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# Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr Line 14  man page, in case the conversion went wr
14  <br>  <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">DESCRIPTION</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">DATA LINES</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
24  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
25    <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
26    <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">CALLOUTS</a>
27    <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
28    <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
29    <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">SEE ALSO</a>
30    <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">AUTHOR</a>
31    <li><a name="TOC16" href="#SEC16">REVISION</a>
32  </ul>  </ul>
33  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
34  <P>  <P>
35  <b>pcretest [-C] [-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]</b>
36  <b>[destination]</b>  <br>
37  </P>  <br>
 <P>  
38  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
39  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
40  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
# Line 37  details of the regular expressions thems Line 43  details of the regular expressions thems
43  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
44  options, see the  options, see the
45  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
46  documentation.  and
47    <a href="pcre16.html"><b>pcre16</b></a>
48    documentation. The input for <b>pcretest</b> is a sequence of regular expression
49    patterns and strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the
50    result of each match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE
51    options and exactly what is output.
52    </P>
53    <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES</a><br>
54    <P>
55    From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The original one
56    supports 8-bit character strings, whereas the newer 16-bit library supports
57    character strings encoded in 16-bit units. The <b>pcretest</b> program can be
58    used to test both libraries. However, it is itself still an 8-bit program,
59    reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output. When testing the 16-bit library,
60    the patterns and data strings are converted to 16-bit format before being
61    passed to the PCRE library functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for
62    output.
63    </P>
64    <P>
65    References to functions and structures of the form <b>pcre[16]_xx</b> below
66    mean "<b>pcre_xx</b> when using the 8-bit library or <b>pcre16_xx</b> when using
67    the 16-bit library".
68    </P>
69    <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">COMMAND LINE OPTIONS</a><br>
70    <P>
71    <b>-16</b>
72    If both the 8-bit and the 16-bit libraries have been built, this option causes
73    the 16-bit library to be used. If only the 16-bit library has been built, this
74    is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit library has been built,
75    this option causes an error.
76    </P>
77    <P>
78    <b>-b</b>
79    Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/B</b> (show byte code) modifier; the
80    internal form is output after compilation.
81  </P>  </P>
 <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  
82  <P>  <P>
83  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
84  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
85  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit. All other options
86    are ignored.
87    </P>
88    <P>
89    <b>-C</b> <i>option</i>
90    Output information about a specific build-time option, then exit. This
91    functionality is intended for use in scripts such as <b>RunTest</b>. The
92    following options output the value indicated:
93    <pre>
94      linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
95      newline    the default newline setting:
96                   CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
97    </pre>
98    The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
99    <pre>
100      jit        just-in-time support is available
101      pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
102      pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
103      ucp        Unicode property support is available
104      utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 support is available
105    </PRE>
106  </P>  </P>
107  <P>  <P>
108  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
109  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
110  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
111    <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
112    </P>
113    <P>
114    <b>-dfa</b>
115    Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
116    alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of
117    the standard <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
118    </P>
119    <P>
120    <b>-help</b>
121    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
122  </P>  </P>
123  <P>  <P>
124  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
125  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
126  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
127  </P>  </P>
128  <P>  <P>
129    <b>-M</b>
130    Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence; this causes
131    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
132    calling <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> repeatedly with different limits.
133    </P>
134    <P>
135  <b>-m</b>  <b>-m</b>
136  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
137  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. The size is given in
138  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.  bytes for both libraries.
139  </P>  </P>
140  <P>  <P>
141  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
142  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
143  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value is 45, which is enough  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The
144  for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for
145  matching calls by including \O in the data line (see below).  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or 22 different matches for <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>.
146    The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by including \O
147    in the data line (see below).
148  </P>  </P>
149  <P>  <P>
150  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
151  Behave as if each regex has <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
152  to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is set.  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
153    set. This option can be used only with the 8-bit library.
154    </P>
155    <P>
156    <b>-q</b>
157    Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
158    </P>
159    <P>
160    <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
161    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to <i>size</i>
162    megabytes.
