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3  <title>pcretest specification</title>  <title>pcretest specification</title>
4  </head>  </head>
5  <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">  <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">
6  This HTML document has been generated automatically from the original man page.  <h1>pcretest man page</h1>
7  If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the man page, in case the  <p>
8  conversion went wrong.<br>  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
9    </p>
10    <p>
11    This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically
12    from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the
13    man page, in case the conversion went wrong.
14    <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
24    <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
25    <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">CALLOUTS</a>
26    <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
27    <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
28    <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SEE ALSO</a>
29    <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">AUTHOR</a>
30  </ul>  </ul>
31  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
32  <P>  <P>
33  <b>pcretest [-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source] [destination]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [source] [destination]</b>
34  </P>  <br>
35  <P>  <br>
36  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
37  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
38  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
39  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the
40  <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>  <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
41  documentation. For details of PCRE and its options, see the  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
42    options, see the
43  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
44  documentation.  documentation.
45  </P>  </P>
46  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>
47  <P>  <P>
48    <b>-b</b>
49    Behave as if each regex has the <b>/B</b> (show bytecode) modifier; the internal
50    form is output after compilation.
51    </P>
52    <P>
53  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
54  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
55  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
56  </P>  </P>
57  <P>  <P>
58  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
59  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/D</b> modifier (see below); the internal  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
60  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
61    <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
62    </P>
63    <P>
64    <b>-dfa</b>
65    Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
66    alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of the
67    standard <b>pcre_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
68    </P>
69    <P>
70    <b>-help</b>
71    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
72  </P>  </P>
73  <P>  <P>
74  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
75  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
76  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
77  </P>  </P>
78  <P>  <P>
79  <b>-m</b>  <b>-m</b>
80  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
81  equivalent to adding /M to each regular expression. For compatibility with  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility
82  earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.
83  </P>  </P>
84  <P>  <P>
85  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
86  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling PCRE  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
87  to be <i>osize</i>. The default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value
88  subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or
89  including \O in the data line (see below).  22 different matches for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>. The vector size can be
90    changed for individual matching calls by including \O in the data line (see
91    below).
92  </P>  </P>
93  <P>  <P>
94  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
95  Behave as if each regex has <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
96  to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is set.  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
97    set.
98    </P>
99    <P>
100    <b>-q</b>
101    Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
102    </P>
103    <P>
104    <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
105    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to <i>size</i>
106    megabytes.
107  </P>  </P>
108  <P>  <P>
109  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
110  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
111  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-t</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
112  <b>-m</b>, because you will then get the size output 20000 times and the timing  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
113  will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
114    used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
115    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
116    to iterate 500000 times.
117    </P>
118    <P>
119    <b>-tm</b>
120    This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
121    compile or study phases.
122  </P>  </P>
123  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
124  <P>  <P>
# Line 85  set starts with a regular expression, an Line 134  set starts with a regular expression, an
134  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
135  </P>  </P>
136  <P>  <P>
137  Each line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
138  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
139  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
140  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
141    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
142  </P>  </P>
143  <P>  <P>
144  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
145  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
146  non-alphameric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
 </P>  
 <P>  
147  <pre>  <pre>
148    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
149  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
150  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may
151  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are
152  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern
153  by escaping it, for example  by escaping it, for example
 </P>  
 <P>  
154  <pre>  <pre>
155    /abc\/def/    /abc\/def/
156  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
157  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since
158  delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect its interpretation.
159  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for
160  example,  example,
 </P>  
 <P>  
161  <pre>  <pre>
162    /abc/\    /abc/\
163  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
164  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a
165  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a
166  backslash, because  backslash, because
 </P>  
 <P>  
167  <pre>  <pre>
168    /abc\/    /abc\/
169  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
170  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
171  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
172  </P>  </P>
173  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
174  <P>  <P>
175  The pattern may be followed by <b>i</b>, <b>m</b>, <b>s</b>, or <b>x</b> to set the  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
176  PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
177  respectively. For example:  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
178    always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may
179    appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
180    the modifiers themselves.
