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# Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr
14  <br>  <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">DESCRIPTION</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">DATA LINES</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
24  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
25    <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
26    <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">CALLOUTS</a>
27    <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
28    <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
29    <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">SEE ALSO</a>
30    <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">AUTHOR</a>
31    <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">REVISION</a>
32  </ul>  </ul>
33  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
34  <P>  <P>
35  <b>pcretest [-C] [-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]</b>
36  <b>[destination]</b>  <br>
37  </P>  <br>
 <P>  
38  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
39  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
40  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
# Line 37  details of the regular expressions thems Line 43  details of the regular expressions thems
43  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
44  options, see the  options, see the
45  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
46    ,
47    <a href="pcre16.html"><b>pcre16</b></a>
48    and
49    <a href="pcre32.html"><b>pcre32</b></a>
50  documentation.  documentation.
51  </P>  </P>
52  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  <P>
53    The input for <b>pcretest</b> is a sequence of regular expression patterns and
54    strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each
55    match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
56    exactly what is output.
57    </P>
58    <P>
59    As PCRE has evolved, it has acquired many different features, and as a result,
60    <b>pcretest</b> now has rather a lot of obscure options for testing every
61    possible feature. Some of these options are specifically designed for use in
62    conjunction with the test script and data files that are distributed as part of
63    PCRE, and are unlikely to be of use otherwise. They are all documented here,
64    but without much justification.
65    </P>
66    <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES</a><br>
67    <P>
68    From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The original one
69    supports 8-bit character strings, whereas the newer 16-bit library supports
70    character strings encoded in 16-bit units. From release 8.32, a third
71    library can be built, supporting character strings encoded in 32-bit units.
72    The <b>pcretest</b> program can be
73    used to test all three libraries. However, it is itself still an 8-bit program,
74    reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output. When testing the 16-bit or 32-bit
75    library, the patterns and data strings are converted to 16- or 32-bit format
76    before being passed to the PCRE library functions. Results are converted to
77    8-bit for output.
78    </P>
79    <P>
80    References to functions and structures of the form <b>pcre[16|32]_xx</b> below
81    mean "<b>pcre_xx</b> when using the 8-bit library or <b>pcre16_xx</b> when using
82    the 16-bit library".
83    </P>
84    <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a><br>
85    <P>
86    <b>-8</b>
87    If both the 8-bit library has been built, this option causes the 8-bit library
88    to be used (which is the default); if the 8-bit library has not been built,
89    this option causes an error.
90    </P>
91    <P>
92    <b>-16</b>
93    If both the 8-bit or the 32-bit, and the 16-bit libraries have been built, this
94    option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the 16-bit library has been
95    built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 32-bit
96    library has been built, this option causes an error.
97    </P>
98    <P>
99    <b>-32</b>
100    If both the 8-bit or the 16-bit, and the 32-bit libraries have been built, this
101    option causes the 32-bit library to be used. If only the 32-bit library has been
102    built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 16-bit
103    library has been built, this option causes an error.
104    </P>
105    <P>
106    <b>-b</b>
107    Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/B</b> (show byte code) modifier; the
108    internal form is output after compilation.
109    </P>
110  <P>  <P>
111  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
112  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
113  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit with zero exit
114    code. All other options are ignored.
115    </P>
116    <P>
117    <b>-C</b> <i>option</i>
118    Output information about a specific build-time option, then exit. This
119    functionality is intended for use in scripts such as <b>RunTest</b>. The
120    following options output the value and set the exit code as indicated:
121    <pre>
122      ebcdic-nl  the code for LF (= NL) in an EBCDIC environment:
123                   0x15 or 0x25
124                   0 if used in an ASCII environment
125                   exit code is always 0
126      linksize   the configured internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
127                   exit code is set to the link size
128      newline    the default newline setting:
129                   CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
130                   exit code is always 0
131    </pre>
132    The following options output 1 for true or 0 for false, and set the exit code
133    to the same value:
134    <pre>
135      ebcdic     compiled for an EBCDIC environment
136      jit        just-in-time support is available
137      pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
138      pcre32     the 32-bit library was built
139      pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
140      ucp        Unicode property support is available
141      utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 and/or UTF-32 support
142                   is available
143    </pre>
144    If an unknown option is given, an error message is output; the exit code is 0.
145  </P>  </P>
146  <P>  <P>
147  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
148  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
149  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
150    <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
151    </P>
152    <P>
153    <b>-dfa</b>
154    Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
155    alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead
156    of the standard <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
157    </P>
158    <P>
159    <b>-help</b>
160    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
161  </P>  </P>
162  <P>  <P>
163  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
164  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
165  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
166  </P>  </P>
167  <P>  <P>
168    <b>-M</b>
169    Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes
170    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
171    calling <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.