163    </P>
164    <P>
165    <b>-s</b> or <b>-s+</b>
166    Behave as if each pattern has the <b>/S</b> modifier; in other words, force each
167    pattern to be studied. If <b>-s+</b> is used, the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is
168    passed to <b>pcre[16]_study()</b>, causing just-in-time optimization to be set
169    up if it is available. If the <b>/I</b> or <b>/D</b> option is present on a
170    pattern (requesting output about the compiled pattern), information about the
171    result of studying is not included when studying is caused only by <b>-s</b> and
172    neither <b>-i</b> nor <b>-d</b> is present on the command line. This behaviour
173    means that the output from tests that are run with and without <b>-s</b> should
174    be identical, except when options that output information about the actual
175    running of a match are set.
176    <br>
177    <br>
178    The <b>-M</b>, <b>-t</b>, and <b>-tm</b> options, which give information about
179    resources used, are likely to produce different output with and without
180    <b>-s</b>. Output may also differ if the <b>/C</b> option is present on an
181    individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process, and
182    this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the pattern
183    contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same reason. The
184    <b>-s</b> command line option can be overridden for specific patterns that
185    should never be studied (see the <b>/S</b> pattern modifier below).
186  </P>  </P>
187  <P>  <P>
188  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
189  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
190  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
191  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
192  timing will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
193    used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
194    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
195    to iterate 500000 times.
196  </P>  </P>
197  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <P>
198    <b>-tm</b>
199    This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
200    compile or study phases.
201    </P>
202    <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
203  <P>  <P>
204  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and  If <b>pcretest</b> is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
205  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
# Line 89  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp Line 208  stdout, and prompts for each line of inp
208  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data&#62;" to prompt for data lines.
209  </P>  </P>
210  <P>  <P>
211    When <b>pcretest</b> is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
212    be linked with the <b>libreadline</b> library. When this is done, if the input
213    is from a terminal, it is read using the <b>readline()</b> function. This
214    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the <b>-help</b>
215    option states whether or not <b>readline()</b> will be used.
216    </P>
217    <P>
218  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
219  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
220  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
221  </P>  </P>
222  <P>  <P>
223  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
224  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
225  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
226  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
227    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
228  </P>  </P>
229  <P>  <P>
230  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
231  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
232  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
233  <pre>  <pre>
234    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
235  </pre>  </pre>
# Line 129  backslash, because Line 256  backslash, because
256  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
257  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
258  </P>  </P>
259  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
260  <P>  <P>
261  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
262  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
263  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
264  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may
265  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
266  the modifiers themselves.  the modifiers themselves.
267  </P>  </P>
268  <P>  <P>
269  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,  The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
270  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
271  <b>pcre_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same  <b>pcre[16]_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
272  effect as they do in Perl. For example:  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
273  <pre>  <pre>
274    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
275  </pre>  </pre>
276  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
277  not correspond to anything in Perl:  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
278  <pre>  <pre>
279    <b>/A</b>    PCRE_ANCHORED    <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
280    <b>/C</b>    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
281    <b>/E</b>    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY  
282    <b>/N</b>    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    <b>/8</b>              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
283    <b>/U</b>    PCRE_UNGREEDY    <b>/?</b>              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
284    <b>/X</b>    PCRE_EXTRA  
285  </pre>    <b>/A</b>              PCRE_ANCHORED
286      <b>/C</b>              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
287      <b>/E</b>              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
288      <b>/f</b>              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
289      <b>/J</b>              PCRE_DUPNAMES
290      <b>/N</b>              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
291      <b>/U</b>              PCRE_UNGREEDY
292      <b>/W</b>              PCRE_UCP
293      <b>/X</b>              PCRE_EXTRA
294      <b>/Y</b>              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
295      <b>/&#60;JS&#62;</b>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
296      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
297      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
298      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
299      <b>/&#60;anycrlf&#62;</b>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
300      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
301      <b>/&#60;bsr_anycrlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
302      <b>/&#60;bsr_unicode&#62;</b>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
303    </pre>
304    The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
305    including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
306    This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
307    <pre>
308      /^abc/m&#60;CRLF&#62;
309    </pre>
310    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16 option, the <b>/8</b> modifier causes
311    all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
312    \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex without
313    the curly brackets.
