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# Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr
14  <br>  <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">INPUT DATA FORMAT</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DESCRIPTION</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">DATA LINES</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
24  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
25    <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
26    <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
27    <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">CALLOUTS</a>
28    <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
29    <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
30    <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">SEE ALSO</a>
31    <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">AUTHOR</a>
32    <li><a name="TOC17" href="#SEC17">REVISION</a>
33  </ul>  </ul>
34  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
35  <P>  <P>
36  <b>pcretest [-C] [-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]</b>
37  <b>[destination]</b>  <br>
38  </P>  <br>
 <P>  
39  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
40  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
41  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
# Line 37  details of the regular expressions thems Line 44  details of the regular expressions thems
44  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
45  options, see the  options, see the
46  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
47    ,
48    <a href="pcre16.html"><b>pcre16</b></a>
49    and
50    <a href="pcre32.html"><b>pcre32</b></a>
51  documentation.  documentation.
52  </P>  </P>
53  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  <P>
54    The input for <b>pcretest</b> is a sequence of regular expression patterns and
55    strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each
56    match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
57    exactly what is output.
58    </P>
59    <P>
60    As PCRE has evolved, it has acquired many different features, and as a result,
61    <b>pcretest</b> now has rather a lot of obscure options for testing every
62    possible feature. Some of these options are specifically designed for use in
63    conjunction with the test script and data files that are distributed as part of
64    PCRE, and are unlikely to be of use otherwise. They are all documented here,
65    but without much justification.
66    </P>
67    <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">INPUT DATA FORMAT</a><br>
68    <P>
69    Input to <b>pcretest</b> is processed line by line, either by calling the C
70    library's <b>fgets()</b> function, or via the <b>libreadline</b> library (see
71    below). In Unix-like environments, <b>fgets()</b> treats any bytes other than
72    newline as data characters. However, in some Windows environments character 26
73    (hex 1A) causes an immediate end of file, and no further data is read. For
74    maximum portability, therefore, it is safest to use only ASCII characters in
75    <b>pcretest</b> input files.
76    </P>
77    <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES</a><br>
78    <P>
79    From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The original one
80    supports 8-bit character strings, whereas the newer 16-bit library supports
81    character strings encoded in 16-bit units. From release 8.32, a third library
82    can be built, supporting character strings encoded in 32-bit units. The
83    <b>pcretest</b> program can be used to test all three libraries. However, it is
84    itself still an 8-bit program, reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output.
85    When testing the 16-bit or 32-bit library, the patterns and data strings are
86    converted to 16- or 32-bit format before being passed to the PCRE library
87    functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for output.
88    </P>
89    <P>
90    References to functions and structures of the form <b>pcre[16|32]_xx</b> below
91    mean "<b>pcre_xx</b> when using the 8-bit library, <b>pcre16_xx</b> when using
92    the 16-bit library, or <b>pcre32_xx</b> when using the 32-bit library".
93    </P>
94    <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a><br>
95    <P>
96    <b>-8</b>
97    If both the 8-bit library has been built, this option causes the 8-bit library
98    to be used (which is the default); if the 8-bit library has not been built,
99    this option causes an error.
100    </P>
101    <P>
102    <b>-16</b>
103    If both the 8-bit or the 32-bit, and the 16-bit libraries have been built, this
104    option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the 16-bit library has been
105    built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 32-bit
106    library has been built, this option causes an error.
107    </P>
108    <P>
109    <b>-32</b>
110    If both the 8-bit or the 16-bit, and the 32-bit libraries have been built, this
111    option causes the 32-bit library to be used. If only the 32-bit library has been
112    built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 16-bit
113    library has been built, this option causes an error.
114    </P>
115    <P>
116    <b>-b</b>
117    Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/B</b> (show byte code) modifier; the
118    internal form is output after compilation.
119    </P>
120  <P>  <P>
121  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
122  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
123  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit with zero exit
124    code. All other options are ignored.
