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# Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr
14  <br>  <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">DESCRIPTION</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">DATA LINES</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
24  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
25  <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
26  <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">CALLOUTS</a>
27  <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>  <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
28  <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SEE ALSO</a>  <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
29  <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">SEE ALSO</a>
30  <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">REVISION</a>  <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">AUTHOR</a>
31    <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">REVISION</a>
32  </ul>  </ul>
33  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
34  <P>  <P>
35  <b>pcretest [options] [source] [destination]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]</b>
36  <br>  <br>
37  <br>  <br>
38  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
# Line 42  details of the regular expressions thems Line 43  details of the regular expressions thems
43  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
44  options, see the  options, see the
45  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
46  documentation.  and
47    <a href="pcre16.html"><b>pcre16</b></a>
48    documentation. The input for <b>pcretest</b> is a sequence of regular expression
49    patterns and strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the
50    result of each match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE
51    options and exactly what is output.
52    </P>
53    <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES</a><br>
54    <P>
55    From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The original one
56    supports 8-bit character strings, whereas the newer 16-bit library supports
57    character strings encoded in 16-bit units. The <b>pcretest</b> program can be
58    used to test both libraries. However, it is itself still an 8-bit program,
59    reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output. When testing the 16-bit library,
60    the patterns and data strings are converted to 16-bit format before being
61    passed to the PCRE library functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for
62    output.
63    </P>
64    <P>
65    References to functions and structures of the form <b>pcre[16]_xx</b> below
66    mean "<b>pcre_xx</b> when using the 8-bit library or <b>pcre16_xx</b> when using
67    the 16-bit library".
68    </P>
69    <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a><br>
70    <P>
71    <b>-16</b>
72    If both the 8-bit and the 16-bit libraries have been built, this option causes
73    the 16-bit library to be used. If only the 16-bit library has been built, this
74    is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit library has been built,
75    this option causes an error.
76  </P>  </P>
 <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  
77  <P>  <P>
78  <b>-b</b>  <b>-b</b>
79  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/B</b> (show bytecode) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/B</b> (show byte code) modifier; the
80  form is output after compilation.  internal form is output after compilation.
81  </P>  </P>
82  <P>  <P>
83  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
84  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
85  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit. All other options
86    are ignored.
87    </P>
88    <P>
89    <b>-C</b> <i>option</i>
90    Output information about a specific build-time option, then exit. This
91    functionality is intended for use in scripts such as <b>RunTest</b>. The
92    following options output the value indicated:
93    <pre>
94      linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
95      newline    the default newline setting:
96                   CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
97    </pre>
98    The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
99    <pre>
100      jit        just-in-time support is available
101      pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
102      pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
103      ucp        Unicode property support is available
104      utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 support is available
105    </PRE>
106  </P>  </P>
107  <P>  <P>
108  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
109  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
110  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
111  <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.  <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
112  </P>  </P>
113  <P>  <P>
114  <b>-dfa</b>  <b>-dfa</b>
115  Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the  Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
116  alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of the  alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of
117  standard <b>pcre_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).  the standard <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
118  </P>  </P>
119  <P>  <P>
120  <b>-help</b>  <b>-help</b>
# Line 73  Output a brief summary these options and Line 122  Output a brief summary these options and
122  </P>  </P>
123  <P>  <P>
124  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
125  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
126  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
127  </P>  </P>
128  <P>  <P>
129  <b>-M</b>  <b>-M</b>
130  Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes  Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes
131  PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by  PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
132  calling <b>pcre_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.  calling <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.
133  </P>  </P>
134  <P>  <P>
135  <b>-m</b>  <b>-m</b>
136  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
137  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. The size is given in
138  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.  bytes for both libraries.
139  </P>  </P>
140  <P>  <P>
141  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
142  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
143  <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The
144  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for
145  22 different matches for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>. The vector size can be  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or 22 different matches for <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>.
146  changed for individual matching calls by including \O in the data line (see  The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by including \O
147  below).  in the data line (see below).
148  </P>  </P>
149  <P>  <P>
150  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
151  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
152  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
153  set.  set. This option can be used only with the 8-bit library.