314    </P>
315    <P>
316    Full details of the PCRE options are given in the
317    <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
318    documentation.
319    </P>
320    <br><b>
321    Finding all matches in a string
322    </b><br>
323    <P>
324  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
325  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
326  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
327  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to  <b>/g</b> and <b>/G</b> is that the former uses the <i>startoffset</i> argument to
328  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire string  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to start searching at a new point within the entire
329  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened  string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a
330  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern  shortened substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the
331  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).  pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).
332  </P>  </P>
333  <P>  <P>
334  If any call to <b>pcre_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches an  If any call to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> in a <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> sequence matches
335  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  an empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
336  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
337  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
338  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
339  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.  using the <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function. Normally, the start
340  </P>  offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
341    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
342    of two is used.
343    </P>
344    <br><b>
345    Other modifiers
346    </b><br>
347  <P>  <P>
348  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
349  operates.  operates.
350  </P>  </P>
351  <P>  <P>
352  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The <b>/+</b> modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
353  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, <b>pcretest</b> should in addition output the
354  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
355  multiple copies of the same substring.  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the <b>+</b> modifier appears
356    twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
357    remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
358    capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
359    modifier because /S+ has another meaning.
360    </P>
361    <P>
362    The <b>/=</b> modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
363    parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up to the highest
364    one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the return code
365    from <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>). Values in the offsets vector corresponding to
366    higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as "&#60;unset&#62;". This
367    modifier gives a way of checking that this is happening.
368    </P>
369    <P>
370    The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
371    output a representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally this
372    information contains length and offset values; however, if <b>/Z</b> is also
373    present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in
374    the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated for
375    different internal link sizes.
376  </P>  </P>
377  <P>  <P>
378  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
379  example,  <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the <b>/B</b> and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
380  <pre>  </P>
381    /pattern/Lfr_FR  <P>
382  </pre>  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
383  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  2-byte and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
384  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the  the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were compiled on a
385  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the  host with a different endianness. This feature is not available when the POSIX
386  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
387  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression on which it appears.  specified. See also the section about saving and reloading compiled patterns
388    below.
389  </P>  </P>
390  <P>  <P>
391  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
392  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
393  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre[16]_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
394  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
395  </P>  </P>
396  <P>  <P>
397  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes <b>/I</b>.  The <b>/K</b> modifier requests <b>pcretest</b> to show names from backtracking
398  It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  control verbs that are returned from calls to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>. It causes
399  compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  <b>pcretest</b> to create a <b>pcre[16]_extra</b> block if one has not already
400  output.  been created by a call to <b>pcre[16]_study()</b>, and to set the
401  </P>  PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the <b>mark</b> field within it, every time that
402  <P>  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> is called. If the variable that the <b>mark</b> field
403  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the  points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match, or partial match, <b>pcretest</b>
404  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  prints the string to which it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by
405  facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns  itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
 that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not  
 available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the  
 <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  
 reloading compiled patterns below.  
406  </P>  </P>
407  <P>  <P>
408  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
409  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  example,
410  matched.  <pre>
411  </P>    /pattern/Lfr_FR
412  <P>  </pre>
413  The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
414  pattern to be output.  <b>pcre[16]_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for
415  </P>  the locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre[16]_compile()</b> when compiling
416    the regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> (or <b>/T</b>) modifier, NULL is
417    passed as the tables pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only to the expression
418    on which it appears.
419    </P>
420    <P>
421    The <b>/M</b> modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to hold
422    the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the
423    <b>pcre[16]</b> block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is
424    successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the
425    JIT compiled code is also output.
426    </P>
427    <P>
428    If the <b>/S</b> modifier appears once, it causes <b>pcre[16]_study()</b> to be
429    called after the expression has been compiled, and the results used when the
430    expression is matched. If <b>/S</b> appears twice, it suppresses studying, even
431    if it was requested externally by the <b>-s</b> command line option. This makes
432    it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
433    never studied, independently of <b>-s</b>. This feature is used in the test
434    files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
435    </P>
436    <P>
437    If the <b>/S</b> modifier is immediately followed by a + character, the call to
438    <b>pcre[16]_study()</b> is made with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
439    requesting just-in-time optimization support if it is available. Note that
440    there is also a <b>/+</b> modifier; it must not be given immediately after
441    <b>/S</b> because this will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying is successful, it
442    will automatically be used when <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> is run, except when
443    incompatible run-time options are specified. These include the partial matching
444    options; a complete list is given in the
445    <a href="pcrejit.html"><b>pcrejit</b></a>
446    documentation. See also the <b>\J</b> escape sequence below for a way of
447    setting the size of the JIT stack.