125    </P>
126    <P>
127    <b>-C</b> <i>option</i>
128    Output information about a specific build-time option, then exit. This
129    functionality is intended for use in scripts such as <b>RunTest</b>. The
130    following options output the value and set the exit code as indicated:
131    <pre>
132      ebcdic-nl  the code for LF (= NL) in an EBCDIC environment:
133                   0x15 or 0x25
134                   0 if used in an ASCII environment
135                   exit code is always 0
136      linksize   the configured internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
137                   exit code is set to the link size
138      newline    the default newline setting:
139                   CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
140                   exit code is always 0
141    </pre>
142    The following options output 1 for true or 0 for false, and set the exit code
143    to the same value:
144    <pre>
145      ebcdic     compiled for an EBCDIC environment
146      jit        just-in-time support is available
147      pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
148      pcre32     the 32-bit library was built
149      pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
150      ucp        Unicode property support is available
151      utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 and/or UTF-32 support
152                   is available
153    </pre>
154    If an unknown option is given, an error message is output; the exit code is 0.
155  </P>  </P>
156  <P>  <P>
157  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
158  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
159  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
160    <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
161    </P>
162    <P>
163    <b>-dfa</b>
164    Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
165    alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead
166    of the standard <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
167    </P>
168    <P>
169    <b>-help</b>
170    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
171  </P>  </P>
172  <P>  <P>
173  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
174  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
175  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
176  </P>  </P>
177  <P>  <P>
178    <b>-M</b>
179    Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes
180    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
181    calling <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.
182    </P>
183    <P>
184  <b>-m</b>  <b>-m</b>
185  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
186  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. The size is given in
187  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.  bytes for both libraries.
188  </P>  </P>
189  <P>  <P>
190  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
191  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
192  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value is 45, which is enough  <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The
193  for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for
194  matching calls by including \O in the data line (see below).  <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or 22 different matches for
195    <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>.
196    The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by including \O
197    in the data line (see below).
198  </P>  </P>
199  <P>  <P>
200  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
201  Behave as if each regex has <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
202  to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is set.  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
203    set. This option can be used only with the 8-bit library.
204    </P>
205    <P>
206    <b>-q</b>
207    Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
208    </P>
209    <P>
210    <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
211    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to <i>size</i>
212    megabytes.
213    </P>
214    <P>
215    <b>-s</b> or <b>-s+</b>
216    Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/S</b> modifier; in other words, force each
217    pattern to be studied. If <b>-s+</b> is used, all the JIT compile options are
218    passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b>, causing just-in-time optimization to be set
219    up if it is available, for both full and partial matching. Specific JIT compile
220    options can be selected by following <b>-s+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to
221    7, which selects the JIT compile modes as follows:
222    <pre>
223      1  normal match only
224      2  soft partial match only
225      3  normal match and soft partial match
226      4  hard partial match only
227      6  soft and hard partial match
228      7  all three modes (default)
229    </pre>
230    If <b>-s++</b> is used instead of <b>-s+</b> (with or without a following digit),
231    the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
232    when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
233    <br>
234    <br>
235    Note that there are pattern options that can override <b>-s</b>, either
236    specifying no studying at all, or suppressing JIT compilation.
237    <br>
238    <br>
239    If the <b>/I</b> or <b>/D</b> option is present on a pattern (requesting output
240    about the compiled pattern), information about the result of studying is not
241    included when studying is caused only by <b>-s</b> and neither <b>-i</b> nor
242    <b>-d</b> is present on the command line. This behaviour means that the output
243    from tests that are run with and without <b>-s</b> should be identical, except
244    when options that output information about the actual running of a match are
245    set.
246    <br>
247    <br>
248    The <b>-M</b>, <b>-t</b>, and <b>-tm</b> options, which give information about
249    resources used, are likely to produce different output with and without
250    <b>-s</b>. Output may also differ if the <b>/C</b> option is present on an
251    individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process, and
252    this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the pattern
253    contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same reason. The
254    <b>-s</b> command line option can be overridden for specific patterns that
255    should never be studied (see the <b>/S</b> pattern modifier below).
256  </P>  </P>
257  <P>  <P>
258  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
259  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
260  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
261  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
262  timing will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
263    used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
264    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
265    to iterate 500000 times.
266    </P>
267    <P>
268    <b>-tm</b>
269    This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
270    compile or study phases.
271  </P>  </P>
272  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
273  <P>  <P>
274  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
275  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
# Line 89  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp Line 278  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp
278  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.
279  </P>  </P>
280  <P>  <P>
281    When <b>pcretest</b> is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
282    be linked with the <b>libreadline</b> library. When this is done, if the input
283    is from a terminal, it is read using the <b>readline()</b> function. This
284    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the <b>-help</b>
285    option states whether or not <b>readline()</b> will be used.
