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revision 75 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:37 2007 UTC revision 99 by ph10, Tue Mar 6 12:27:42 2007 UTC
# Line 7  Line 7 
7  <p>  <p>
8  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
9  </p>  </p>
10  <p>  <p>
11  This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically  This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically
12  from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the  from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the
13  man page, in case the conversion went wrong.  man page, in case the conversion went wrong.
14  <br>  <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
24  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
25    <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">CALLOUTS</a>
26    <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
27    <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
28    <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SEE ALSO</a>
29    <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">AUTHOR</a>
30    <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">REVISION</a>
31  </ul>  </ul>
32  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
33  <P>  <P>
34  <b>pcretest [-C] [-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [source] [destination]</b>
35  <b>[destination]</b>  <br>
36  </P>  <br>
 <P>  
37  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
38  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
39  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
# Line 41  documentation. Line 46  documentation.
46  </P>  </P>
47  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>
48  <P>  <P>
49    <b>-b</b>
50    Behave as if each regex has the <b>/B</b> (show bytecode) modifier; the internal
51    form is output after compilation.
52    </P>
53    <P>
54  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
55  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
56  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
57  </P>  </P>
58  <P>  <P>
59  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
60  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
61  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
62    <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
63    </P>
64    <P>
65    <b>-dfa</b>
66    Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
67    alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of the
68    standard <b>pcre_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
69    </P>
70    <P>
71    <b>-help</b>
72    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
73  </P>  </P>
74  <P>  <P>
75  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
76  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
77  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
78  </P>  </P>
79  <P>  <P>
# Line 64  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s Line 85  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s
85  <P>  <P>
86  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
87  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
88  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value is 45, which is enough  <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value
89  for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or
90  matching calls by including \O in the data line (see below).  22 different matches for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>. The vector size can be
91    changed for individual matching calls by including \O in the data line (see
92    below).
93  </P>  </P>
94  <P>  <P>
95  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
96  Behave as if each regex has <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
97  to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is set.  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
98    set.
99    </P>
100    <P>
101    <b>-q</b>
102    Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
103    </P>
104    <P>
105    <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
106    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to <i>size</i>
107    megabytes.
108  </P>  </P>
109  <P>  <P>
110  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
111  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
112  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
113  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
114  timing will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
115    used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
116    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
117    to iterate 500000 times.
118    </P>
119    <P>
120    <b>-tm</b>
121    This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
122    compile or study phases.
123  </P>  </P>
124  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
125  <P>  <P>
# Line 95  lines to be matched against the pattern. Line 136  lines to be matched against the pattern.
136  </P>  </P>
137  <P>  <P>
138  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
139  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
140  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
141  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
142    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
143  </P>  </P>
144  <P>  <P>
145  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
146  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
147  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
148  <pre>  <pre>
149    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
150  </pre>  </pre>
# Line 149  effect as they do in Perl. For example: Line 191  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
191  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do
192  not correspond to anything in Perl:  not correspond to anything in Perl:
193  <pre>  <pre>
194    <b>/A</b>    PCRE_ANCHORED    <b>/A</b>       PCRE_ANCHORED
195    <b>/C</b>    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    <b>/C</b>       PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
196    <b>/E</b>    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY    <b>/E</b>       PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
197    <b>/N</b>    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    <b>/f</b>       PCRE_FIRSTLINE
198    <b>/U</b>    PCRE_UNGREEDY    <b>/J</b>       PCRE_DUPNAMES
199    <b>/X</b>    PCRE_EXTRA    <b>/N</b>       PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
200      <b>/U</b>       PCRE_UNGREEDY
201      <b>/X</b>       PCRE_EXTRA
202      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
203      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
204      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
205      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>   PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
206  </pre>  </pre>
207    Those specifying line ending sequencess are literal strings as shown. This
208    example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
209    <pre>
210      /^abc/m&#60;crlf&#62;
211    </pre>
212    Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the
213    <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
214    documentation.
215    </P>
216    <br><b>
217    Finding all matches in a string
218    </b><br>
219    <P>
220  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
221  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
222  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
# Line 173  If this second match fails, the start of Line 234  If this second match fails, the start of
234  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the
235  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.
236  </P>  </P>
237    <br><b>
238    Other modifiers
239    </b><br>
240  <P>  <P>
241  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
242  operates.  operates.
# Line 184  the subject string. This is useful for t Line 248  the subject string. This is useful for t
248  multiple copies of the same substring.  multiple copies of the same substring.
249  </P>  </P>
250  <P>  <P>
251    The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
252    output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.
253    </P>
254    <P>
255  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
256  example,  example,
257  <pre>  <pre>
# Line 202  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_ Line 270  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_
270  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
271  </P>  </P>
272  <P>  <P>
273  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes <b>/I</b>.  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
274  It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the \fP/B\fP and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
 compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  
 output.  
