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# Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr
14  <br>  <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">DESCRIPTION</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">DATA LINES</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
24  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
25  <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
26  <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">CALLOUTS</a>
27  <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>  <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
28  <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SEE ALSO</a>  <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
29  <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">SEE ALSO</a>
30  <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">REVISION</a>  <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">AUTHOR</a>
31    <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">REVISION</a>
32  </ul>  </ul>
33  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
34  <P>  <P>
35  <b>pcretest [options] [source] [destination]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]</b>
36  <br>  <br>
37  <br>  <br>
38  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
# Line 42  details of the regular expressions thems Line 43  details of the regular expressions thems
43  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
44  options, see the  options, see the
45  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
46  documentation.  and
47    <a href="pcre16.html"><b>pcre16</b></a>
48    documentation. The input for <b>pcretest</b> is a sequence of regular expression
49    patterns and strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the
50    result of each match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE
51    options and exactly what is output.
52    </P>
53    <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES</a><br>
54    <P>
55    From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The original one
56    supports 8-bit character strings, whereas the newer 16-bit library supports
57    character strings encoded in 16-bit units. The <b>pcretest</b> program can be
58    used to test both libraries. However, it is itself still an 8-bit program,
59    reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output. When testing the 16-bit library,
60    the patterns and data strings are converted to 16-bit format before being
61    passed to the PCRE library functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for
62    output.
63    </P>
64    <P>
65    References to functions and structures of the form <b>pcre[16]_xx</b> below
66    mean "<b>pcre_xx</b> when using the 8-bit library or <b>pcre16_xx</b> when using
67    the 16-bit library".
68    </P>
69    <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a><br>
70    <P>
71    <b>-16</b>
72    If both the 8-bit and the 16-bit libraries have been built, this option causes
73    the 16-bit library to be used. If only the 16-bit library has been built, this
74    is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit library has been built,
75    this option causes an error.
76  </P>  </P>
 <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  
77  <P>  <P>
78  <b>-b</b>  <b>-b</b>
79  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/B</b> (show bytecode) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/B</b> (show byte code) modifier; the
80  form is output after compilation.  internal form is output after compilation.
81  </P>  </P>
82  <P>  <P>
83  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
84  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
85  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit. All other options
86    are ignored.
87    </P>
88    <P>
89    <b>-C</b> <i>option</i>
90    Output information about a specific build-time option, then exit. This
91    functionality is intended for use in scripts such as <b>RunTest</b>. The
92    following options output the value indicated:
93    <pre>
94      linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
95      newline    the default newline setting:
96                   CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
97    </pre>
98    The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
99    <pre>
100      jit        just-in-time support is available
101      pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
102      pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
103      ucp        Unicode property support is available
104      utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 support is available
105    </PRE>
106  </P>  </P>
107  <P>  <P>
108  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
109  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
110  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
111  <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.  <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
112  </P>  </P>
113  <P>  <P>
114  <b>-dfa</b>  <b>-dfa</b>
115  Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the  Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
116  alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of the  alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of
117  standard <b>pcre_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).  the standard <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
118  </P>  </P>
119  <P>  <P>
120  <b>-help</b>  <b>-help</b>
# Line 73  Output a brief summary these options and Line 122  Output a brief summary these options and
122  </P>  </P>
123  <P>  <P>
124  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
125  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
126  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
127  </P>  </P>
128  <P>  <P>
129  <b>-M</b>  <b>-M</b>
130  Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes  Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes
131  PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by  PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
132  calling <b>pcre_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.  calling <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.
133  </P>  </P>
134  <P>  <P>
135  <b>-m</b>  <b>-m</b>
136  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
137  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. The size is given in
138  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.  bytes for both libraries.
139  </P>  </P>
140  <P>  <P>
141  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
142  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
143  <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The
144  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for
145  22 different matches for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>. The vector size can be  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or 22 different matches for <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>.
146  changed for individual matching calls by including \O in the data line (see  The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by including \O
147  below).  in the data line (see below).
148  </P>  </P>
149  <P>  <P>
150  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
151  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
152  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
153  set.  set. This option can be used only with the 8-bit library.