172    </P>
173    <P>
174  <b>-m</b>  <b>-m</b>
175  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
176  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. The size is given in
177  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.  bytes for both libraries.
178  </P>  </P>
179  <P>  <P>
180  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
181  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
182  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value is 45, which is enough  <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The
183  for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for
184  matching calls by including \O in the data line (see below).  <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or 22 different matches for
185    <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>.
186    The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by including \O
187    in the data line (see below).
188  </P>  </P>
189  <P>  <P>
190  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
191  Behave as if each regex has <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
192  to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is set.  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
193    set. This option can be used only with the 8-bit library.
194    </P>
195    <P>
196    <b>-q</b>
197    Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
198    </P>
199    <P>
200    <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
201    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to <i>size</i>
202    megabytes.
203    </P>
204    <P>
205    <b>-s</b> or <b>-s+</b>
206    Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/S</b> modifier; in other words, force each
207    pattern to be studied. If <b>-s+</b> is used, all the JIT compile options are
208    passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b>, causing just-in-time optimization to be set
209    up if it is available, for both full and partial matching. Specific JIT compile
210    options can be selected by following <b>-s+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to
211    7, which selects the JIT compile modes as follows:
212    <pre>
213      1  normal match only
214      2  soft partial match only
215      3  normal match and soft partial match
216      4  hard partial match only
217      6  soft and hard partial match
218      7  all three modes (default)
219    </pre>
220    If <b>-s++</b> is used instead of <b>-s+</b> (with or without a following digit),
221    the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
222    when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
223    <br>
224    <br>
225    Note that there are pattern options that can override <b>-s</b>, either
226    specifying no studying at all, or suppressing JIT compilation.
227    <br>
228    <br>
229    If the <b>/I</b> or <b>/D</b> option is present on a pattern (requesting output
230    about the compiled pattern), information about the result of studying is not
231    included when studying is caused only by <b>-s</b> and neither <b>-i</b> nor
232    <b>-d</b> is present on the command line. This behaviour means that the output
233    from tests that are run with and without <b>-s</b> should be identical, except
234    when options that output information about the actual running of a match are
235    set.
236    <br>
237    <br>
238    The <b>-M</b>, <b>-t</b>, and <b>-tm</b> options, which give information about
239    resources used, are likely to produce different output with and without
240    <b>-s</b>. Output may also differ if the <b>/C</b> option is present on an
241    individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process, and
242    this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the pattern
243    contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same reason. The
244    <b>-s</b> command line option can be overridden for specific patterns that
245    should never be studied (see the <b>/S</b> pattern modifier below).
246  </P>  </P>
247  <P>  <P>
248  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
249  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
250  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
251  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
252  timing will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
253    used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
254    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
255    to iterate 500000 times.
256    </P>
257    <P>
258    <b>-tm</b>
259    This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
260    compile or study phases.
261  </P>  </P>
262  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
263  <P>  <P>
264  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
265  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
# Line 89  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp Line 268  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp
268  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.
269  </P>  </P>
270  <P>  <P>
271    When <b>pcretest</b> is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
272    be linked with the <b>libreadline</b> library. When this is done, if the input
273    is from a terminal, it is read using the <b>readline()</b> function. This
274    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the <b>-help</b>
275    option states whether or not <b>readline()</b> will be used.
276    </P>
277    <P>
278  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
279  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
280  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
281  </P>  </P>
282  <P>  <P>
283  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
284  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
285  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
286  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
287    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
288  </P>  </P>
289  <P>  <P>
290  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
291  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
292  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
293  <pre>  <pre>
294    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
295  </pre>  </pre>
# Line 129  backslash, because Line 316  backslash, because
316  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
317  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
318  </P>  </P>
319  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
320  <P>  <P>
321  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
322  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,  characters, though some of these can be qualified by further characters.