448    </P>
449    <P>
450    The <b>/T</b> modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
451    set of built-in character tables to be passed to <b>pcre[16]_compile()</b>. It
452    is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
453    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
454    <pre>
455      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
456            pcre_chartables.c.dist
457      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
458    </pre>
459    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
460    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
461    </P>
462    <br><b>
463    Using the POSIX wrapper API
464    </b><br>
465  <P>  <P>
466  The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The <b>/P</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
467  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  API rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When
468  <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, and <b>/+</b> are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if <b>/i</b> is  <b>/P</b> is set, the following modifiers set options for the <b>regcomp()</b>
469  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if <b>/m</b> is present. The wrapper functions  function:
470  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  <pre>
471  </P>    /i    REG_ICASE
472  <P>    /m    REG_NEWLINE
473  The <b>/8</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8    /N    REG_NOSUB
474  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,    /s    REG_DOTALL     )
475  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also    /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
476  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the    /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
477  \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.    /8    REG_UTF8       )
478  </P>  </pre>
479  <P>  The <b>/+</b> modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
480  If the <b>/?</b> modifier is used with <b>/8</b>, it causes <b>pcretest</b> to  ignored.
481  call <b>pcre_compile()</b> with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  </P>
482  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
483  </P>  <P>
484  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
485  <P>  white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these
486  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
 whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are  
 pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  
487  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
488  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
489  recognized:  recognized:
490  <pre>  <pre>
491    \a         alarm (= BEL)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
492    \b         backspace    \b         backspace (\x08)
493    \e         escape    \e         escape (\x27)
494    \f         formfeed    \f         form feed (\x0c)
495    \n         newline    \n         newline (\x0a)
496    \r         carriage return    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
497    \t         tab    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
498    \v         vertical tab    \t         tab (\x09)
499    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
500    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
501    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode                 a byte unless &#62; 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit mode
502    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
503    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
504    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
505    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
506      \Cdd       call pcre[16]_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
507      \Cname     call pcre[16]_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
508                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
509    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time
510    \C-        do not supply a callout function    \C-        do not supply a callout function
511    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
512    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
513    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
514    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \D         use the <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b> match function
515    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
516      \Gdd       call pcre[16]_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
517      \Gname     call pcre[16]_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
518                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
519    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match    \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any number of digits)
520    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting    \L         call pcre[16]_get_substringlist() after a successful match
521    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
522    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
523    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>                 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
524      \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
525      \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>; if used twice, pass the
526                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
527      \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
528      \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
529    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
530    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
531    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
532    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16]_CHECK option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
533                 this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then any number of digits); this sets the <i>startoffset</i>
534  </pre>                 argument for <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
535  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the    \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
536  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing    \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
537  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.    \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
538  </P>    \&#60;anycrlf&#62; pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
539  <P>    \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> or <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>
540  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  </pre>
541  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> field of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data  The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the <b>/8</b> modifier on
542  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexadecimal
543  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  digits inside the braces; invalid values provoke error messages.
544  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  </P>
545  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  <P>
546  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  Note that \xhh specifies one byte in UTF-8 mode; this makes it possible to
547  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes. On the other hand,
548    \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode, generating more than
549    one byte if the value is greater than 127. When testing the 8-bit library not
550    in UTF-8 mode, \x{hh} generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes
551    an error for greater values.
552    </P>
553    <P>
554    In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
555    possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
556    </P>
557    <P>
558    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
559    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
560    </P>
561    <P>
562    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
563    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
564    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
565    input.
566    </P>
567    <P>
568    The <b>\J</b> escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
569    used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
570    is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
571    necessary only for very complicated patterns.