181  </P>  </P>
182  <P>  <P>
183    The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
184    PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
185    <b>pcre_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
186    effect as they do in Perl. For example:
187  <pre>  <pre>
188    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
189  </PRE>  </pre>
190  </P>  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do
191  <P>  not correspond to anything in Perl:
192  These modifier letters have the same effect as they do in Perl. There are  <pre>
193  others which set PCRE options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:    <b>/A</b>       PCRE_ANCHORED
194  <b>/A</b>, <b>/E</b>, and <b>/X</b> set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and    <b>/C</b>       PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
195  PCRE_EXTRA respectively.    <b>/E</b>       PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
196      <b>/f</b>       PCRE_FIRSTLINE
197      <b>/J</b>       PCRE_DUPNAMES
198      <b>/N</b>       PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
199      <b>/U</b>       PCRE_UNGREEDY
200      <b>/X</b>       PCRE_EXTRA
201      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
202      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
203      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
204      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>   PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
205    </pre>
206    Those specifying line ending sequencess are literal strings as shown. This
207    example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
208    <pre>
209      /^abc/m&#60;crlf&#62;
210    </pre>
211    Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the
212    <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
213    documentation.
214  </P>  </P>
215    <br><b>
216    Finding all matches in a string
217    </b><br>
218  <P>  <P>
219  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
220  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
# Line 171  If this second match fails, the start of Line 233  If this second match fails, the start of
233  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the
234  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.
235  </P>  </P>
236    <br><b>
237    Other modifiers
238    </b><br>
239  <P>  <P>
240  There are a number of other modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
241  operates.  operates.
242  </P>  </P>
243  <P>  <P>
# Line 182  the subject string. This is useful for t Line 247  the subject string. This is useful for t
247  multiple copies of the same substring.  multiple copies of the same substring.
248  </P>  </P>
249  <P>  <P>
250  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
251  example,  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.
252  </P>  </P>
253  <P>  <P>
254    The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
255    example,
256  <pre>  <pre>
257    /pattern/Lfr    /pattern/Lfr_FR
258  </PRE>  </pre>
259  </P>  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
 <P>  
 For this reason, it must be the last modifier letter. The given locale is set,  
260  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the
261  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the
262  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables
# Line 199  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only Line 264  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only
264  </P>  </P>
265  <P>  <P>
266  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
267  compiled expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
268  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling an  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
269  expression, and outputting the information it gets back. If the pattern is  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
270  studied, the results of that are also output.  </P>
271  </P>  <P>
272  <P>  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
273  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes <b>/I</b>.  <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the \fP/B\fP and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
274  It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  </P>
275  compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  <P>
276  output.  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
277    fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This
278    facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns
279    that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not
280    available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
281    <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
282    reloading compiled patterns below.
283  </P>  </P>
284  <P>  <P>
285  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the
# Line 233  provided that it was compiled with this Line 304  provided that it was compiled with this
304  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
305  \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.  \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.
306  </P>  </P>
 <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  
 <P>  
 If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  
 will be called. By default, it displays the callout number, and the start and  
 current positions in the text at the callout time. For example, the output  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 <pre>  
   ---&#62;pqrabcdef  
     0    ^  ^  
 </PRE>  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  
 fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  
 character. The callout function returns zero (carry on matching) by default.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 Inserting callouts may be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check  
 complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see  
 the  
 <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  
 documentation.  
 </P>  
307  <P>  <P>
308  For testing the PCRE library, additional control of callout behaviour is  If the <b>/?</b> modifier is used with <b>/8</b>, it causes <b>pcretest</b> to
309  available via escape sequences in the data, as described in the following  call <b>pcre_compile()</b> with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the
310  section. In particular, it is possible to pass in a number as callout data (the  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.
 default is zero). If the callout function receives a non-zero number, it  
 returns that value instead of zero.  