154  </P>  </P>
155  <P>  <P>
156  <b>-q</b>  <b>-q</b>
# Line 109  Do not output the version number of <b>p Line 158  Do not output the version number of <b>p
158  </P>  </P>
159  <P>  <P>
160  <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>  <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
161  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to <i>size</i>  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to <i>size</i>
162  megabytes.  megabytes.
163  </P>  </P>
164  <P>  <P>
165    <b>-s</b> or <b>-s+</b>
166    Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/S</b> modifier; in other words, force each
167    pattern to be studied. If <b>-s+</b> is used, the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is
168    passed to <b>pcre[16]_study()</b>, causing just-in-time optimization to be set
169    up if it is available. If the <b>/I</b> or <b>/D</b> option is present on a
170    pattern (requesting output about the compiled pattern), information about the
171    result of studying is not included when studying is caused only by <b>-s</b> and
172    neither <b>-i</b> nor <b>-d</b> is present on the command line. This behaviour
173    means that the output from tests that are run with and without <b>-s</b> should
174    be identical, except when options that output information about the actual
175    running of a match are set.
176    <br>
177    <br>
178    The <b>-M</b>, <b>-t</b>, and <b>-tm</b> options, which give information about
179    resources used, are likely to produce different output with and without
180    <b>-s</b>. Output may also differ if the <b>/C</b> option is present on an
181    individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process, and
182    this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the pattern
183    contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same reason. The
184    <b>-s</b> command line option can be overridden for specific patterns that
185    should never be studied (see the <b>/S</b> pattern modifier below).
186    </P>
187    <P>
188  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
189  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
190  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
# Line 127  to iterate 500000 times. Line 199  to iterate 500000 times.
199  This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the  This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
200  compile or study phases.  compile or study phases.
201  </P>  </P>
202  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
203  <P>  <P>
204  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
205  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
# Line 184  backslash, because Line 256  backslash, because
256  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
257  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
258  </P>  </P>
259  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
260  <P>  <P>
261  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
262  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
263  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
264  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may
265  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
266  the modifiers themselves.  the modifiers themselves.
267  </P>  </P>
268  <P>  <P>
269  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
270  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
271  <b>pcre_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same  <b>pcre[16]_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
272  effect as they do in Perl. For example:  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
273  <pre>  <pre>
274    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
275  </pre>  </pre>
276  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
277  not correspond to anything in Perl:  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
278  <pre>  <pre>
279      <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
280      <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
281    
282      <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
283      <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
284    
285    <b>/A</b>              PCRE_ANCHORED    <b>/A</b>              PCRE_ANCHORED
286    <b>/C</b>              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    <b>/C</b>              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
287    <b>/E</b>              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY    <b>/E</b>              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
# Line 211  not correspond to anything in Perl: Line 289  not correspond to anything in Perl:
289    <b>/J</b>              PCRE_DUPNAMES    <b>/J</b>              PCRE_DUPNAMES
290    <b>/N</b>              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    <b>/N</b>              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
291    <b>/U</b>              PCRE_UNGREEDY    <b>/U</b>              PCRE_UNGREEDY
292      <b>/W</b>              PCRE_UCP
293    <b>/X</b>              PCRE_EXTRA    <b>/X</b>              PCRE_EXTRA
294      <b>/Y</b>              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
295    <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT    <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
296    <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR    <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
297    <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF    <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
# Line 221  not correspond to anything in Perl: Line 301  not correspond to anything in Perl:
301    <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF    <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
302    <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE    <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
303  </pre>  </pre>
304  Those specifying line ending sequences are literal strings as shown, but the  The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
305  letters can be in either case. This example sets multiline matching with CRLF  including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
306  as the line ending sequence:  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
307  <pre>  <pre>
308    /^abc/m&#60;crlf&#62;    /^abc/m&#60;CRLF&#62;
309  </pre>  </pre>
310  Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the  As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16 option, the <b>/8</b> modifier causes
311    all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
312    \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex without
313    the curly brackets.
314    </P>
315    <P>
316    Full details of the PCRE options are given in the
317  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
318  documentation.  documentation.
