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3  <title>pcretest specification</title>  <title>pcretest specification</title>
4  </head>  </head>
5  <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">  <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#00005A" link="#0066FF" alink="#3399FF" vlink="#2222BB">
6  This HTML document has been generated automatically from the original man page.  <h1>pcretest man page</h1>
7  If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the man page, in case the  <p>
8  conversion went wrong.<br>  Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
9    </p>
10    <p>
11    This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically
12    from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the
13    man page, in case the conversion went wrong.
14    <br>
15  <ul>  <ul>
16  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>  <li><a name="TOC1" href="#SEC1">SYNOPSIS</a>
17  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>  <li><a name="TOC2" href="#SEC2">OPTIONS</a>
18  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>  <li><a name="TOC3" href="#SEC3">DESCRIPTION</a>
19  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>  <li><a name="TOC4" href="#SEC4">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a>
20  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">CALLOUTS</a>  <li><a name="TOC5" href="#SEC5">DATA LINES</a>
21  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">DATA LINES</a>  <li><a name="TOC6" href="#SEC6">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
22  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>  <li><a name="TOC7" href="#SEC7">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a>
23  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">AUTHOR</a>  <li><a name="TOC8" href="#SEC8">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a>
24    <li><a name="TOC9" href="#SEC9">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a>
25    <li><a name="TOC10" href="#SEC10">CALLOUTS</a>
26    <li><a name="TOC11" href="#SEC11">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a>
27    <li><a name="TOC12" href="#SEC12">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a>
28    <li><a name="TOC13" href="#SEC13">SEE ALSO</a>
29    <li><a name="TOC14" href="#SEC14">AUTHOR</a>
30    <li><a name="TOC15" href="#SEC15">REVISION</a>
31  </ul>  </ul>
32  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC1" href="#TOC1">SYNOPSIS</a><br>
33  <P>  <P>
34  <b>pcretest [-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source] [destination]</b>  <b>pcretest [options] [source] [destination]</b>
35  </P>  <br>
36  <P>  <br>
37  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  <b>pcretest</b> was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
38  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
39  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
40  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the
41  <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>  <a href="pcrepattern.html"><b>pcrepattern</b></a>
42  documentation. For details of PCRE and its options, see the  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
43    options, see the
44  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>  <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
45  documentation.  documentation.
46  </P>  </P>
47  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC2" href="#TOC1">OPTIONS</a><br>
48  <P>  <P>
49    <b>-b</b>
50    Behave as if each regex has the <b>/B</b> (show bytecode) modifier; the internal
51    form is output after compilation.
52    </P>
53    <P>
54  <b>-C</b>  <b>-C</b>
55  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
56  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
57  </P>  </P>
58  <P>  <P>
59  <b>-d</b>  <b>-d</b>
60  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/D</b> modifier (see below); the internal  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/D</b> (debug) modifier; the internal
61  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
62    <b>-d</b> is equivalent to <b>-b -i</b>.
63    </P>
64    <P>
65    <b>-dfa</b>
66    Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence; this causes the
67    alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, to be used instead of the
68    standard <b>pcre_exec()</b> function (more detail is given below).
69    </P>
70    <P>
71    <b>-help</b>
72    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
73  </P>  </P>
74  <P>  <P>
75  <b>-i</b>  <b>-i</b>
76  Behave as if each regex had the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/I</b> modifier; information about the
77  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
78  </P>  </P>
79  <P>  <P>
80  <b>-m</b>  <b>-m</b>
81  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
82  equivalent to adding /M to each regular expression. For compatibility with  equivalent to adding <b>/M</b> to each regular expression. For compatibility
83  earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.  with earlier versions of pcretest, <b>-s</b> is a synonym for <b>-m</b>.
84  </P>  </P>
85  <P>  <P>
86  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>  <b>-o</b> <i>osize</i>
87  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling PCRE  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
88  to be <i>osize</i>. The default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> to be <i>osize</i>. The default value
89  subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or
90  including \O in the data line (see below).  22 different matches for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>. The vector size can be
91    changed for individual matching calls by including \O in the data line (see
92    below).