311  </P>  </P>
312  <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
313  <P>  <P>
314  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
315  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are
# Line 272  pretty esoteric features, intended for c Line 317  pretty esoteric features, intended for c
317  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
318  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
319  recognized:  recognized:
 </P>  
 <P>  
320  <pre>  <pre>
321    \a         alarm (= BEL)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
322    \b         backspace    \b         backspace (\x08)
323    \e         escape    \e         escape (\x27)
324    \f         formfeed    \f         formfeed (\x0c)
325    \n         newline    \n         newline (\x0a)
326    \r         carriage return    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
327    \t         tab    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
328    \v         vertical tab    \t         tab (\x09)
329      \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
330    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
331    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
332    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode
333                 in UTF-8 mode    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
334    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
335    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
336    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
                after a successful match (any decimal number  
                less than 32)  
   \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring  
                "name" after a successful match (name termin-  
337                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
338    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time
                time  
339    \C-        do not supply a callout function    \C-        do not supply a callout function
340    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
341                 reached    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
342    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
343                 reached for the nth time    \D         use the <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> match function
344    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
345                 data    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
346    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
                after a successful match (any decimal number  
                less than 32)  
   \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring  
                "name" after a successful match (name termin-  
347                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
348    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match
349                 successful match    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
350    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
351    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
352    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
353                 <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of decimal    \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
354                 digits)    \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
355    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
356  </PRE>    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
357      \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
358      \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);
359                   this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
360      \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
361      \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
362      \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
363      \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
364    </pre>
365    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
366    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
367    </P>
368    <P>
369    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
370    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
371    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
372    input.
373  </P>  </P>
374  <P>  <P>
375  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with
376  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> field of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
377  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  fields of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
378  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. The
379  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes
380  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the
381  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
382  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of
383    subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how much
384    stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed
385    to complete the match attempt.
386    </P>
387    <P>
388    When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
389    by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
390    the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
391    </P>
392    <P>
393    If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
394    API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B
395    and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to
396    <b>regexec()</b>.
397  </P>  </P>
398  <P>  <P>
399  When \O is used, it may be higher or lower than the size set by the <b>-O</b>  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
400  option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b>  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
401  for the line in which it appears.  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
402    six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.
403  </P>  </P>
404    <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
405  <P>  <P>
406  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
407  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
408  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
409    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
410    functions are described in the
411    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
412    documentation.
413  </P>  </P>
414  <P>  <P>
415  If <b>/P</b> was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used,  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
416  only <b>\B</b>, and <b>\Z</b> have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is called.
417  to be passed to <b>regexec()</b> respectively.  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
418    escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
419    found. This is always the shortest possible match.
420  </P>  </P>
421    <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
422  <P>  <P>
423  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
424  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  <b>pcre_exec()</b>, is being used.
 any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  
 six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  
425  </P>  </P>
 <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  
426  <P>  <P>
427  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that
428  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched
429  the whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"
430  </P>  when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,
431  <P>  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example
432    of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
433  <pre>  <pre>
434    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
435    PCRE version 4.00 08-Jan-2003    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
436  </PRE>  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 <pre>  
437      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
438    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
439     0: abc123     0: abc123
440     1: 123     1: 123
441    data&#62; xyz    data&#62; xyz
442    No match    No match
443  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
444  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x
445  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the
446  pattern. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, then the output for  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
447  substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by  pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
448  "0+" like this:  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
 </P>  
 <P>  
449  <pre>  <pre>
450      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
451    data&#62; cataract    data&#62; cataract
452     0: cat     0: cat
453     0+ aract     0+ aract
454  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
455  If the pattern has the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier, the results of successive  If the pattern has the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier, the results of successive
456  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
 </P>  
 <P>  
457  <pre>  <pre>
458      re&#62; /\Bi(\w\w)/g      re&#62; /\Bi(\w\w)/g
459    data&#62; Mississippi    data&#62; Mississippi
# Line 402  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 463  matching attempts are output in sequence
463     1: ss     1: ss
464     0: ipp     0: ipp
465     1: pp     1: pp
466  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
467  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.
468  </P>  </P>
469  <P>  <P>
# Line 416  length (that is, the return from the ext Line 475  length (that is, the return from the ext
475  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
476  </P>  </P>
477  <P>  <P>
478  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
479  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
480  included in data by means of the \n escape.  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
481    the newline sequence setting).