319  </P>  </P>
# Line 239  Searching for all possible matches withi Line 325  Searching for all possible matches withi
325  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
326  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
327  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to
328  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire string  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire
329  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened  string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a
330  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern  shortened substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the
331  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).  pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).
332  </P>  </P>
333  <P>  <P>
334  If any call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches an  If any call to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches
335  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and  an empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
336  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
337  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
338  character, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
339  such cases when using the <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.  using the <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function. Normally, the start
340    offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
341    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
342    of two is used.
343  </P>  </P>
344  <br><b>  <br><b>
345  Other modifiers  Other modifiers
# Line 260  There are yet more modifiers for control Line 349  There are yet more modifiers for control
349  operates.  operates.
350  </P>  </P>
351  <P>  <P>
352  The <b>/8</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
353  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,  matched the entire pattern, <b>pcretest</b> should in addition output the
354  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also  remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
355  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the <b>+</b> modifier appears
356  \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.  twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
357    remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
358    capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
359    modifier because /S+ has another meaning.
360  </P>  </P>
361  <P>  <P>
362  If the <b>/?</b> modifier is used with <b>/8</b>, it causes <b>pcretest</b> to  The <b>/=</b> modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
363  call <b>pcre_compile()</b> with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up to the highest
364  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the return code
365  </P>  from <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>). Values in the offsets vector corresponding to
366  <P>  higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as "&#60;unset&#62;". This
367  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  modifier gives a way of checking that this is happening.
 matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  
 the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  
 multiple copies of the same substring.  
368  </P>  </P>
369  <P>  <P>
370  The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>  The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
371  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally  output a representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally this
372  this information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is  information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is also
373  also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for  present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in
374  use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated  the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated for
375  for different internal link sizes.  different internal link sizes.
376  </P>  </P>
377  <P>  <P>
378  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
# Line 291  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debuggi Line 380  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debuggi
380  </P>  </P>
381  <P>  <P>
382  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
383  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  2-byte and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
384  facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns  the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were compiled on a
385  that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not  host with a different endianness. This feature is not available when the POSIX
386  available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
387  <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  specified. See also the section about saving and reloading compiled patterns
388  reloading compiled patterns below.  below.
389  </P>  </P>
390  <P>  <P>
391  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
392  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
393  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre[16]_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
394  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
395  </P>  </P>
396  <P>  <P>
397  The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking  The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking
398  control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre_exec()</b>. It causes  control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>. It causes
399  <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre_extra</b> block if one has not already been  <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre[16]_extra</b> block if one has not already
400  created by a call to <b>pcre_study()</b>, and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag  been created by a call to <b>pcre[16]_study()</b>, and to set the
401  and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that <b>pcre_exec()</b> is  PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that
402  called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field points to is non-NULL for a  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> is called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field
403  match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b> prints the string to which  points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b>
404  it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  prints the string to which it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by
405  For a non-match it is added to the message.  itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
406  </P>  </P>
407  <P>  <P>
408  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
# Line 322  example, Line 411  example,
411    /pattern/Lfr_FR    /pattern/Lfr_FR
412  </pre>  </pre>
413  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
414  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the  <b>pcre[16]_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for
415  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the  the locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre[16]_compile()</b> when compiling
416  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  the regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> (or <b>/T</b>) modifier, NULL is
417  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression on which it appears.  passed as the tables pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression
418  </P>  on which it appears.
419  <P>  </P>
420  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  <P>
421  pattern to be output.  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to hold
422    the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the
423    <b>pcre[16]</b> block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is
424    successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the
425    JIT compiled code is also output.
426    </P>
427    <P>
428    If the <b>/S</b> modifier appears once, it causes <b>pcre[16]_study()</b> to be
429    called after the expression has been compiled, and the results used when the
430    expression is matched. If <b>/S</b> appears twice, it suppresses studying, even
431    if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line option. This makes
432    it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
433    never studied, independently of <b>-s</b>. This feature is used in the test
434    files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
435    </P>
436    <P>
437    If the <b>/S</b> modifier is immediately followed by a + character, the call to
438    <b>pcre[16]_study()</b> is made with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
439    requesting just-in-time optimization support if it is available. Note that
440    there is also a <b>/+</b> modifier; it must not be given immediately after
441    <b>/S</b> because this will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying is successful, it
442    will automatically be used when <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> is run, except when
443    incompatible run-time options are specified. These include the partial matching
444    options; a complete list is given in the
445    <a href="pcrejit.html"><b>pcrejit</b></a>
446    documentation. See also the <b>\J</b> escape sequence below for a way of
447    setting the size of the JIT stack.