154  </P>  </P>
155  <P>  <P>
156  <b>-q</b>  <b>-q</b>
# Line 109  Do not output the version number of <b>p Line 158  Do not output the version number of <b>p
158  </P>  </P>
159  <P>  <P>
160  <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>  <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
161  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to <i>size</i>  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to <i>size</i>
162  megabytes.  megabytes.
163  </P>  </P>
164  <P>  <P>
165    <b>-s</b> or <b>-s+</b>
166    Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/S</b> modifier; in other words, force each
167    pattern to be studied. If <b>-s+</b> is used, all the JIT compile options are
168    passed to <b>pcre[16]_study()</b>, causing just-in-time optimization to be set
169    up if it is available, for both full and partial matching. Specific JIT compile
170    options can be selected by following <b>-s+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to
171    7, which selects the JIT compile modes as follows:
172    <pre>
173      1  normal match only
174      2  soft partial match only
175      3  normal match and soft partial match
176      4  hard partial match only
177      6  soft and hard partial match
178      7  all three modes (default)
179    </pre>
180    If <b>-s++</b> is used instead of <b>-s+</b> (with or without a following digit),
181    the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
182    when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
183    </P>
184    <P>
185    If the <b>/I</b> or <b>/D</b> option is present on a pattern (requesting output
186    about the compiled pattern), information about the result of studying is not
187    included when studying is caused only by <b>-s</b> and neither <b>-i</b> nor
188    <b>-d</b> is present on the command line. This behaviour means that the output
189    from tests that are run with and without <b>-s</b> should be identical, except
190    when options that output information about the actual running of a match are
191    set.
192    <br>
193    <br>
194    The <b>-M</b>, <b>-t</b>, and <b>-tm</b> options, which give information about
195    resources used, are likely to produce different output with and without
196    <b>-s</b>. Output may also differ if the <b>/C</b> option is present on an
197    individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process, and
198    this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the pattern
199    contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same reason. The
200    <b>-s</b> command line option can be overridden for specific patterns that
201    should never be studied (see the <b>/S</b> pattern modifier below).
202    </P>
203    <P>
204  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
205  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
206  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
# Line 127  to iterate 500000 times. Line 215  to iterate 500000 times.
215  This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the  This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
216  compile or study phases.  compile or study phases.
217  </P>  </P>
218  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
219  <P>  <P>
220  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
221  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
# Line 184  backslash, because Line 272  backslash, because
272  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
273  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
274  </P>  </P>
275  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
276  <P>  <P>
277  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
278  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
279  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
280  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may
281  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
282  the modifiers themselves.  the modifiers themselves.
283  </P>  </P>
284  <P>  <P>
285  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
286  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
287  <b>pcre_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same  <b>pcre[16]_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
288  effect as they do in Perl. For example:  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
289  <pre>  <pre>
290    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
# Line 204  effect as they do in Perl. For example: Line 292  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
292  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
293  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
294  <pre>  <pre>
295    <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF8    <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
296    <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK    <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
297    
298      <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
299      <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
300    
301    <b>/A</b>              PCRE_ANCHORED    <b>/A</b>              PCRE_ANCHORED
302    <b>/C</b>              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    <b>/C</b>              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
303    <b>/E</b>              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY    <b>/E</b>              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
# Line 226  options that do not correspond to anythi Line 318  options that do not correspond to anythi
318    <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE    <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
319  </pre>  </pre>
320  The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,  The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
321  including the angle brackets, but the letters can be in either case. This  including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
322  example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
323  <pre>  <pre>
324    /^abc/m&#60;crlf&#62;    /^abc/m&#60;CRLF&#62;
325  </pre>  </pre>
326  As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the <b>/8</b> modifier also causes  As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16 option, the <b>/8</b> modifier causes
327  any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the  all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
328  \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of the PCRE  \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex without
329  options are given in the  the curly brackets.
330    </P>
331    <P>
332    Full details of the PCRE options are given in the
333  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
334  documentation.  documentation.
335  </P>  </P>
# Line 246  Searching for all possible matches withi Line 341  Searching for all possible matches withi
341  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
342  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
343  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to
344  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire string  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire
345  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened  string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a
346  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern  shortened substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the
347  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).  pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).