482    </P>
483    <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
484    <P>
485    When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
486    means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
487    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
488    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
489    <pre>
490        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
491      data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
492       0: tangerine
493       1: tang
494       2: tan
495    </pre>
496    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
497    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
498    </P>
499    <P>
500    If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
501    at the end of the longest match. For example:
502    <pre>
503        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
504      data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
505       0: tangerine
506       1: tang
507       2: tan
508       0: tang
509       1: tan
510       0: tan
511    </pre>
512    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
513    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
514    </P>
515    <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
516    <P>
517    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
518    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
519    match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
520    example:
521    <pre>
522        re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
523      data&#62; 23ja\P\D
524      Partial match: 23ja
525      data&#62; n05\R\D
526       0: n05
527    </pre>
528    For further information about partial matching, see the
529    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
530    documentation.
531    </P>
532    <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
533    <P>
534    If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
535    is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
536    the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
537    positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
538    tested. For example, the output
539    <pre>
540      ---&#62;pqrabcdef
541        0    ^  ^     \d
542    </pre>
543    indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the
544    fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh
545    character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just one
546    circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
547    </P>
548    <P>
549    Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
550    result of the <b>/C</b> pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the
551    callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is output. For
552    example:
553    <pre>
554        re&#62; /\d?[A-E]\*/C
555      data&#62; E*
556      ---&#62;E*
557       +0 ^      \d?
558       +3 ^      [A-E]
559       +8 ^^     \*
560      +10 ^ ^
561       0: E*
562    </pre>
563    The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
564    default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
565    change this.
566    </P>
567    <P>
568    Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
569    complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
570    the
571    <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
572    documentation.
573    </P>
574    <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
575    <P>
576    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
577    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
578    therefore shown as hex escapes.
579    </P>
580    <P>
581    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
582    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
583    the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
584    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
585    </P>
586    <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
587    <P>
588    The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
589    inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
590    specified.
591    </P>
592    <P>
593    When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause <b>pcretest</b> to write a
594    compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with &#62; and a file name.
595    For example:
596    <pre>
597      /pattern/im &#62;/some/file
598    </pre>
599    See the
600    <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
601    documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
602    </P>
603    <P>
604    The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
605    compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
606    written as four bytes in big-endian order (most significant byte first). If
607    there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
608    return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
609    exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
610    follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,
611    <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
612    </P>
613    <P>
614    A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifing &#60; and a file
615    name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
616    as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
617    characters.
618    For example:
619    <pre>
620       re&#62; &#60;/some/file
621      Compiled regex loaded from /some/file
622      No study data
623    </pre>
624    When the pattern has been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in
625    the usual way.
626    </P>
627    <P>
628    You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
629    there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
630    pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
631    a SPARC machine.
632    </P>
633    <P>
634    File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
635    the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not
636    available.
637    </P>
638    <P>
639    The ability to save and reload files in <b>pcretest</b> is intended for testing
640    and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because only a
641    single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is no facility for
642    supplying custom character tables for use with a reloaded pattern. If the
643    original pattern was compiled with custom tables, an attempt to match a subject
644    string using a reloaded pattern is likely to cause <b>pcretest</b> to crash.
645    Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
646    result is undefined.
647    </P>
648    <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
649    <P>
650    <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3), <b>pcrematching</b>(3),
651    <b>pcrepartial</b>(d), \fPpcrepattern\fP(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
652  </P>  </P>
653  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
654  <P>  <P>
655  Philip Hazel &#60;ph10@cam.ac.uk&#62;  Philip Hazel
656  <br>  <br>
657  University Computing Service,  University Computing Service,
658  <br>  <br>
659  Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
660  </P>  </P>
661  <P>  <P>
662  Last updated: 03 February 2003  Last updated: 30 November 2006
663  <br>  <br>
664  Copyright &copy; 1997-2003 University of Cambridge.  Copyright &copy; 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.
665    <p>
666    Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
667    </p>

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