448    </P>
449    <P>
450    The <b>/T</b> modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
451    set of built-in character tables to be passed to <b>pcre[16]_compile()</b>. It
452    is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
453    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
454    <pre>
455      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
456            pcre_chartables.c.dist
457      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
458    </pre>
459    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
460    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
461  </P>  </P>
462    <br><b>
463    Using the POSIX wrapper API
464    </b><br>
465  <P>  <P>
466  The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
467  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  API rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When
468  <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, and <b>/+</b> are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if <b>/i</b> is  <b>/P</b> is set, the following modifiers set options for the <b>regcomp()</b>
469  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if <b>/m</b> is present. The wrapper functions  function:
470  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  <pre>
471  </P>    /i    REG_ICASE
472  <P>    /m    REG_NEWLINE
473  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the    /N    REG_NOSUB
474  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is    /s    REG_DOTALL     )
475  matched.    /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
476  </P>    /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
477  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>    /8    REG_UTF8       )
478  <P>  </pre>
479  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing  The <b>/+</b> modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
480  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are  ignored.
481  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  </P>
482    <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
483    <P>
484    Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
485    white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these
486    are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
487  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
488  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
489  recognized:  recognized:
# Line 355  recognized: Line 491  recognized:
491    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
492    \b         backspace (\x08)    \b         backspace (\x08)
493    \e         escape (\x27)    \e         escape (\x27)
494    \f         formfeed (\x0c)    \f         form feed (\x0c)
495    \n         newline (\x0a)    \n         newline (\x0a)
496    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
497    \r         carriage return (\x0d)    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
498    \t         tab (\x09)    \t         tab (\x09)
499    \v         vertical tab (\x0b)    \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
500    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
501    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                 a byte unless &#62; 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit mode
502    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode    \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
503    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
504    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
505    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
506    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \Cdd       call pcre[16]_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
507      \Cname     call pcre[16]_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
508                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
509    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time
510    \C-        do not supply a callout function    \C-        do not supply a callout function
511    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
512    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
513    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
514    \D         use the <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> match function    \D         use the <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b> match function
515    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
516    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \Gdd       call pcre[16]_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
517    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \Gname     call pcre[16]_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
518                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
519    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match    \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any number of digits)
520      \L         call pcre[16]_get_substringlist() after a successful match
521    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
522    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
523                 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option                 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
524    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
525    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
526                 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option                 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
527    \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)    \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
528    \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
529    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
530    \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
531    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
532    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16]_CHECK option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
533    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then any number of digits); this sets the <i>startoffset</i>
534                 this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>                 argument for <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
535    \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
536    \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
537    \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
538    \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
539    \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
540  </pre>  </pre>
541    The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the <b>/8</b> modifier on
542    the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexadecimal
543    digits inside the braces; invalid values provoke error messages.
544    </P>
545    <P>
546    Note that \xhh specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8 mode;
547    this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing
548    purposes. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
549    UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127.
550    When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \x{hh} generates one byte
551    for values less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
552    </P>
553    <P>
554    In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
555    possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
556    </P>
557    <P>
558  The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as  The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
559  shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.  shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
560  </P>  </P>
# Line 410  passing an empty line as data, since a r Line 565  passing an empty line as data, since a r
565  input.  input.
566  </P>  </P>
567  <P>  <P>
568  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  The <b>\J</b> escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
569  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>  used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
570  fields of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum  is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
571  numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. The  necessary only for very complicated patterns.