275  </P>  </P>
276  <P>  <P>
277  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
# Line 253  complicated features of PCRE. If you are Line 319  complicated features of PCRE. If you are
319  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
320  recognized:  recognized:
321  <pre>  <pre>
322    \a         alarm (= BEL)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
323    \b         backspace    \b         backspace (\x08)
324    \e         escape    \e         escape (\x27)
325    \f         formfeed    \f         formfeed (\x0c)
326    \n         newline    \n         newline (\x0a)
327    \r         carriage return    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
328    \t         tab    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
329    \v         vertical tab    \t         tab (\x09)
330      \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
331    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
332    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
333    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode
334    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
335    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
336    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
337    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
338                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
# Line 274  recognized: Line 341  recognized:
341    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
342    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
343    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
344      \D         use the <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> match function
345      \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
346    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
347    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
348                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
349    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match
350    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
351    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
352    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
353    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
354      \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
355      \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
356    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
357    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
358    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
359    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);
360                 this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b>                 this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
361  </pre>    \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
362  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the    \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
363  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing    \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
364  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.    \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
365    </pre>
366    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
367    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
368    </P>
369    <P>
370    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
371    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
372    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
373    input.
374  </P>  </P>
375  <P>  <P>
376  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with
377  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> field of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
378  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  fields of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
379  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. The
380  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes
381  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the
382  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
383  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of
384    subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how much
385    stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed
386    to complete the match attempt.
387  </P>  </P>
388  <P>  <P>
389  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
# Line 309  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the l Line 392  the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the l
392  </P>  </P>
393  <P>  <P>
394  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
395  API to be used, only \B and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B
396  REG_NOTEOL to be passed to <b>regexec()</b> respectively.  and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to
397    <b>regexec()</b>.
398  </P>  </P>
399  <P>  <P>
400  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
# Line 318  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern Line 402  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern
402  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
403  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.
404  </P>  </P>
405  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
406    <P>
407    By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
408    <b>pcre_exec()</b> to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
409    alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
410    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
411    functions are described in the
412    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
413    documentation.
414    </P>
415    <P>
416    If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
417    contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is called.
418    This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
419    escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
420    found. This is always the shortest possible match.
421    </P>
422    <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
423    <P>
424    This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
425    <b>pcre_exec()</b>, is being used.
426    </P>
427  <P>  <P>
428  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that
429  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched
430  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"
431  when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,
432  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example
433  of an interactive pcretest run.  of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
434  <pre>  <pre>
435    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
436    PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
437    
438      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
439    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
# Line 339  of an interactive pcretest run. Line 444  of an interactive pcretest run.
444  </pre>  </pre>
445  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x
446  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the
447  pattern. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
448  is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like  pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
449  this:  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
450  <pre>  <pre>
451      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
452    data&#62; cataract    data&#62; cataract
# Line 371  length (that is, the return from the ext Line 476  length (that is, the return from the ext
476  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
477  </P>  </P>
478  <P>  <P>
479  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
480  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
481  included in data by means of the \n escape.  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
482    the newline sequence setting).
483    </P>
484    <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
485    <P>
486    When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
487    means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
488    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
489    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
490    <pre>
491        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
492      data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
493       0: tangerine
494       1: tang
495       2: tan
496    </pre>
497    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
498    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
499    </P>
500    <P>
501    If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
502    at the end of the longest match. For example:
503    <pre>
504        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
505      data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
506       0: tangerine
507       1: tang
508       2: tan
509       0: tang
510       1: tan
511       0: tan
512    </pre>
513    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
514    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
515    </P>
516    <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
517    <P>
518    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
519    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
520    match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
521    example:
522    <pre>
523        re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
524      data&#62; 23ja\P\D
525      Partial match: 23ja
526      data&#62; n05\R\D
527       0: n05
528    </pre>
529    For further information about partial matching, see the
530    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
531    documentation.
532  </P>  </P>
533  <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
534  <P>  <P>
535  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
536  is called during matching. By default, it displays the callout number, the  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
537  start and current positions in the text at the callout time, and the next  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
538  pattern item to be tested. For example, the output  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
539    tested. For example, the output
540  <pre>  <pre>
541    ---&#62;pqrabcdef    ---&#62;pqrabcdef
542      0    ^  ^     \d      0    ^  ^     \d
# Line 406  example: Line 562  example:
562     0: E*     0: E*
563  </pre>  </pre>
564  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by  The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
565  default, but you can use an \C item in a data line (as described above) to  default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
566  change this.  change this.
567  </P>  </P>
568  <P>  <P>
# Line 416  the Line 572  the
572  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
573  documentation.  documentation.
574  </P>  </P>
575  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
576    <P>
577    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
578    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
579    therefore shown as hex escapes.
580    </P>
581    <P>
582    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
583    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
584    the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
585    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
586    </P>
587    <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
588  <P>  <P>
589  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
590  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
# Line 478  string using a reloaded pattern is likel Line 646  string using a reloaded pattern is likel
646  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the  Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
647  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
648  </P>  </P>
649  <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
650    <P>
651    <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3), <b>pcrematching</b>(3),
652    <b>pcrepartial</b>(d), \fPpcrepattern\fP(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
653    </P>
654    <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
655  <P>  <P>
656  Philip Hazel &#60;ph10@cam.ac.uk&#62;  Philip Hazel
657    <br>
658    University Computing Service
659  <br>  <br>
660  University Computing Service,  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
661  <br>  <br>
 Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  
662  </P>  </P>
663    <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
664  <P>  <P>
665  Last updated: 10 September 2004  Last updated: 06 March 2007
666    <br>
667    Copyright &copy; 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.
668  <br>  <br>
 Copyright &copy; 1997-2004 University of Cambridge.  
669  <p>  <p>
670  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
671  </p>  </p>

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