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revision 75 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:37 2007 UTC revision 461 by ph10, Mon Oct 5 10:59:35 2009 UTC
# Line 18  man page, in case the conversion went wr Line 18  man page, in case the conversion went wr
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
24  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
25    <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">CALLOUTS</a>
26    <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
27    <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
28    <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SEE ALSO</a>
29    <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">AUTHOR</a>
30    <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">REVISION</a>
31  </ul>  </ul>
32  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
33  <P>  <P>
34  <b>pcretest [-C] [-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [source] [destination]</b>
35  <b>[destination]</b>  <br>
36  </P>  <br>
 <P>  
37  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
38  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
39  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
# Line 41  documentation. Line 46  documentation.
46  </P>  </P>
47  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>
48  <P>  <P>
49    <b>-b</b>
50    Behave as if each regex has the <b>/B</b> (show bytecode) modifier; the internal
51    form is output after compilation.
52    </P>
53    <P>
54  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
55  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
56  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
57  </P>  </P>
58  <P>  <P>
59  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
60  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
61  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
62    <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
63    </P>
64    <P>
65    <b>-dfa</b>
66    Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
67    alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of the
68    standard <b>pcre_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
69    </P>
70    <P>
71    <b>-help</b>
72    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
73  </P>  </P>
74  <P>  <P>
75  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
76  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
77  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
78  </P>  </P>
79  <P>  <P>
80    <b>-M</b>
81    Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes
82    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
83    calling <b>pcre_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.
84    </P>
85    <P>
86  <b>-m</b>  <b>-m</b>
87  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
88  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility
# Line 64  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s Line 91  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s
91  <P>  <P>
92  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
93  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
94  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value is 45, which is enough  <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value
95  for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or
96  matching calls by including \O in the data line (see below).  22 different matches for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>. The vector size can be
97    changed for individual matching calls by including \O in the data line (see
98    below).
99  </P>  </P>
100  <P>  <P>
101  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
102  Behave as if each regex has <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
103  to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is set.  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
104    set.
105    </P>
106    <P>
107    <b>-q</b>
108    Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
109    </P>
110    <P>
111    <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
112    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to <i>size</i>
113    megabytes.
114  </P>  </P>
115  <P>  <P>
116  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
117  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
118  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
119  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
120  timing will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
121    used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
122    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
123    to iterate 500000 times.
124    </P>
125    <P>
126    <b>-tm</b>
127    This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
128    compile or study phases.
129  </P>  </P>
130  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
131  <P>  <P>
# Line 89  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp Line 136  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp
136  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.
137  </P>  </P>
138  <P>  <P>
139    When <b>pcretest</b> is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
140    be linked with the <b>libreadline</b> library. When this is done, if the input
141    is from a terminal, it is read using the <b>readline()</b> function. This
142    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the <b>-help</b>
143    option states whether or not <b>readline()</b> will be used.
144    </P>
145    <P>
146  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
147  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
148  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
149  </P>  </P>
150  <P>  <P>
151  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
152  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
153  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
154  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
155    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
156  </P>  </P>
157  <P>  <P>
158  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
159  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
160  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
161  <pre>  <pre>
162    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
163  </pre>  </pre>
# Line 149  effect as they do in Perl. For example: Line 204  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
204  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do
205  not correspond to anything in Perl:  not correspond to anything in Perl:
206  <pre>  <pre>
207    <b>/A</b>    PCRE_ANCHORED    <b>/A</b>              PCRE_ANCHORED
208    <b>/C</b>    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    <b>/C</b>              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
209    <b>/E</b>    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY    <b>/E</b>              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
210    <b>/N</b>    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    <b>/f</b>              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
211    <b>/U</b>    PCRE_UNGREEDY    <b>/J</b>              PCRE_DUPNAMES
212    <b>/X</b>    PCRE_EXTRA    <b>/N</b>              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
213      <b>/U</b>              PCRE_UNGREEDY
214      <b>/X</b>              PCRE_EXTRA
215      <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
216      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
217      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
218      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
219      <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
220      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
221      <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
222      <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
223    </pre>
224    Those specifying line ending sequences are literal strings as shown, but the
225    letters can be in either case. This example sets multiline matching with CRLF
226    as the line ending sequence:
227    <pre>
228      /^abc/m&#60;crlf&#62;
229  </pre>  </pre>
230    Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the
231    <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
232    documentation.