572  <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes  </P>
573  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the  <P>
574  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> several times,
575  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of  with different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
576  subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how much  fields of the <b>pcre[16]_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
577  stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed  numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to complete without
578  to complete the match attempt.  error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
579    <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might
580    have been set up by the <b>/S+</b> qualifier of <b>-s+</b> option is disabled.
581    </P>
582    <P>
583    The <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
584    that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
585    matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
586    matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
587    of subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how
588    much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
589    needed to complete the match attempt.
590  </P>  </P>
591  <P>  <P>
592  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
593  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
594  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.  the call of <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
595  </P>  </P>
596  <P>  <P>
597  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
598  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B,
599  and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to  \N, and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
600  <b>regexec()</b>.  to be passed to <b>regexec()</b>.
601  </P>  </P>
602  <P>  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
 The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  
 of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  
 any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  
 six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This  
 allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are  
 valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the  
 later rules in RFC 3629.  
 </P>  
 <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>  
603  <P>  <P>
604  By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,  By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
605  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to match each data line. PCRE also supports an
606  alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a  alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16]_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
607  different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two  different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
608  functions are described in the  functions are described in the
609  <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>  <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
# Line 454  documentation. Line 611  documentation.
611  </P>  </P>
612  <P>  <P>
613  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
614  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is called.  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is used.
615  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
616  escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is  escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
617  found. This is always the shortest possible match.  found. This is always the shortest possible match.
618  </P>  </P>
619  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
620  <P>  <P>
621  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
622  <b>pcre_exec()</b>, is being used.  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>, is being used.
623  </P>  </P>
624  <P>  <P>
625  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, <b>pcretest</b> outputs the list of captured substrings
626  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  that <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
627  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is  matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
628  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
629  substring when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. For any other  substring when <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that
630  returns, it outputs the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example of an  this is the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it
631  interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.  may include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
632    \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other return, <b>pcretest</b> outputs
633    the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
634    a failed UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
635    the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the output vector is
636    at least two. Here is an example of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
637  <pre>  <pre>
638    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
639    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
640    
641      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
642    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
# Line 483  interactive <b>pcretest</b> run. Line 645  interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
645    data&#62; xyz    data&#62; xyz
646    No match    No match
647  </pre>  </pre>
648  Note that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set  Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
649  are not returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In  returned by <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In the
650  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first  following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
651  data line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal"  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
652  unset substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.  substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.
653  <pre>  <pre>
654      re&#62; /(a)|(b)/      re&#62; /(a)|(b)/
655    data&#62; a    data&#62; a
# Line 498  unset substring is shown as "&#60;unset& Line 660  unset substring is shown as "&#60;unset&
660     1: &#60;unset&#62;     1: &#60;unset&#62;
661     2: b     2: b
662  </pre>  </pre>
663  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \xhh
664  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set. Otherwise they
665  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the  are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the definition of non-printing
666  pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by  characters. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring
667  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:  0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
668    this:
669  <pre>  <pre>
670      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
671    data&#62; cataract    data&#62; cataract
# Line 521  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 684  matching attempts are output in sequence
684     0: ipp     0: ipp
685     1: pp     1: pp
686  </pre>  </pre>
687  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
688    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \&#62;4 is past the end of
689    the subject string):
690    <pre>
691        re&#62; /xyz/
692      data&#62; xyz\&#62;4
693      Error -24 (bad offset value)
694    </PRE>
695  </P>  </P>
696  <P>  <P>
697  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a
# Line 537  prompt is used for continuations), data Line 707  prompt is used for continuations), data
707  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
708  the newline sequence setting).  the newline sequence setting).
709  </P>  </P>
710  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
711  <P>  <P>
712  When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by  When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
713  means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the  means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
714  output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in  output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
715  the subject where there is at least one match. For example:  the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
# Line 553  the subject where there is at least one Line 723  the subject where there is at least one
723  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
724  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
725  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
726  partially matching substring.  partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
727    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
728    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
729  </P>  </P>
730  <P>  <P>
731  If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes  If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
# Line 571  at the end of the longest match. For exa Line 743  at the end of the longest match. For exa
743  Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape  Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
744  sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.  sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
745  </P>  </P>
746  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
747  <P>  <P>
748  When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,  When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
749  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
# Line 588  For further information about partial ma Line 760  For further information about partial ma
760  <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>  <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
761  documentation.  documentation.