323  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not  Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example, "the
324  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may  <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not always be
325  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between  a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may appear
326  the modifiers themselves.  between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between the
327    modifiers themselves. For reference, here is a complete list of modifiers. They
328    fall into several groups that are described in detail in the following
329    sections.
330    <pre>
331      <b>/8</b>              set UTF mode
332      <b>/?</b>              disable UTF validity check
333      <b>/+</b>              show remainder of subject after match
334      <b>/=</b>              show all captures (not just those that are set)
335    
336      <b>/A</b>              set PCRE_ANCHORED
337      <b>/B</b>              show compiled code
338      <b>/C</b>              set PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
339      <b>/D</b>              same as <b>/B</b> plus <b>/I</b>
340      <b>/E</b>              set PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
341      <b>/F</b>              flip byte order in compiled pattern
342      <b>/f</b>              set PCRE_FIRSTLINE
343      <b>/G</b>              find all matches (shorten string)
344      <b>/g</b>              find all matches (use startoffset)
345      <b>/I</b>              show information about pattern
346      <b>/i</b>              set PCRE_CASELESS
347      <b>/J</b>              set PCRE_DUPNAMES
348      <b>/K</b>              show backtracking control names
349      <b>/L</b>              set locale
350      <b>/M</b>              show compiled memory size
351      <b>/m</b>              set PCRE_MULTILINE
352      <b>/N</b>              set PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
353      <b>/P</b>              use the POSIX wrapper
354      <b>/S</b>              study the pattern after compilation
355      <b>/s</b>              set PCRE_DOTALL
356      <b>/T</b>              select character tables
357      <b>/U</b>              set PCRE_UNGREEDY
358      <b>/W</b>              set PCRE_UCP
359      <b>/X</b>              set PCRE_EXTRA
360      <b>/x</b>              set PCRE_EXTENDED
361      <b>/Y</b>              set PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
362      <b>/Z</b>              don't show lengths in <b>/B</b> output
363    
364      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>          set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
365      <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b>      set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
366      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>           set PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
367      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>         set PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
368      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>           set PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
369      <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b>  set PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
370      <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  set PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
371      <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b>           set PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
372    
373    </PRE>
374  </P>  </P>
375    <br><b>
376    Perl-compatible modifiers
377    </b><br>
378  <P>  <P>
379  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
380  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
381  <b>pcre_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same  <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
382  effect as they do in Perl. For example:  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
383  <pre>  <pre>
384    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
385    
386    </PRE>
387    </P>
388    <br><b>
389    Modifiers for other PCRE options
390    </b><br>
391    <P>
392    The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
393    options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
394    <pre>
395      <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
396      <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
397    
398      <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
399      <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
400    
401      <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF32          ) when using the 32-bit
402      <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK )   library
403    
404      <b>/A</b>              PCRE_ANCHORED
405      <b>/C</b>              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
406      <b>/E</b>              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
407      <b>/f</b>              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
408      <b>/J</b>              PCRE_DUPNAMES
409      <b>/N</b>              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
410      <b>/U</b>              PCRE_UNGREEDY
411      <b>/W</b>              PCRE_UCP
412      <b>/X</b>              PCRE_EXTRA
413      <b>/Y</b>              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
414      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
415      <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
416      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
417      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
418      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
419      <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
420      <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
421      <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
422  </pre>  </pre>
423  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
424  not correspond to anything in Perl:  including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
425    This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
426  <pre>  <pre>
427    <b>/A</b>    PCRE_ANCHORED    /^abc/m&#60;CRLF&#62;
   <b>/C</b>    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT  
   <b>/E</b>    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY  
   <b>/N</b>    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE  
   <b>/U</b>    PCRE_UNGREEDY  
   <b>/X</b>    PCRE_EXTRA  
428  </pre>  </pre>
429    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16/32 option, the <b>/8</b> modifier causes
430    all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
431    \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex without
432    the curly brackets.
433    </P>
434    <P>
435    Full details of the PCRE options are given in the
436    <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
437    documentation.