348  </P>  </P>
349  <P>  <P>
350  If any call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches an  If any call to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches
351  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and  an empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
352  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
353  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
354  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
# Line 271  operates. Line 366  operates.
366  </P>  </P>
367  <P>  <P>
368  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
369  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, <b>pcretest</b> should in addition output the
370  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
371  multiple copies of the same substring.  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the <b>+</b> modifier appears
372    twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
373    remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
374    capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
375    modifier because /S+ and /S++ have other meanings.
376    </P>
377    <P>
378    The <b>/=</b> modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
379    parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up to the highest
380    one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the return code
381    from <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>). Values in the offsets vector corresponding to
382    higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as "&#60;unset&#62;". This
383    modifier gives a way of checking that this is happening.
384  </P>  </P>
385  <P>  <P>
386  The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>  The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
387  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally  output a representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally this
388  this information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is  information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is also
389  also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for  present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in
390  use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated  the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated for
391  for different internal link sizes.  different internal link sizes.
392  </P>  </P>
393  <P>  <P>
394  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
# Line 289  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debuggi Line 396  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debuggi
396  </P>  </P>
397  <P>  <P>
398  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
399  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  2-byte and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
400  facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns  the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were compiled on a
401  that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not  host with a different endianness. This feature is not available when the POSIX
402  available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
403  <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  specified. See also the section about saving and reloading compiled patterns
404  reloading compiled patterns below.  below.
405  </P>  </P>
406  <P>  <P>
407  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
408  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
409  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre[16]_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
410  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
411  </P>  </P>
412  <P>  <P>
413  The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking  The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking
414  control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre_exec()</b>. It causes  control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>. It causes
415  <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre_extra</b> block if one has not already been  <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre[16]_extra</b> block if one has not already
416  created by a call to <b>pcre_study()</b>, and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag  been created by a call to <b>pcre[16]_study()</b>, and to set the
417  and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that <b>pcre_exec()</b> is  PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that
418  called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field points to is non-NULL for a  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> is called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field
419  match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b> prints the string to which  points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b>
420  it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  prints the string to which it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by
421  For a non-match it is added to the message.  itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
422  </P>  </P>
423  <P>  <P>
424  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
# Line 320  example, Line 427  example,
427    /pattern/Lfr_FR    /pattern/Lfr_FR
428  </pre>  </pre>
429  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
430  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the  <b>pcre[16]_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for
431  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the  the locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre[16]_compile()</b> when compiling
432  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> (or <b>/T</b>) modifier, NULL is passed  the regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> (or <b>/T</b>) modifier, NULL is
433  as the tables pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression on  passed as the tables pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression
434  which it appears.  on which it appears.
435  </P>  </P>
436  <P>  <P>
437  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to hold
438  pattern to be output.  the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the
439  </P>  <b>pcre[16]</b> block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is
440  <P>  successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the
441  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the  JIT compiled code is also output.
442  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  </P>
443  matched.  <P>
444    If the <b>/S</b> modifier appears once, it causes <b>pcre[16]_study()</b> to be
445    called after the expression has been compiled, and the results used when the
446    expression is matched. If <b>/S</b> appears twice, it suppresses studying, even
447    if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line option. This makes
448    it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
449    never studied, independently of <b>-s</b>. This feature is used in the test
450    files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
451    </P>
452    <P>
453    If the <b>/S</b> modifier is immediately followed by a + character, the call to
454    <b>pcre[16]_study()</b> is made with all the JIT study options, requesting
455    just-in-time optimization support if it is available, for both normal and
456    partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling modes, you can
457    follow <b>/S+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
458    <pre>
459      1  normal match only
460      2  soft partial match only
461      3  normal match and soft partial match
462      4  hard partial match only
463      6  soft and hard partial match
464      7  all three modes (default)
465    </pre>
466    If <b>/S++</b> is used instead of <b>/S+</b> (with or without a following digit),
467    the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
468    when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
469    </P>
470    <P>
471    Note that there is also an independent <b>/+</b> modifier; it must not be given
472    immediately after <b>/S</b> or <b>/S+</b> because this will be misinterpreted.