762  </P>  </P>
763  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
764  <P>  <P>
765  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
766  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
767  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
768  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
769  tested. For example, the output  tested. For example:
770  <pre>  <pre>
771    ---&#62;pqrabcdef    ---&#62;pqrabcdef
772      0    ^  ^     \d      0    ^  ^     \d
773  </pre>  </pre>
774  indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt
775  fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  starting at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
776  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just one  the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just
777  circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.  one circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
778  </P>  </P>
779  <P>  <P>
780  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
# Line 619  example: Line 791  example:
791    +10 ^ ^    +10 ^ ^
792     0: E*     0: E*
793  </pre>  </pre>
794    If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
795    a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
796    <pre>
797        re&#62; /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
798      data&#62; abc
799      ---&#62;abc
800       +0 ^       a
801       +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
802      +10 ^^      b
803      Latest Mark: X
804      +11 ^ ^     c
805      +12 ^  ^
806       0: abc
807    </pre>
808    The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
809    of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
810    mark reverts to being unset, the text "&#60;unset&#62;" is output.
811    </P>
812    <P>
813  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
814  default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to  default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
815  change this.  change this and other parameters of the callout.
816  </P>  </P>
817  <P>  <P>
818  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
# Line 630  the Line 821  the
821  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
822  documentation.  documentation.
823  </P>  </P>
824  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
825  <P>  <P>
826  When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,  When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
827  bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are  bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
# Line 642  string, it behaves in the same way, unle Line 833  string, it behaves in the same way, unle
833  the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>  the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
834  function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.  function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
835  </P>  </P>
836  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
837  <P>  <P>
838  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
839  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
840  specified.  specified.
841  </P>  </P>
842  <P>  <P>
# Line 658  For example: Line 849  For example:
849  See the  See the
850  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
851  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
852    Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
853    JIT data cannot be saved.
854  </P>  </P>
855  <P>  <P>
856  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
# Line 666  written as four bytes in big-endian orde Line 859  written as four bytes in big-endian orde
859  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
860  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
861  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
862  follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,  (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
863  <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.  writing the file, <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
864  </P>  </P>
865  <P>  <P>
866  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifing &#60; and a file  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifying &#60; and a file
867  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
868  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
869  characters.  characters.
870  For example:  For example:
871  <pre>  <pre>
872     re&#62; &#60;/some/file     re&#62; &#60;/some/file
873    Compiled regex loaded from /some/file    Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
874    No study data    No study data
875  </pre>  </pre>
876  When the pattern has been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in  If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
877  the usual way.  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
878    been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
879  </P>  </P>
880  <P>  <P>
881  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
882  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
883  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
884  a SPARC machine.  a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a host with different
885    endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
886    <pre>
887      Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
888    </pre>
889    The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
890    endianness. These are reloaded using "&#60;!" instead of just "&#60;". This suppresses
891    the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on all hosts. It also
892    forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.
893  </P>  </P>
894  <P>  <P>
895  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
# Line 704  string using a reloaded pattern is likel Line 906  string using a reloaded pattern is likel
906  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
907  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
908  </P>  </P>
909  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
910  <P>  <P>
911  <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3), <b>pcrematching</b>(3),  <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcre16</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3),
912  <b>pcrepartial</b>(d), <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).  <b>pcrejit</b>, <b>pcrematching</b>(3), <b>pcrepartial</b>(d),
913    <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
914  </P>  </P>
915  <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
916  <P>  <P>
917  Philip Hazel  Philip Hazel
918  <br>  <br>
# Line 718  University Computing Service Line 921  University Computing Service
921  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
922  <br>  <br>
923  </P>  </P>
924  <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
925  <P>  <P>
926  Last updated: 26 March 2010  Last updated: 14 January 2012
927  <br>  <br>
928  Copyright &copy; 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.  Copyright &copy; 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.
929  <br>  <br>
930  <p>  <p>
931  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.

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