438    </P>
439    <br><b>
440    Finding all matches in a string
441    </b><br>
442    <P>
443  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
444  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
445  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
446  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to
447  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire string  <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire
448  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened  string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a
449  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern  shortened substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the
450  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).  pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).
451  </P>  </P>
452  <P>  <P>
453  If any call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches an  If any call to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches
454  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  an empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
455  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
456  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
457  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
458  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.  using the <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function. Normally, the start
459  </P>  offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
460    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
461    of two is used.
462    </P>
463    <br><b>
464    Other modifiers
465    </b><br>
466  <P>  <P>
467  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
468  operates.  operates.
469  </P>  </P>
470  <P>  <P>
471  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
472  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, <b>pcretest</b> should in addition output the
473  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
474  multiple copies of the same substring.  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the <b>+</b> modifier appears
475    twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
476    remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
477    capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
478    modifier because /S+ and /S++ have other meanings.
479    </P>
480    <P>
481    The <b>/=</b> modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
482    parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up to the highest
483    one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the return code
484    from <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>). Values in the offsets vector corresponding to
485    higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as "&#60;unset&#62;". This
486    modifier gives a way of checking that this is happening.
487    </P>
488    <P>
489    The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
490    output a representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally this
491    information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is also
492    present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in
493    the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated for
494    different internal link sizes.
495    </P>
496    <P>
497    The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
498    <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the <b>/B</b> and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
499    </P>
500    <P>
501    The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
502    2-byte and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
503    the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were compiled on a
504    host with a different endianness. This feature is not available when the POSIX
505    interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
506    specified. See also the section about saving and reloading compiled patterns
507    below.
508    </P>
509    <P>
510    The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
511    compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
512    so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre[16|32]_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
513    pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
514    </P>
515    <P>
516    The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking
517    control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>. It causes
518    <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre[16|32]_extra</b> block if one has not already
519    been created by a call to <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b>, and to set the
520    PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that
521    <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> is called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field
522    points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b>
523    prints the string to which it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by
524    itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
525  </P>  </P>
526  <P>  <P>
527  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
# Line 190  example, Line 530  example,
530    /pattern/Lfr_FR    /pattern/Lfr_FR
531  </pre>  </pre>
532  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
533  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the  <b>pcre[16|32]_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for
534  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the  the locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b> when compiling
535  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  the regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> (or <b>/T</b>) modifier, NULL is
536  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression on which it appears.  passed as the tables pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression
537    on which it appears.
538  </P>  </P>
539  <P>  <P>
540  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to hold
541  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the
542  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a  <b>pcre[16|32]</b> block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is
543  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the
544    JIT compiled code is also output.
545  </P>  </P>
546  <P>  <P>
547  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes <b>/I</b>.  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> to be called after the
548  It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
549  compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  matched. There are a number of qualifying characters that may follow <b>/S</b>.
550  output.  They may appear in any order.
551  </P>  </P>
552  <P>  <P>
553  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the  If <b>S</b> is followed by an exclamation mark, <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> is called
554  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  with the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to return a
555  facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns  <b>pcre_extra</b> block, even when studying discovers no useful information.
 that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not  
 available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the  
 <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  
 reloading compiled patterns below.  
556  </P>  </P>
557  <P>  <P>
558  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the  If <b>/S</b> is followed by a second S character, it suppresses studying, even
559  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line option. This makes
560  matched.  it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
561    never studied, independently of <b>-s</b>. This feature is used in the test
562    files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
563  </P>  </P>
564  <P>  <P>
565  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  If the <b>/S</b> modifier is followed by a + character, the call to
566  pattern to be output.  <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> is made with all the JIT study options, requesting
567    just-in-time optimization support if it is available, for both normal and
568    partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling modes, you can
569    follow <b>/S+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
570    <pre>
571      1  normal match only
572      2  soft partial match only
573      3  normal match and soft partial match
574      4  hard partial match only
575      6  soft and hard partial match
576      7  all three modes (default)
577    </pre>
578    If <b>/S++</b> is used instead of <b>/S+</b> (with or without a following digit),
579    the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
580    when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
581  </P>  </P>
582  <P>  <P>
583  The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  Note that there is also an independent <b>/+</b> modifier; it must not be given
584  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  immediately after <b>/S</b> or <b>/S+</b> because this will be misinterpreted.