473    </P>
474    <P>
475    If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically be used
476    when <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> is run, except when incompatible run-time options
477    are specified. For more details, see the
478    <a href="pcrejit.html"><b>pcrejit</b></a>
479    documentation. See also the <b>\J</b> escape sequence below for a way of
480    setting the size of the JIT stack.
481  </P>  </P>
482  <P>  <P>
483  The <b>/T</b> modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific  The <b>/T</b> modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
484  set of built-in character tables to be passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b>. It is  set of built-in character tables to be passed to <b>pcre[16]_compile()</b>. It
485  used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character  is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
486  tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:  tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
487  <pre>  <pre>
488    0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in    0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
# Line 353  Using the POSIX wrapper API Line 497  Using the POSIX wrapper API
497  </b><br>  </b><br>
498  <P>  <P>
499  The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
500  API rather than its native API. When <b>/P</b> is set, the following modifiers  API rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When
501  set options for the <b>regcomp()</b> function:  <b>/P</b> is set, the following modifiers set options for the <b>regcomp()</b>
502    function:
503  <pre>  <pre>
504    /i    REG_ICASE    /i    REG_ICASE
505    /m    REG_NEWLINE    /m    REG_NEWLINE
# Line 367  set options for the <b>regcomp()</b> fun Line 512  set options for the <b>regcomp()</b> fun
512  The <b>/+</b> modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are  The <b>/+</b> modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
513  ignored.  ignored.
514  </P>  </P>
515  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
516  <P>  <P>
517  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
518  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are  white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these
519  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
520  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
521  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
522  recognized:  recognized:
# Line 379  recognized: Line 524  recognized:
524    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
525    \b         backspace (\x08)    \b         backspace (\x08)
526    \e         escape (\x27)    \e         escape (\x27)
527    \f         formfeed (\x0c)    \f         form feed (\x0c)
528    \n         newline (\x0a)    \n         newline (\x0a)
529    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
530    \r         carriage return (\x0d)    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
531    \t         tab (\x09)    \t         tab (\x09)
532    \v         vertical tab (\x0b)    \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
533    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
534                 always a byte unless &#62; 255 in UTF-8 mode                 a byte unless &#62; 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit mode
535    \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)    \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
536    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
537    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
538    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
539    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \Cdd       call pcre[16]_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
540    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \Cname     call pcre[16]_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
541                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
542    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time
543    \C-        do not supply a callout function    \C-        do not supply a callout function
544    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
545    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
546    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
547    \D         use the <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> match function    \D         use the <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b> match function
548    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
549    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \Gdd       call pcre[16]_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
550    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \Gname     call pcre[16]_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
551                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
552    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match    \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any number of digits)
553      \L         call pcre[16]_get_substringlist() after a successful match
554    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
555    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
556                 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option                 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
557    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
558    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
559                 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option                 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
560    \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)    \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
561    \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
562    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
563    \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
564    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
565    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16]_CHECK option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
566    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then any number of digits); this sets the <i>startoffset</i>    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then any number of digits); this sets the <i>startoffset</i>
567                 argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>                 argument for <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
568    \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
569    \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
570    \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
571    \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
572    \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>    \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
573  </pre>  </pre>
574  Note that \xhh always specifies one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this makes it  The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the <b>/8</b> modifier on
575  possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes. On the  the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexadecimal
576  other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode,  digits inside the braces; invalid values provoke error messages.
577  generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127. When not in  </P>
578  UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error  <P>
579  for greater values.  Note that \xhh specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8 mode;
580    this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing
581    purposes. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
582    UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127.
583    When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \x{hh} generates one byte
584    for values less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
585    </P>
586    <P>
587    In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
588    possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
589  </P>  </P>
590  <P>  <P>
591  The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as  The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
# Line 443  passing an empty line as data, since a r Line 598  passing an empty line as data, since a r
598  input.  input.
599  </P>  </P>
600  <P>  <P>
601  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  The <b>\J</b> escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
602  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>  used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
603  fields of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum  is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
604  numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. The  necessary only for very complicated patterns.