572    </P>
573    <P>
574    If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> several times,
575    with different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
576    fields of the <b>pcre[16]_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
577    numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to complete without
578    error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
579    <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might
580    have been set up by the <b>/S+</b> qualifier of <b>-s+</b> option is disabled.
581    </P>
582    <P>
583    The <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
584    that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
585    matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
586    matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
587    of subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how
588    much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
589    needed to complete the match attempt.
590  </P>  </P>
591  <P>  <P>
592  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
593  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to  by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
594  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.  the call of <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
595  </P>  </P>
596  <P>  <P>
597  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
598  API to be used, only \B and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B,
599  REG_NOTEOL to be passed to <b>regexec()</b> respectively.  \N, and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
600    to be passed to <b>regexec()</b>.
601    </P>
602    <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
603    <P>
604    By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
605    <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> to match each data line. PCRE also supports an
606    alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16]_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
607    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
608    functions are described in the
609    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
610    documentation.
611  </P>  </P>
612  <P>  <P>
613  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
614  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is used.
615  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
616  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
617  </P>  found. This is always the shortest possible match.
618  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  </P>
619  <P>  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
620  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  <P>
621  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
622  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>, is being used.
623  when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  </P>
624  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  <P>
625  of an interactive pcretest run.  When a match succeeds, <b>pcretest</b> outputs the list of captured substrings
626    that <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
627    matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
628    PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
629    substring when <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that
630    this is the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it
631    may include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
632    \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other return, <b>pcretest</b> outputs
633    the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
634    a failed UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
635    the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the output vector is
636    at least two. Here is an example of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
637  <pre>  <pre>
638    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
639    PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
640    
641      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
642    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
# Line 337  of an interactive pcretest run. Line 645  of an interactive pcretest run.
645    data&#62; xyz    data&#62; xyz
646    No match    No match
647  </pre>  </pre>
648  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
649  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  returned by <b>pcre[16]_exec()</b>, and are not shown by <b>pcretest</b>. In the
650  pattern. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0  following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
651  is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
652    substring is shown as "&#60;unset&#62;", as for the second data line.
653    <pre>
654        re&#62; /(a)|(b)/
655      data&#62; a
656       0: a
657       1: a
658      data&#62; b
659       0: b
660       1: &#60;unset&#62;
661       2: b
662    </pre>
663    If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \xhh
664    escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set. Otherwise they
665    are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the definition of non-printing
666    characters. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring
667    0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
668  this:  this:
669  <pre>  <pre>
670      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
# Line 360  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 684  matching attempts are output in sequence
684     0: ipp     0: ipp
685     1: pp     1: pp
686  </pre>  </pre>
687  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
688    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \&#62;4 is past the end of
689    the subject string):
690    <pre>
691        re&#62; /xyz/
692      data&#62; xyz\&#62;4
693      Error -24 (bad offset value)
694    </PRE>
695  </P>  </P>
696  <P>  <P>
697  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a  If any of the sequences <b>\C</b>, <b>\G</b>, or <b>\L</b> are present in a
# Line 371  length (that is, the return from the ext Line 702  length (that is, the return from the ext
702  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
703  </P>  </P>
704  <P>  <P>
705  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
706  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
707  included in data by means of the \n escape.  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
708    the newline sequence setting).
709    </P>
710    <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
711    <P>
712    When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre[16]_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
713    means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
714    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
715    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
716    <pre>
717        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
718      data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
719       0: tangerine
720       1: tang
721       2: tan
722    </pre>
723    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
724    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
725    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
726    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
727    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
728    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
729    </P>
730    <P>
731    If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
732    at the end of the longest match. For example:
733    <pre>
734        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
735      data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
736       0: tangerine
737       1: tang
738       2: tan
739       0: tang
740       1: tan
741       0: tan
742    </pre>
743    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
744    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
745    </P>
746    <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
747    <P>
748    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
749    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
750    match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
751    example:
752    <pre>
753        re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
754      data&#62; 23ja\P\D
755      Partial match: 23ja
756      data&#62; n05\R\D
757       0: n05
758    </pre>
759    For further information about partial matching, see the
760    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
761    documentation.