286    </P>
287    <P>
288  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
289  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
290  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
291  </P>  </P>
292  <P>  <P>
293  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
294  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
295  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
296  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
297    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
298  </P>  </P>
299  <P>  <P>
300  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
301  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
302  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
303  <pre>  <pre>
304    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
305  </pre>  </pre>
# Line 129  backslash, because Line 326  backslash, because
326  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
327  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
328  </P>  </P>
329  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
330  <P>  <P>
331  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
332  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,  characters, though some of these can be qualified by further characters.
333  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not  Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example, "the
334  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may  <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not always be
335  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between  a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may appear
336  the modifiers themselves.  between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between the
337    modifiers themselves. For reference, here is a complete list of modifiers. They
338    fall into several groups that are described in detail in the following
339    sections.
340    <pre>
341      <b>/8</b>              set UTF mode
342      <b>/9</b>              set PCRE_NEVER_UTF (locks out UTF mode)
343      <b>/?</b>              disable UTF validity check
344      <b>/+</b>              show remainder of subject after match
345      <b>/=</b>              show all captures (not just those that are set)
346    
347      <b>/A</b>              set PCRE_ANCHORED
348      <b>/B</b>              show compiled code
349      <b>/C</b>              set PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
350      <b>/D</b>              same as <b>/B</b> plus <b>/I</b>
351      <b>/E</b>              set PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
352      <b>/F</b>              flip byte order in compiled pattern
353      <b>/f</b>              set PCRE_FIRSTLINE
354      <b>/G</b>              find all matches (shorten string)
355      <b>/g</b>              find all matches (use startoffset)
356      <b>/I</b>              show information about pattern
357      <b>/i</b>              set PCRE_CASELESS
358      <b>/J</b>              set PCRE_DUPNAMES
359      <b>/K</b>              show backtracking control names
360      <b>/L</b>              set locale
361      <b>/M</b>              show compiled memory size
362      <b>/m</b>              set PCRE_MULTILINE
363      <b>/N</b>              set PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
364      <b>/P</b>              use the POSIX wrapper
365      <b>/S</b>              study the pattern after compilation
366      <b>/s</b>              set PCRE_DOTALL
367      <b>/T</b>              select character tables
368      <b>/U</b>              set PCRE_UNGREEDY
369      <b>/W</b>              set PCRE_UCP
370      <b>/X</b>              set PCRE_EXTRA
371      <b>/x</b>              set PCRE_EXTENDED
372      <b>/Y</b>              set PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
373      <b>/Z</b>              don't show lengths in <b>/B</b> output
374    
375      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>          set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
376      <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b>      set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
377      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>           set PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
378      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>         set PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
379      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>           set PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
380      <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b>  set PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
381      <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  set PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
382      <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b>           set PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
383    
384    </PRE>
385  </P>  </P>
386    <br><b>
387    Perl-compatible modifiers
388    </b><br>
389  <P>  <P>
390  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
391  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
392  <b>pcre_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same  <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
393  effect as they do in Perl. For example:  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
394  <pre>  <pre>
395    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
396    
397    </PRE>
398    </P>
399    <br><b>
400    Modifiers for other PCRE options
401    </b><br>
402    <P>
403    The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
404    options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
405    <pre>
406      <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
407      <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
408    
409      <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
410      <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
411    
412      <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF32          ) when using the 32-bit
413      <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK )   library
414    
415      <b>/9</b>              PCRE_NEVER_UTF
416      <b>/A</b>              PCRE_ANCHORED
417      <b>/C</b>              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
418      <b>/E</b>              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
419      <b>/f</b>              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
420      <b>/J</b>              PCRE_DUPNAMES
421      <b>/N</b>              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
422      <b>/U</b>              PCRE_UNGREEDY
423      <b>/W</b>              PCRE_UCP
424      <b>/X</b>              PCRE_EXTRA
425      <b>/Y</b>              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
426      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
427      <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
428      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
429      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
430      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
431      <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
432      <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
433      <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
434  </pre>  </pre>
435  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
436  not correspond to anything in Perl:  including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
437    This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
438  <pre>  <pre>
439    <b>/A</b>    PCRE_ANCHORED    /^abc/m&#60;CRLF&#62;
   <b>/C</b>    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT  
   <b>/E</b>    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY  
   <b>/N</b>    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE  
   <b>/U</b>    PCRE_UNGREEDY  
   <b>/X</b>    PCRE_EXTRA  
440  </pre>  </pre>
441    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16/32 option, the <b>/8</b> modifier causes
442    all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
443    \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex without
444    the curly brackets.