233    </P>
234    <br><b>
235    Finding all matches in a string
236    </b><br>
237    <P>
238  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
239  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
240  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
# Line 167  begins with a lookbehind assertion (incl Line 246  begins with a lookbehind assertion (incl
246  </P>  </P>
247  <P>  <P>
248  If any call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches an  If any call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches an
249  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
250  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
251  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one
252  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  character, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles
253  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.  such cases when using the <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.
254  </P>  </P>
255    <br><b>
256    Other modifiers
257    </b><br>
258  <P>  <P>
259  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
260  operates.  operates.
# Line 184  the subject string. This is useful for t Line 266  the subject string. This is useful for t
266  multiple copies of the same substring.  multiple copies of the same substring.
267  </P>  </P>
268  <P>  <P>
269    The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
270    output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally
271    this information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is
272    also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for
273    use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated
274    for different internal link sizes.
275    </P>
276    <P>
277  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
278  example,  example,
279  <pre>  <pre>
# Line 202  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_ Line 292  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_
292  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
293  </P>  </P>
294  <P>  <P>
295  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes <b>/I</b>.  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
296  It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the <b>/B</b> and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
 compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  
 output.  
297  </P>  </P>
298  <P>  <P>
299  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
# Line 253  complicated features of PCRE. If you are Line 341  complicated features of PCRE. If you are
341  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
342  recognized:  recognized:
343  <pre>  <pre>
344    \a         alarm (= BEL)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
345    \b         backspace    \b         backspace (\x08)
346    \e         escape    \e         escape (\x27)
347    \f         formfeed    \f         formfeed (\x0c)
348    \n         newline    \n         newline (\x0a)
349    \r         carriage return    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
350    \t         tab    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
351    \v         vertical tab    \t         tab (\x09)
352      \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
353    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
354    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
355    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode
356    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
357    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
358    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
359    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
360                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
# Line 274  recognized: Line 363  recognized:
363    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
364    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
365    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
366      \D         use the <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> match function
367      \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
368    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
369    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
370                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
371    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match
372    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
373    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
374                   PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
375    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
376    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
377                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
378      \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
379      \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
380    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
381    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
382    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
383      \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
384    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);
385                 this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b>                 this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
386  </pre>    \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
387  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the    \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
388  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing    \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
389  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.    \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
390      \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
391    </pre>
392    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
393    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
394    </P>
395    <P>
396    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
397    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
398    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
399    input.
400  </P>  </P>
401  <P>  <P>
402  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with
403  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> field of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
404  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  fields of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
405  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. The
406  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes
407  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the
408  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
409  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of
410    subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how much
411    stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed
412    to complete the match attempt.
413  </P>  </P>
414  <P>  <P>
415  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
# Line 309  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the l Line 418  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the l
418  </P>  </P>
419  <P>  <P>
420  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
421  API to be used, only \B and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B
422  REG_NOTEOL to be passed to <b>regexec()</b> respectively.  and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to
423    <b>regexec()</b>.
424  </P>  </P>
425  <P>  <P>
426  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
427  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
428  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
429  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This
430    allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are
431    valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the
432    later rules in RFC 3629.
433    </P>
434    <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
435    <P>
436    By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
437    <b>pcre_exec()</b> to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
438    alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
439    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
440    functions are described in the
441    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
442    documentation.
443    </P>
444    <P>
445    If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
446    contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is called.
447    This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
448    escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
449    found. This is always the shortest possible match.
450    </P>
451    <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
452    <P>
453    This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
454    <b>pcre_exec()</b>, is being used.