 <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, and <b>/+</b> are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if <b>/i</b> is  
 present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if <b>/m</b> is present. The wrapper functions  
 force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
585  </P>  </P>
586  <P>  <P>
587  The <b>/8</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8  If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically be used
588  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,  when <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> is run, except when incompatible run-time options
589  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also  are specified. For more details, see the
590  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the  <a href="pcrejit.html"><b>pcrejit</b></a>
591  \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.  documentation. See also the <b>\J</b> escape sequence below for a way of
592    setting the size of the JIT stack.
593  </P>  </P>
594  <P>  <P>
595  If the <b>/?</b> modifier is used with <b>/8</b>, it causes <b>pcretest</b> to  Finally, if <b>/S</b> is followed by a minus character, JIT compilation is
596  call <b>pcre_compile()</b> with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  suppressed, even if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line
597  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  option. This makes it possible to specify that JIT is never to be used for
598    certain patterns.
599    </P>
600    <P>
601    The <b>/T</b> modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
602    set of built-in character tables to be passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b>. It
603    is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
604    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
605    <pre>
606      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
607            pcre_chartables.c.dist
608      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
609    </pre>
610    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
611    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
612    </P>
613    <br><b>
614    Using the POSIX wrapper API
615    </b><br>
616    <P>
617    The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
618    API rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When
619    <b>/P</b> is set, the following modifiers set options for the <b>regcomp()</b>
620    function:
621    <pre>
622      /i    REG_ICASE
623      /m    REG_NEWLINE
624      /N    REG_NOSUB
625      /s    REG_DOTALL     )
626      /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
627      /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
628      /8    REG_UTF8       )
629    </pre>
630    The <b>/+</b> modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
631    ignored.
632  </P>  </P>
633  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
634  <P>  <P>
635  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
636  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are  white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these
637  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
638  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
639  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
640  recognized:  recognized:
641  <pre>  <pre>
642    \a         alarm (= BEL)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
643    \b         backspace    \b         backspace (\x08)
644    \e         escape    \e         escape (\x27)
645    \f         formfeed    \f         form feed (\x0c)
646    \n         newline    \n         newline (\x0a)
647    \r         carriage return    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
648    \t         tab    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
649    \v         vertical tab    \t         tab (\x09)
650    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
651    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
652    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode                 a byte unless &#62; 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit or 32-bit mode
653    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
654    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
655    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
656    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
657      \Cdd       call pcre[16|32]_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
658      \Cname     call pcre[16|32]_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
659                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
660    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time
661    \C-        do not supply a callout function    \C-        do not supply a callout function
662    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
663    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
664    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
665    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \D         use the <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b> match function
666    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
667      \Gdd       call pcre[16|32]_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
668      \Gname     call pcre[16|32]_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
669                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
670    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match    \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any number of digits)
671    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting    \L         call pcre[16|32]_get_substringlist() after a successful match
672    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
673    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
674    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>                 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
675      \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
676      \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
677                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
678      \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
679      \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
680    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
681    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
682    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
683    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16|32]_CHECK option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
684                 this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then any number of digits); this sets the <i>startoffset</i>
685  </pre>                 argument for <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
686  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the    \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
687  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing    \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
688  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.    \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
689  </P>    \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
690  <P>    \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
691  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  </pre>
692  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> field of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data  The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the <b>/8</b> modifier on
693  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexadecimal
694  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  digits inside the braces; invalid values provoke error messages.
695  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  </P>
696  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  <P>
697  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  Note that \xhh specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8 mode;
698  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing
699    purposes. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
700    UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127.
701    When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \x{hh} generates one byte
702    for values less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
703    </P>
704    <P>
705    In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
706    possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
707    </P>
708    <P>
709    In UTF-32 mode, all 4- to 8-digit \x{...} values are accepted. This makes it
710    possible to construct invalid UTF-32 sequences for testing purposes.