93  </P>  </P>
94  <P>  <P>
95  <b>-p</b>  <b>-p</b>
96  Behave as if each regex has <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  Behave as if each regex has the <b>/P</b> modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
97  to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is set.  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when <b>-p</b> is
98    set.
99    </P>
100    <P>
101    <b>-q</b>
102    Do not output the version number of <b>pcretest</b> at the start of execution.
103    </P>
104    <P>
105    <b>-S</b> <i>size</i>
106    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to <i>size</i>
107    megabytes.
108  </P>  </P>
109  <P>  <P>
110  <b>-t</b>  <b>-t</b>
111  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
112  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-t</b> with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set <b>-m</b> with
113  <b>-m</b>, because you will then get the size output 20000 times and the timing  <b>-t</b>, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
114  will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
115    used for timing by following <b>-t</b> with a number (as a separate item on the
116    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
117    to iterate 500000 times.
118    </P>
119    <P>
120    <b>-tm</b>
121    This is like <b>-t</b> except that it times only the matching phase, not the
122    compile or study phases.
123  </P>  </P>
124  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC3" href="#TOC1">DESCRIPTION</a><br>
125  <P>  <P>
# Line 85  set starts with a regular expression, an Line 135  set starts with a regular expression, an
135  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
136  </P>  </P>
137  <P>  <P>
138  Each line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
139  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or \r\n,
140  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
141  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
142    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
143  </P>  </P>
144  <P>  <P>
145  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
146  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
147  non-alphameric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
 </P>  
 <P>  
148  <pre>  <pre>
149    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
150  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
151  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may
152  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are
153  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern
154  by escaping it, for example  by escaping it, for example
 </P>  
 <P>  
155  <pre>  <pre>
156    /abc\/def/    /abc\/def/
157  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
158  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since
159  delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect its interpretation.
160  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for
161  example,  example,
 </P>  
 <P>  
162  <pre>  <pre>
163    /abc/\    /abc/\
164  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
165  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a
166  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a
167  backslash, because  backslash, because
 </P>  
 <P>  
168  <pre>  <pre>
169    /abc\/    /abc\/
170  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
171  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
172  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
173  </P>  </P>
174  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC4" href="#TOC1">PATTERN MODIFIERS</a><br>
175  <P>  <P>
176  The pattern may be followed by <b>i</b>, <b>m</b>, <b>s</b>, or <b>x</b> to set the  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
177  PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
178  respectively. For example:  "the <b>/i</b> modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
179    always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may
180    appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
181    the modifiers themselves.
182  </P>  </P>
183  <P>  <P>
184    The <b>/i</b>, <b>/m</b>, <b>/s</b>, and <b>/x</b> modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
185    PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
186    <b>pcre_compile()</b> is called. These four modifier letters have the same
187    effect as they do in Perl. For example:
188  <pre>  <pre>
189    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
190  </PRE>  </pre>
191  </P>  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do
192  <P>  not correspond to anything in Perl:
193  These modifier letters have the same effect as they do in Perl. There are  <pre>
194  others that set PCRE options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:    <b>/A</b>       PCRE_ANCHORED
195  <b>/A</b>, <b>/E</b>, <b>/N</b>, <b>/U</b>, and <b>/X</b> set PCRE_ANCHORED,    <b>/C</b>       PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
196  PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE, PCRE_UNGREEDY, and PCRE_EXTRA    <b>/E</b>       PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
197  respectively.    <b>/f</b>       PCRE_FIRSTLINE
198      <b>/J</b>       PCRE_DUPNAMES
199      <b>/N</b>       PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
200      <b>/U</b>       PCRE_UNGREEDY
201      <b>/X</b>       PCRE_EXTRA
202      <b>/&#60;cr&#62;</b>    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
203      <b>/&#60;lf&#62;</b>    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
204      <b>/&#60;crlf&#62;</b>  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
205      <b>/&#60;any&#62;</b>   PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
206    </pre>
207    Those specifying line ending sequencess are literal strings as shown. This
208    example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
209    <pre>
210      /^abc/m&#60;crlf&#62;
211    </pre>
212    Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the
213    <a href="pcreapi.html"><b>pcreapi</b></a>
214    documentation.