762  </P>  </P>
763  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
764  <P>  <P>
765  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
766  is called during matching. By default, it displays the callout number, the  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
767  start and current positions in the text at the callout time, and the next  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
768  pattern item to be tested. For example, the output  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
769    tested. For example:
770  <pre>  <pre>
771    ---&#62;pqrabcdef    ---&#62;pqrabcdef
772      0    ^  ^     \d      0    ^  ^     \d
773  </pre>  </pre>
774  indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt
775  fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  starting at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
776  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just one  the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just
777  circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.  one circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
778  </P>  </P>
779  <P>  <P>
780  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
# Line 405  example: Line 791  example:
791    +10 ^ ^    +10 ^ ^
792     0: E*     0: E*
793  </pre>  </pre>
794    If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
795    a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
796    <pre>
797        re&#62; /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
798      data&#62; abc
799      ---&#62;abc
800       +0 ^       a
801       +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
802      +10 ^^      b
803      Latest Mark: X
804      +11 ^ ^     c
805      +12 ^  ^
806       0: abc
807    </pre>
808    The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
809    of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
810    mark reverts to being unset, the text "&#60;unset&#62;" is output.
811    </P>
812    <P>
813  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
814  default, but you can use an \C item in a data line (as described above) to  default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
815  change this.  change this and other parameters of the callout.
816  </P>  </P>
817  <P>  <P>
818  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
# Line 416  the Line 821  the
821  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
822  documentation.  documentation.
823  </P>  </P>
824  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
825    <P>
826    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
827    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
828    therefore shown as hex escapes.
829    </P>
830    <P>
831    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
832    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
833    the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
834    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
835    </P>
836    <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
837  <P>  <P>
838  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
839  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
840  specified.  specified.
841  </P>  </P>
842  <P>  <P>
# Line 432  For example: Line 849  For example:
849  See the  See the
850  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>  <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
851  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
852    Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
853    JIT data cannot be saved.
854  </P>  </P>
855  <P>  <P>
856  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
# Line 440  written as four bytes in big-endian orde Line 859  written as four bytes in big-endian orde
859  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
860  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
861  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
862  follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,  (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
863  <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.  writing the file, <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
864  </P>  </P>
865  <P>  <P>
866  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifing &#60; and a file  A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifying &#60; and a file
867  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
868  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;  as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
869  characters.  characters.
870  For example:  For example:
871  <pre>  <pre>
872     re&#62; &#60;/some/file     re&#62; &#60;/some/file
873    Compiled regex loaded from /some/file    Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
874    No study data    No study data
875  </pre>  </pre>
876  When the pattern has been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in  If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
877  the usual way.  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
878    been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
879  </P>  </P>
880  <P>  <P>
881  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it  You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
882  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
883  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
884  a SPARC machine.  a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a host with different
885    endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
886    <pre>
887      Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
888    </pre>
889    The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
890    endianness. These are reloaded using "&#60;!" instead of just "&#60;". This suppresses
891    the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on all hosts. It also
892    forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.
893  </P>  </P>
894  <P>  <P>
895  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
# Line 478  string using a reloaded pattern is likel Line 906  string using a reloaded pattern is likel
906  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
907  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
908  </P>  </P>
909  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
910    <P>
911    <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcre16</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3),
912    <b>pcrejit</b>, <b>pcrematching</b>(3), <b>pcrepartial</b>(d),
913    <b>pcrepattern</b>(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
914    </P>
915    <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
916  <P>  <P>
917  Philip Hazel &#60;ph10@cam.ac.uk&#62;  Philip Hazel
918  <br>  <br>
919  University Computing Service,  University Computing Service
920    <br>
921    Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
922  <br>  <br>
 Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  
923  </P>  </P>
924    <br><a name="SEC16" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
925  <P>  <P>
926  Last updated: 10 September 2004  Last updated: 13 January 2012
927    <br>
928    Copyright &copy; 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.
929  <br>  <br>
 Copyright &copy; 1997-2004 University of Cambridge.  
930  <p>  <p>
931  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
932  </p>  </p>

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