711    </P>
712    <P>
713    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
714    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
715    </P>
716    <P>
717    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
718    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
719    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
720    input.
721    </P>
722    <P>
723    The <b>\J</b> escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
724    used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
725    is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
726    necessary only for very complicated patterns.
727    </P>
728    <P>
729    If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> several times,
730    with different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
731    fields of the <b>pcre[16|32]_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
732    numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to complete without
733    error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
734    <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might
735    have been set up by the <b>/S+</b> qualifier of <b>-s+</b> option is disabled.
736    </P>
737    <P>
738    The <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
739    that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
740    matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
741    matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
742    of subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how
743    much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
744    needed to complete the match attempt.
745  </P>  </P>
746  <P>  <P>
747  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
748  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
749  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.  the call of <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
750  </P>  </P>
751  <P>  <P>
752  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
753  API to be used, only \B and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B,
754  REG_NOTEOL to be passed to <b>regexec()</b> respectively.  \N, and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
755    to be passed to <b>regexec()</b>.
756    </P>
757    <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
758    <P>
759    By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
760    <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to match each data line. PCRE also supports an
761    alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
762    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
763    functions are described in the
764    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
765    documentation.
766  </P>  </P>
767  <P>  <P>
768  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
769  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is used.
770  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
771  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
772  </P>  found. This is always the shortest possible match.
773  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  </P>
774  <P>  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
775  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  <P>
776  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
777  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, is being used.
778  when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  </P>
779  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  <P>
780  of an interactive pcretest run.  When a match succeeds, <b>pcretest</b> outputs the list of captured substrings
781    that <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
782    matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
783    PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
784    substring when <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that
785    this is the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it
786    may include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
787    \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other return, <b>pcretest</b> outputs
788    the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
789    a failed UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
790    the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the output vector is
791    at least two. Here is an example of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
792  <pre>  <pre>
793    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
794    PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
795    
796      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
797    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
# Line 337  of an interactive pcretest run. Line 800  of an interactive pcretest run.
800    data&#62; xyz    data&#62; xyz
801    No match    No match
802  </pre>  </pre>
803  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
804  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  returned by <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In the
805  pattern. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0  following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
806  is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
807    substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.
808    <pre>
809        re&#62; /(a)|(b)/
810      data&#62; a
811       0: a
812       1: a
813      data&#62; b
814       0: b
815       1: &#60;unset&#62;
816       2: b
817    </pre>
818    If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \xhh
819    escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set. Otherwise they
820    are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the definition of non-printing
821    characters. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring
822    0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
823  this:  this:
824  <pre>  <pre>
825      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
# Line 360  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 839  matching attempts are output in sequence
839     0: ipp     0: ipp
840     1: pp     1: pp
841  </pre>  </pre>
842  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
843    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \&#62;4 is past the end of
844    the subject string):
845    <pre>
846        re&#62; /xyz/
847      data&#62; xyz\&#62;4
848      Error -24 (bad offset value)
849    </PRE>
850  </P>  </P>
851  <P>  <P>
852  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a
# Line 371  length (that is, the return from the ext Line 857  length (that is, the return from the ext
857  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
858  </P>  </P>
859  <P>  <P>
860  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
861  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
862  included in data by means of the \n escape.  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
863    the newline sequence setting).
864    </P>
865    <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
866    <P>
867    When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
868    means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
869    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
870    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
871    <pre>
872        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
873      data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
874       0: tangerine
875       1: tang
876       2: tan
877    </pre>
878    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
879    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
880    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
881    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
882    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
883    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
884  </P>  </P>
885  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  <P>
886    If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
887    at the end of the longest match. For example:
888    <pre>
889        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
890      data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
891       0: tangerine
892       1: tang
893       2: tan
894       0: tang
895       1: tan
896       0: tan
897    </pre>
898    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
899    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
900    </P>
901    <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
902    <P>
903    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
904    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
905    match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
906    example:
907    <pre>
908        re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
909      data&#62; 23ja\P\D
910      Partial match: 23ja
911      data&#62; n05\R\D
912       0: n05
913    </pre>
914    For further information about partial matching, see the
915    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
916    documentation.