605  <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes  </P>
606  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the  <P>
607  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> several times,
608  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of  with different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
609  subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how much  fields of the <b>pcre[16]_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
610  stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed  numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to complete without
611  to complete the match attempt.  error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
612    <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might
613    have been set up by the <b>/S+</b> qualifier of <b>-s+</b> option is disabled.
614    </P>
615    <P>
616    The <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
617    that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
618    matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
619    matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
620    of subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how
621    much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
622    needed to complete the match attempt.
623  </P>  </P>
624  <P>  <P>
625  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
626  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
627  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.  the call of <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
628  </P>  </P>
629  <P>  <P>
630  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
# Line 466  API to be used, the only option-setting Line 632  API to be used, the only option-setting
632  \N, and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,  \N, and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
633  to be passed to <b>regexec()</b>.  to be passed to <b>regexec()</b>.
634  </P>  </P>
635  <P>  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
 The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  
 of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  
 any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  
 six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This  
 allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are  
 valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the  
 later rules in RFC 3629.  
 </P>  
 <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>  
636  <P>  <P>
637  By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,  By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
638  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to match each data line. PCRE also supports an
639  alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a  alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16]_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
640  different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two  different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
641  functions are described in the  functions are described in the
642  <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>  <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
# Line 487  documentation. Line 644  documentation.
644  </P>  </P>
645  <P>  <P>
646  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
647  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is called.  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is used.
648  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
649  escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is  escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
650  found. This is always the shortest possible match.  found. This is always the shortest possible match.
651  </P>  </P>
652  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
653  <P>  <P>
654  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
655  <b>pcre_exec()</b>, is being used.  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>, is being used.
656  </P>  </P>
657  <P>  <P>
658  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, <b>pcretest</b> outputs the list of captured substrings
659  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  that <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
660  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is  matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
661  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
662  substring when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is  substring when <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that
663  the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it may  this is the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it
664  include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,  may include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
665  \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other returns, it outputs the PCRE  \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other return, <b>pcretest</b> outputs
666  negative error number. Here is an example of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.  the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
667    a failed UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
668    the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the output vector is
669    at least two. Here is an example of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
670  <pre>  <pre>
671    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
672    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
673    
674      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
675    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
# Line 518  negative error number. Here is an exampl Line 678  negative error number. Here is an exampl
678    data&#62; xyz    data&#62; xyz
679    No match    No match
680  </pre>  </pre>
681  Note that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set  Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
682  are not returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In  returned by <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In the
683  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first  following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
684  data line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal"  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
685  unset substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.  substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.
686  <pre>  <pre>
687      re&#62; /(a)|(b)/      re&#62; /(a)|(b)/
688    data&#62; a    data&#62; a
# Line 533  unset substring is shown as "&#60;unset& Line 693  unset substring is shown as "&#60;unset&
693     1: &#60;unset&#62;     1: &#60;unset&#62;
694     2: b     2: b
695  </pre>  </pre>
696  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \xhh
697  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set. Otherwise they
698  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the  are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the definition of non-printing
699  pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by  characters. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring
700  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:  0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
701    this:
702  <pre>  <pre>
703      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
704    data&#62; cataract    data&#62; cataract
# Line 556  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 717  matching attempts are output in sequence
717     0: ipp     0: ipp
718     1: pp     1: pp
719  </pre>  </pre>
720  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
721    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \&#62;4 is past the end of
722    the subject string):
723    <pre>
724        re&#62; /xyz/
725      data&#62; xyz\&#62;4
726      Error -24 (bad offset value)
727    </PRE>
728  </P>  </P>
729  <P>  <P>
730  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a
# Line 572  prompt is used for continuations), data Line 740  prompt is used for continuations), data
740  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
741  the newline sequence setting).  the newline sequence setting).
742  </P>  </P>
743  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
744  <P>  <P>
745  When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by  When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
746  means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the  means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
747  output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in  output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
748  the subject where there is at least one match. For example:  the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
# Line 608  at the end of the longest match. For exa Line 776  at the end of the longest match. For exa
776  Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape  Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
777  sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.  sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
778  </P>  </P>
779  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
780  <P>  <P>
781  When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,  When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
782  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
# Line 625  For further information about partial ma Line 793  For further information about partial ma
793  <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>  <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
794  documentation.  documentation.