455  </P>  </P>
 <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  
456  <P>  <P>
457  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that
458  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched
459  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
460  when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
461  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  substring when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. For any other
462  of an interactive pcretest run.  returns, it outputs the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example of an
463    interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
464  <pre>  <pre>
465    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
466    PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
467    
468      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
469    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
# Line 337  of an interactive pcretest run. Line 472  of an interactive pcretest run.
472    data&#62; xyz    data&#62; xyz
473    No match    No match
474  </pre>  </pre>
475    Note that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set
476    are not returned by <b>pcre_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In
477    the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first
478    data line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal"
479    unset substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.
480    <pre>
481        re&#62; /(a)|(b)/
482      data&#62; a
483       0: a
484       1: a
485      data&#62; b
486       0: b
487       1: &#60;unset&#62;
488       2: b
489    </pre>
490  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x
491  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the
492  pattern. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
493  is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like  pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
494  this:  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
495  <pre>  <pre>
496      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
497    data&#62; cataract    data&#62; cataract
# Line 371  length (that is, the return from the ext Line 521  length (that is, the return from the ext
521  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
522  </P>  </P>
523  <P>  <P>
524  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
525  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
526  included in data by means of the \n escape.  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
527    the newline sequence setting).
528    </P>
529    <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
530    <P>
531    When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
532    means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
533    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
534    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
535    <pre>
536        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
537      data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
538       0: tangerine
539       1: tang
540       2: tan
541    </pre>
542    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
543    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
544    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
545    partially matching substring.
546    </P>
547    <P>
548    If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
549    at the end of the longest match. For example:
550    <pre>
551        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
552      data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
553       0: tangerine
554       1: tang
555       2: tan
556       0: tang
557       1: tan
558       0: tan
559    </pre>
560    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
561    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
562    </P>
563    <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
564    <P>
565    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
566    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
567    match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
568    example:
569    <pre>
570        re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
571      data&#62; 23ja\P\D
572      Partial match: 23ja
573      data&#62; n05\R\D
574       0: n05
575    </pre>
576    For further information about partial matching, see the
577    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
578    documentation.
579  </P>  </P>
580  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
581  <P>  <P>
582  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
583  is called during matching. By default, it displays the callout number, the  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
584  start and current positions in the text at the callout time, and the next  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
585  pattern item to be tested. For example, the output  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
586    tested. For example, the output
587  <pre>  <pre>
588    ---&#62;pqrabcdef    ---&#62;pqrabcdef
589      0    ^  ^     \d      0    ^  ^     \d
# Line 406  example: Line 609  example:
609     0: E*     0: E*
610  </pre>  </pre>
611  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
612  default, but you can use an \C item in a data line (as described above) to  default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
613  change this.  change this.
614  </P>  </P>
615  <P>  <P>
# Line 416  the Line 619  the
619  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
620  documentation.  documentation.
621  </P>  </P>
622  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
623    <P>
624    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
625    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
626    therefore shown as hex escapes.
627    </P>
628    <P>
629    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
630    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
631    the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
632    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
633    </P>
634    <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
635  <P>  <P>
636  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
637  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
# Line 478  string using a reloaded pattern is likel Line 693  string using a reloaded pattern is likel
693  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
694  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
695  </P>  </P>
696  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
697    <P>
698    <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3), <b>pcrematching</b>(3),
699    <b>pcrepartial</b>(d), <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
700    </P>
701    <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
702  <P>  <P>
703  Philip Hazel &#60;ph10@cam.ac.uk&#62;  Philip Hazel
704    <br>
705    University Computing Service
706  <br>  <br>
707  University Computing Service,  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
708  <br>  <br>
 Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  
709  </P>  </P>
710    <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
711  <P>  <P>
712  Last updated: 10 September 2004  Last updated: 26 September 2009
713    <br>
714    Copyright &copy; 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.
715  <br>  <br>
 Copyright &copy; 1997-2004 University of Cambridge.  
716  <p>  <p>
717  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
718  </p>  </p>

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