445    </P>
446    <P>
447    Full details of the PCRE options are given in the
448    <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
449    documentation.
450    </P>
451    <br><b>
452    Finding all matches in a string
453    </b><br>
454    <P>
455  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
456  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
457  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
458  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to
459  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire string  <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire
460  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened  string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a
461  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern  shortened substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the
462  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).  pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).
463  </P>  </P>
464  <P>  <P>
465  If any call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches an  If any call to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches
466  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  an empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
467  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
468  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
469  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
470  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.  using the <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function. Normally, the start
471  </P>  offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
472    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
473    of two is used.
474    </P>
475    <br><b>
476    Other modifiers
477    </b><br>
478  <P>  <P>
479  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
480  operates.  operates.
481  </P>  </P>
482  <P>  <P>
483  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
484  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, <b>pcretest</b> should in addition output the
485  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
486  multiple copies of the same substring.  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the <b>+</b> modifier appears
487    twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
488    remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
489    capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
490    modifier because /S+ and /S++ have other meanings.
491    </P>
492    <P>
493    The <b>/=</b> modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
494    parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up to the highest
495    one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the return code
496    from <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>). Values in the offsets vector corresponding to
497    higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as "&#60;unset&#62;". This
498    modifier gives a way of checking that this is happening.
499    </P>
500    <P>
501    The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
502    output a representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally this
503    information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is also
504    present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in
505    the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated for
506    different internal link sizes.
507    </P>
508    <P>
509    The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
510    <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the <b>/B</b> and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
511    </P>
512    <P>
513    The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
514    2-byte and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
515    the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were compiled on a
516    host with a different endianness. This feature is not available when the POSIX
517    interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
518    specified. See also the section about saving and reloading compiled patterns
519    below.
520    </P>
521    <P>
522    The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
523    compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
524    so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre[16|32]_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
525    pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
526    </P>
527    <P>
528    The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking
529    control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>. It causes
530    <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre[16|32]_extra</b> block if one has not already
531    been created by a call to <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b>, and to set the
532    PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that
533    <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> is called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field
534    points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b>
535    prints the string to which it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by
536    itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
537  </P>  </P>
538  <P>  <P>
539  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
# Line 190  example, Line 542  example,
542    /pattern/Lfr_FR    /pattern/Lfr_FR
543  </pre>  </pre>
544  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
545  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the  <b>pcre[16|32]_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for
546  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the  the locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b> when compiling
547  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  the regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> (or <b>/T</b>) modifier, NULL is
548  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression on which it appears.  passed as the tables pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression
549    on which it appears.
550  </P>  </P>
551  <P>  <P>
552  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to hold
553  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the
554  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a  <b>pcre[16|32]</b> block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is
555  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the
556    JIT compiled code is also output.
557  </P>  </P>
558  <P>  <P>
559  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes <b>/I</b>.  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> to be called after the
560  It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
561  compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  matched. There are a number of qualifying characters that may follow <b>/S</b>.
562  output.  They may appear in any order.
563  </P>  </P>
564  <P>  <P>
565  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the  If <b>S</b> is followed by an exclamation mark, <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> is called
566  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  with the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to return a
567  facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns  <b>pcre_extra</b> block, even when studying discovers no useful information.
 that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not  
 available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the  
 <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  
 reloading compiled patterns below.  
568  </P>  </P>
569  <P>  <P>
570  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the  If <b>/S</b> is followed by a second S character, it suppresses studying, even
571  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line option. This makes
572  matched.  it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
573    never studied, independently of <b>-s</b>. This feature is used in the test
574    files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
575  </P>  </P>
576  <P>  <P>
577  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  If the <b>/S</b> modifier is followed by a + character, the call to
578  pattern to be output.  <b>pcre[16|32]_study()</b> is made with all the JIT study options, requesting
579    just-in-time optimization support if it is available, for both normal and
580    partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling modes, you can
581    follow <b>/S+</b> with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
582    <pre>
583      1  normal match only
584      2  soft partial match only
585      3  normal match and soft partial match
586      4  hard partial match only
587      6  soft and hard partial match
588      7  all three modes (default)
589    </pre>
590    If <b>/S++</b> is used instead of <b>/S+</b> (with or without a following digit),
591    the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
592    when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
593  </P>  </P>
594  <P>  <P>
595  The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  Note that there is also an independent <b>/+</b> modifier; it must not be given
596  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  immediately after <b>/S</b> or <b>/S+</b> because this will be misinterpreted.