795  </P>  </P>
796  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
797  <P>  <P>
798  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
799  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
800  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
801  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
802  tested. For example, the output  tested. For example:
803  <pre>  <pre>
804    ---&#62;pqrabcdef    ---&#62;pqrabcdef
805      0    ^  ^     \d      0    ^  ^     \d
806  </pre>  </pre>
807  indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt
808  fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  starting at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
809  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just one  the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just
810  circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.  one circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
811  </P>  </P>
812  <P>  <P>
813  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
# Line 656  example: Line 824  example:
824    +10 ^ ^    +10 ^ ^
825     0: E*     0: E*
826  </pre>  </pre>
827    If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
828    a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
829    <pre>
830        re&#62; /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
831      data&#62; abc
832      ---&#62;abc
833       +0 ^       a
834       +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
835      +10 ^^      b
836      Latest Mark: X
837      +11 ^ ^     c
838      +12 ^  ^
839       0: abc
840    </pre>
841    The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
842    of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
843    mark reverts to being unset, the text "&#60;unset&#62;" is output.
844    </P>
845    <P>
846  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
847  default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to  default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
848  change this.  change this and other parameters of the callout.
849  </P>  </P>
850  <P>  <P>
851  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
# Line 667  the Line 854  the
854  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
855  documentation.  documentation.
856  </P>  </P>
857  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
858  <P>  <P>
859  When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,  When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
860  bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are  bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
# Line 679  string, it behaves in the same way, unle Line 866  string, it behaves in the same way, unle
866  the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>  the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
867  function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.  function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
868  </P>  </P>
869  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
870  <P>  <P>
871  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
872  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
873  specified.  specified.
874  </P>  </P>
875  <P>  <P>
# Line 695  For example: Line 882  For example:
882  See the  See the
883  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
884  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
885    Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
886    JIT data cannot be saved.
887  </P>  </P>
888  <P>  <P>
889  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
# Line 703  written as four bytes in big-endian orde Line 892  written as four bytes in big-endian orde
892  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
893  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
894  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
895  follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,  (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
896  <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.  writing the file, <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
897  </P>  </P>
898  <P>  <P>
899  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifing &#60; and a file  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifying &#60; and a file
900  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
901  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
902  characters.  characters.
903  For example:  For example:
904  <pre>  <pre>
905     re&#62; &#60;/some/file     re&#62; &#60;/some/file
906    Compiled regex loaded from /some/file    Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
907    No study data    No study data
908  </pre>  </pre>
909  When the pattern has been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in  If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
910  the usual way.  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
911    been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
912  </P>  </P>
913  <P>  <P>
914  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
915  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
916  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
917  a SPARC machine.  a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a host with different
918    endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
919    <pre>
920      Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
921    </pre>
922    The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
923    endianness. These are reloaded using "&#60;!" instead of just "&#60;". This suppresses
924    the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on all hosts. It also
925    forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.
926  </P>  </P>
927  <P>  <P>
928  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
# Line 741  string using a reloaded pattern is likel Line 939  string using a reloaded pattern is likel
939  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
940  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
941  </P>  </P>
942  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
943  <P>  <P>
944  <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3), <b>pcrematching</b>(3),  <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcre16</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3),
945  <b>pcrepartial</b>(d), <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).  <b>pcrejit</b>, <b>pcrematching</b>(3), <b>pcrepartial</b>(d),
946    <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
947  </P>  </P>
948  <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
949  <P>  <P>
950  Philip Hazel  Philip Hazel
951  <br>  <br>
# Line 755  University Computing Service Line 954  University Computing Service
954  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
955  <br>  <br>
956  </P>  </P>
957  <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
958  <P>  <P>
959  Last updated: 21 November 2010  Last updated: 21 February 2012
960  <br>  <br>
961  Copyright &copy; 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.  Copyright &copy; 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.
962  <br>  <br>
963  <p>  <p>
964  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.

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