917    </P>
918    <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
919  <P>  <P>
920  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
921  is called during matching. By default, it displays the callout number, the  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
922  start and current positions in the text at the callout time, and the next  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
923  pattern item to be tested. For example, the output  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
924    tested. For example:
925  <pre>  <pre>
926    ---&#62;pqrabcdef    ---&#62;pqrabcdef
927      0    ^  ^     \d      0    ^  ^     \d
928  </pre>  </pre>
929  indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt
930  fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  starting at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
931  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just one  the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just
932  circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.  one circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
933  </P>  </P>
934  <P>  <P>
935  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
# Line 405  example: Line 946  example:
946    +10 ^ ^    +10 ^ ^
947     0: E*     0: E*
948  </pre>  </pre>
949    If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
950    a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
951    <pre>
952        re&#62; /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
953      data&#62; abc
954      ---&#62;abc
955       +0 ^       a
956       +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
957      +10 ^^      b
958      Latest Mark: X
959      +11 ^ ^     c
960      +12 ^  ^
961       0: abc
962    </pre>
963    The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
964    of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
965    mark reverts to being unset, the text "&#60;unset&#62;" is output.
966    </P>
967    <P>
968  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
969  default, but you can use an \C item in a data line (as described above) to  default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
970  change this.  change this and other parameters of the callout.
971  </P>  </P>
972  <P>  <P>
973  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
# Line 416  the Line 976  the
976  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
977  documentation.  documentation.
978  </P>  </P>
979  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
980    <P>
981    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
982    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
983    therefore shown as hex escapes.
984    </P>
985    <P>
986    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
987    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
988    the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
989    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
990    </P>
991    <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
992  <P>  <P>
993  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
994  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
995  specified.  specified.
996  </P>  </P>
997  <P>  <P>
# Line 432  For example: Line 1004  For example:
1004  See the  See the
1005  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
1006  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
1007    Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
1008    JIT data cannot be saved.
1009  </P>  </P>
1010  <P>  <P>
1011  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
# Line 440  written as four bytes in big-endian orde Line 1014  written as four bytes in big-endian orde
1014  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
1015  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
1016  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
1017  follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,  (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
1018  <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.  writing the file, <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
1019  </P>  </P>
1020  <P>  <P>
1021  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifing &#60; and a file  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifying &#60; and a file
1022  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
1023  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
1024  characters.  characters.
1025  For example:  For example:
1026  <pre>  <pre>
1027     re&#62; &#60;/some/file     re&#62; &#60;/some/file
1028    Compiled regex loaded from /some/file    Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
1029    No study data    No study data
1030  </pre>  </pre>
1031  When the pattern has been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in  If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
1032  the usual way.  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
1033    been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
1034  </P>  </P>
1035  <P>  <P>
1036  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
1037  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
1038  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
1039  a SPARC machine.  a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a host with different
1040    endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
1041    <pre>
1042      Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
1043    </pre>
1044    The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
1045    endianness. These are reloaded using "&#60;!" instead of just "&#60;". This suppresses
1046    the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on all hosts. It also
1047    forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.
1048  </P>  </P>
1049  <P>  <P>
1050  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
# Line 478  string using a reloaded pattern is likel Line 1061  string using a reloaded pattern is likel
1061  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
1062  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
1063  </P>  </P>
1064  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
1065  <P>  <P>
1066  Philip Hazel &#60;ph10@cam.ac.uk&#62;  <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcre16</b>(3), <b>pcre32</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3),
1067    <b>pcrecallout</b>(3),
1068    <b>pcrejit</b>, <b>pcrematching</b>(3), <b>pcrepartial</b>(d),
1069    <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
1070    </P>
1071    <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
1072    <P>
1073    Philip Hazel
1074  <br>  <br>
1075  University Computing Service,  University Computing Service
1076    <br>
1077    Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
1078  <br>  <br>
 Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  
1079  </P>  </P>
1080    <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
1081  <P>  <P>
1082  Last updated: 10 September 2004  Last updated: 22 February 2013
1083    <br>
1084    Copyright &copy; 1997-2013 University of Cambridge.
1085  <br>  <br>
 Copyright &copy; 1997-2004 University of Cambridge.  
1086  <p>  <p>
1087  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
1088  </p>  </p>

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