 <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, and <b>/+</b> are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if <b>/i</b> is  
 present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if <b>/m</b> is present. The wrapper functions  
 force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
597  </P>  </P>
598  <P>  <P>
599  The <b>/8</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8  If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically be used
600  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,  when <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> is run, except when incompatible run-time options
601  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also  are specified. For more details, see the
602  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the  <a href="pcrejit.html"><b>pcrejit</b></a>
603  \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.  documentation. See also the <b>\J</b> escape sequence below for a way of
604    setting the size of the JIT stack.
605  </P>  </P>
606  <P>  <P>
607  If the <b>/?</b> modifier is used with <b>/8</b>, it causes <b>pcretest</b> to  Finally, if <b>/S</b> is followed by a minus character, JIT compilation is
608  call <b>pcre_compile()</b> with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  suppressed, even if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line
609  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  option. This makes it possible to specify that JIT is never to be used for
610    certain patterns.
611    </P>
612    <P>
613    The <b>/T</b> modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
614    set of built-in character tables to be passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_compile()</b>. It
615    is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
616    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
617    <pre>
618      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
619            pcre_chartables.c.dist
620      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
621    </pre>
622    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
623    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
624    </P>
625    <br><b>
626    Using the POSIX wrapper API
627    </b><br>
628    <P>
629    The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
630    API rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When
631    <b>/P</b> is set, the following modifiers set options for the <b>regcomp()</b>
632    function:
633    <pre>
634      /i    REG_ICASE
635      /m    REG_NEWLINE
636      /N    REG_NOSUB
637      /s    REG_DOTALL     )
638      /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
639      /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
640      /8    REG_UTF8       )
641    </pre>
642    The <b>/+</b> modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
643    ignored.
644  </P>  </P>
645  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
646  <P>  <P>
647  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
648  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are  white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these
649  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
650  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
651  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
652  recognized:  recognized:
653  <pre>  <pre>
654    \a         alarm (= BEL)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
655    \b         backspace    \b         backspace (\x08)
656    \e         escape    \e         escape (\x27)
657    \f         formfeed    \f         form feed (\x0c)
658    \n         newline    \n         newline (\x0a)
659    \r         carriage return    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
660    \t         tab    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
661    \v         vertical tab    \t         tab (\x09)
662    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
663    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
664    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode                 a byte unless &#62; 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit or 32-bit mode
665    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
666    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
667    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
668    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
669      \Cdd       call pcre[16|32]_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
670      \Cname     call pcre[16|32]_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
671                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
672    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time
673    \C-        do not supply a callout function    \C-        do not supply a callout function
674    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
675    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
676    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
677    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \D         use the <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b> match function
678    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
679      \Gdd       call pcre[16|32]_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
680      \Gname     call pcre[16|32]_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
681                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
682    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match    \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any number of digits)
683    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting    \L         call pcre[16|32]_get_substringlist() after a successful match
684    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
685    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
686    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>                 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
687      \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
688      \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
689                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
690      \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
691      \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
692    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
693    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
694    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
695    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16|32]_CHECK option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
696                 this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then any number of digits); this sets the <i>startoffset</i>
697  </pre>                 argument for <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
698  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the    \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
699  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing    \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
700  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.    \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
701  </P>    \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
702  <P>    \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>
703  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  </pre>
704  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> field of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data  The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the <b>/8</b> modifier on
705  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexadecimal
706  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  digits inside the braces; invalid values provoke error messages.
707  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  </P>
708  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  <P>
709  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  Note that \xhh specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8 mode;
710  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing
711    purposes. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
712    UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127.
713    When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \x{hh} generates one byte
714    for values less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
715    </P>
716    <P>
717    In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
718    possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
719    </P>
720    <P>
721    In UTF-32 mode, all 4- to 8-digit \x{...} values are accepted. This makes it
722    possible to construct invalid UTF-32 sequences for testing purposes.