215  </P>  </P>
216    <br><b>
217    Finding all matches in a string
218    </b><br>
219  <P>  <P>
220  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
221  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
# Line 172  If this second match fails, the start of Line 234  If this second match fails, the start of
234  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the
235  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.  <b>/g</b> modifier or the <b>split()</b> function.
236  </P>  </P>
237    <br><b>
238    Other modifiers
239    </b><br>
240  <P>  <P>
241  There are a number of other modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way <b>pcretest</b>
242  operates.  operates.
243  </P>  </P>
244  <P>  <P>
# Line 183  the subject string. This is useful for t Line 248  the subject string. This is useful for t
248  multiple copies of the same substring.  multiple copies of the same substring.
249  </P>  </P>
250  <P>  <P>
251  The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The <b>/B</b> modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that <b>pcretest</b>
252  example,  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.
253  </P>  </P>
254  <P>  <P>
255    The <b>/L</b> modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
256    example,
257  <pre>  <pre>
258    /pattern/Lfr    /pattern/Lfr_FR
259  </PRE>  </pre>
260  </P>  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
 <P>  
 For this reason, it must be the last modifier letter. The given locale is set,  
261  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the  <b>pcre_maketables()</b> is called to build a set of character tables for the
262  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the  locale, and this is then passed to <b>pcre_compile()</b> when compiling the
263  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  regular expression. Without an <b>/L</b> modifier, NULL is passed as the tables
# Line 200  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only Line 265  pointer; that is, <b>/L</b> applies only
265  </P>  </P>
266  <P>  <P>
267  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the  The <b>/I</b> modifier requests that <b>pcretest</b> output information about the
268  compiled expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
269  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling an  so on). It does this by calling <b>pcre_fullinfo()</b> after compiling a
270  expression, and outputting the information it gets back. If the pattern is  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
271  studied, the results of that are also output.  </P>
272  </P>  <P>
273  <P>  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
274  The <b>/D</b> modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes <b>/I</b>.  <b>/BI</b>, that is, both the \fP/B\fP and the <b>/I</b> modifiers.
275  It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  </P>
276  compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  <P>
277  output.  The <b>/F</b> modifier causes <b>pcretest</b> to flip the byte order of the
278    fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This
279    facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns
280    that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not
281    available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
282    <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
283    reloading compiled patterns below.
284  </P>  </P>
285  <P>  <P>
286  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the  The <b>/S</b> modifier causes <b>pcre_study()</b> to be called after the
# Line 239  If the <b>/?</b> modifier is used with < Line 310  If the <b>/?</b> modifier is used with <
310  call <b>pcre_compile()</b> with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  call <b>pcre_compile()</b> with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the
311  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.
312  </P>  </P>
313  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC5" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>
 <P>  
 If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function  
 will be called. By default, it displays the callout number, and the start and  
 current positions in the text at the callout time. For example, the output  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 <pre>  
   ---&#62;pqrabcdef  
     0    ^  ^  
 </PRE>  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  
 fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  
 character. The callout function returns zero (carry on matching) by default.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 Inserting callouts may be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check  
 complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see  
 the  
 <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>  
 documentation.  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 For testing the PCRE library, additional control of callout behaviour is  
 available via escape sequences in the data, as described in the following  
 section. In particular, it is possible to pass in a number as callout data (the  
 default is zero). If the callout function receives a non-zero number, it  
 returns that value instead of zero.  
