <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3), <b>pcrematching</b>(3),
710    <b>pcrepartial</b>(d), <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
711    </P>
712    <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
713    <P>
714    Philip Hazel
715  <br>  <br>
716  University Computing Service,  University Computing Service
717    <br>
718    Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
719  <br>  <br>
 Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  
720  </P>  </P>
721    <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
722  <P>  <P>
723  Last updated: 03 February 2003  Last updated: 26 March 2010
724    <br>
725    Copyright &copy; 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
726  <br>  <br>
727  Copyright &copy; 1997-2003 University of Cambridge.  <p>
728    Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
729    </p>

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