723    </P>
724    <P>
725    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
726    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
727    </P>
728    <P>
729    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
730    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
731    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
732    input.
733    </P>
734    <P>
735    The <b>\J</b> escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
736    used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
737    is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
738    necessary only for very complicated patterns.
739    </P>
740    <P>
741    If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> several times,
742    with different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
743    fields of the <b>pcre[16|32]_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
744    numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to complete without
745    error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
746    <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might
747    have been set up by the <b>/S+</b> qualifier of <b>-s+</b> option is disabled.
748    </P>
749    <P>
750    The <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
751    that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
752    matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
753    matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
754    of subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how
755    much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
756    needed to complete the match attempt.
757  </P>  </P>
758  <P>  <P>
759  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
760  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
761  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.  the call of <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
762  </P>  </P>
763  <P>  <P>
764  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
765  API to be used, only \B and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B,
766  REG_NOTEOL to be passed to <b>regexec()</b> respectively.  \N, and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
767    to be passed to <b>regexec()</b>.
768    </P>
769    <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
770    <P>
771    By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
772    <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> to match each data line. PCRE also supports an
773    alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
774    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
775    functions are described in the
776    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
777    documentation.
778  </P>  </P>
779  <P>  <P>
780  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
781  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is used.
782  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
783  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
784  </P>  found. This is always the shortest possible match.
785  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  </P>
786  <P>  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
787  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  <P>
788  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
789  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, is being used.
790  when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  </P>
791  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  <P>
792  of an interactive pcretest run.  When a match succeeds, <b>pcretest</b> outputs the list of captured substrings
793    that <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
794    matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
795    PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
796    substring when <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that
797    this is the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it
798    may include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
799    \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other return, <b>pcretest</b> outputs
800    the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
801    a failed UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
802    the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the output vector is
803    at least two. Here is an example of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
804  <pre>  <pre>
805    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
806    PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
807    
808      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
809    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
# Line 337  of an interactive pcretest run. Line 812  of an interactive pcretest run.
812    data&#62; xyz    data&#62; xyz
813    No match    No match
814  </pre>  </pre>
815  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
816  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  returned by <b>pcre[16|32]_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In the
817  pattern. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0  following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
818  is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
819    substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.
820    <pre>
821        re&#62; /(a)|(b)/
822      data&#62; a
823       0: a
824       1: a
825      data&#62; b
826       0: b
827       1: &#60;unset&#62;
828       2: b
829    </pre>
830    If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \xhh
831    escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set. Otherwise they
832    are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the definition of non-printing
833    characters. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring
834    0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
835  this:  this:
836  <pre>  <pre>
837      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
# Line 360  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 851  matching attempts are output in sequence
851     0: ipp     0: ipp
852     1: pp     1: pp
853  </pre>  </pre>
854  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
855    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \&#62;4 is past the end of
856    the subject string):
857    <pre>
858        re&#62; /xyz/
859      data&#62; xyz\&#62;4
860      Error -24 (bad offset value)
861    </PRE>
862  </P>  </P>
863  <P>  <P>
864  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a
# Line 371  length (that is, the return from the ext Line 869  length (that is, the return from the ext
869  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
870  </P>  </P>
871  <P>  <P>
872  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
873  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
874  included in data by means of the \n escape.  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
875    the newline sequence setting).
876    </P>
877    <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
878    <P>
879    When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
880    means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
881    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
882    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
883    <pre>
884        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
885      data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
886       0: tangerine
887       1: tang
888       2: tan
889    </pre>
890    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
891    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
892    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
893    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
894    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
895    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
896  </P>  </P>
897  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  <P>
898    If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
899    at the end of the longest match. For example:
900    <pre>
901        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
902      data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
903       0: tangerine
904       1: tang
905       2: tan
906       0: tang
907       1: tan
908       0: tan
909    </pre>
910    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
911    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
912    </P>
913    <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
914    <P>
915    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
916    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
917    match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
918    example:
919    <pre>
920        re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
921      data&#62; 23ja\P\D
922      Partial match: 23ja
923      data&#62; n05\R\D
924       0: n05
925    </pre>
926    For further information about partial matching, see the
927    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
928    documentation.
929    </P>
930    <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
931  <P>  <P>
932  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
933  is called during matching. By default, it displays the callout number, the  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
934  start and current positions in the text at the callout time, and the next  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
935  pattern item to be tested. For example, the output  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
936    tested. For example:
937  <pre>  <pre>
938    ---&#62;pqrabcdef    ---&#62;pqrabcdef
939      0    ^  ^     \d      0    ^  ^     \d
940  </pre>  </pre>
941  indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt
942  fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  starting at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
943  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just one  the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just
944  circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.  one circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
945  </P>  </P>
946  <P>  <P>
947  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
# Line 405  example: Line 958  example:
958    +10 ^ ^    +10 ^ ^
959     0: E*     0: E*
960  </pre>  </pre>
961    If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
962    a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
963    <pre>
964        re&#62; /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
965      data&#62; abc
966      ---&#62;abc
967       +0 ^       a
968       +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
969      +10 ^^      b
970      Latest Mark: X
971      +11 ^ ^     c
972      +12 ^  ^
973       0: abc
974    </pre>
975    The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
976    of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
977    mark reverts to being unset, the text "&#60;unset&#62;" is output.
978    </P>
979    <P>
980  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
981  default, but you can use an \C item in a data line (as described above) to  default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
982  change this.  change this and other parameters of the callout.
983  </P>  </P>
984  <P>  <P>
985  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
# Line 416  the Line 988  the
988  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
989  documentation.  documentation.
990  </P>  </P>
991  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
992    <P>
993    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
994    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
995    therefore shown as hex escapes.
996    </P>
997    <P>
998    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
999    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
1000    the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
1001    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
1002    </P>
1003    <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
1004  <P>  <P>
1005  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
1006  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
1007  specified.  specified.
1008  </P>  </P>
1009  <P>  <P>
# Line 432  For example: Line 1016  For example:
1016  See the  See the
1017  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
1018  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
1019    Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
1020    JIT data cannot be saved.
1021  </P>  </P>
1022  <P>  <P>
1023  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
# Line 440  written as four bytes in big-endian orde Line 1026  written as four bytes in big-endian orde
1026  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
1027  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
1028  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
1029  follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,  (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
1030  <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.  writing the file, <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
1031  </P>  </P>
1032  <P>  <P>
1033  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifing &#60; and a file  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifying &#60; and a file
1034  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
1035  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
1036  characters.  characters.
1037  For example:  For example:
1038  <pre>  <pre>
1039     re&#62; &#60;/some/file     re&#62; &#60;/some/file
1040    Compiled regex loaded from /some/file    Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
1041    No study data    No study data
1042  </pre>  </pre>
1043  When the pattern has been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in  If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
1044  the usual way.  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
1045    been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
1046  </P>  </P>
1047  <P>  <P>
1048  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
1049  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
1050  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
1051  a SPARC machine.  a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a host with different
1052    endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
1053    <pre>
1054      Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
1055    </pre>
1056    The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
1057    endianness. These are reloaded using "&#60;!" instead of just "&#60;". This suppresses
1058    the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on all hosts. It also
1059    forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.
1060  </P>  </P>
1061  <P>  <P>
1062  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
# Line 478  string using a reloaded pattern is likel Line 1073  string using a reloaded pattern is likel
1073  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
1074  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
1075  </P>  </P>
1076  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
1077  <P>  <P>
1078  Philip Hazel &#60;ph10@cam.ac.uk&#62;  <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcre16</b>(3), <b>pcre32</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3),
1079    <b>pcrecallout</b>(3),
1080    <b>pcrejit</b>, <b>pcrematching</b>(3), <b>pcrepartial</b>(d),
1081    <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
1082    </P>
1083    <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
1084    <P>
1085    Philip Hazel
1086  <br>  <br>
1087  University Computing Service,  University Computing Service
1088    <br>
1089    Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
1090  <br>  <br>
 Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  
1091  </P>  </P>
1092    <br><a name="SEC17" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
1093  <P>  <P>
1094  Last updated: 10 September 2004  Last updated: 26 April 2013
1095    <br>
1096    Copyright &copy; 1997-2013 University of Cambridge.
1097  <br>  <br>
 Copyright &copy; 1997-2004 University of Cambridge.  
1098  <p>  <p>
1099  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
1100  </p>  </p>

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