 </P>  
 <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">DATA LINES</a><br>  
314  <P>  <P>
315  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b>, leading and trailing
316  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of these are
# Line 278  pretty esoteric features, intended for c Line 318  pretty esoteric features, intended for c
318  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
319  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
320  recognized:  recognized:
 </P>  
 <P>  
321  <pre>  <pre>
322    \a         alarm (= BEL)    \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
323    \b         backspace    \b         backspace (\x08)
324    \e         escape    \e         escape (\x27)
325    \f         formfeed    \f         formfeed (\x0c)
326    \n         newline    \n         newline (\x0a)
327    \r         carriage return    \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd (any number of digits)
328    \t         tab    \r         carriage return (\x0d)
329    \v         vertical tab    \t         tab (\x09)
330      \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
331    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
332    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
333    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits in UTF-8 mode
334                 in UTF-8 mode    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
335    \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
336    \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
337    \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd    \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
                after a successful match (any decimal number  
                less than 32)  
   \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring  
                "name" after a successful match (name termin-  
338                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
339    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout    \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout time
                time  
340    \C-        do not supply a callout function    \C-        do not supply a callout function
341    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is    \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached
342                 reached    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is reached for the nth time
343    \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout data; this is used as the callout return value
344                 reached for the nth time    \D         use the <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b> match function
345    \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout    \F         only shortest match for <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
346                 data    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match (number less than 32)
347    \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd    \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring "name" after a successful match (name termin-
                after a successful match (any decimal number  
                less than 32)  
   \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring  
                "name" after a successful match (name termin-  
348                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
349    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a    \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match
350                 successful match    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
351    \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
352    \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of digits)
353    \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to    \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
354                 <b>pcre_exec()</b> to dd (any number of decimal    \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd (any number of digits)
355                 digits)    \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
356    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
357    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to    \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
358                 <b>pcre_exec()</b>    \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
359  </PRE>    \&#62;dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);
360                   this sets the <i>startoffset</i> argument for <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
361      \&#60;cr&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
362      \&#60;lf&#62;      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
363      \&#60;crlf&#62;    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
364      \&#60;any&#62;     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to <b>pcre_exec()</b> or <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>
365    </pre>
366    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
367    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
368    </P>
369    <P>
370    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
371    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
372    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
373    input.
374  </P>  </P>
375  <P>  <P>
376  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with  If \M is present, <b>pcretest</b> calls <b>pcre_exec()</b> several times, with
377  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> field of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data  different values in the <i>match_limit</i> and <i>match_limit_recursion</i>
378  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  fields of the <b>pcre_extra</b> data structure, until it finds the minimum
379  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  numbers for each parameter that allow <b>pcre_exec()</b> to complete. The
380  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  <i>match_limit</i> number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes
381  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the
382  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
383  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of
384    subject string. The <i>match_limit_recursion</i> number is a measure of how much
385    stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed
386    to complete the match attempt.
387    </P>
388    <P>
389    When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
390    by the <b>-O</b> command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to
391    the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b> for the line in which it appears.
392    </P>
393    <P>
394    If the <b>/P</b> modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
395    API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \B
396    and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to
397    <b>regexec()</b>.
398  </P>  </P>
399  <P>  <P>
400  When \O is used, it may be higher or lower than the size set by the <b>-O</b>  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
401  option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies only to the call of <b>pcre_exec()</b>  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
402  for the line in which it appears.  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
403    six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.
404  </P>  </P>
405    <br><a name="SEC6" href="#TOC1">THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
406  <P>  <P>
407  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  By default, <b>pcretest</b> uses the standard PCRE matching function,
408  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  <b>pcre_exec()</b> to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
409  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_test()</b>, which operates in a
410    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
411    functions are described in the
412    <a href="pcrematching.html"><b>pcrematching</b></a>
413    documentation.
414  </P>  </P>
415  <P>  <P>
416  If <b>/P</b> was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used,  If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
417  only <b>\B</b>, and <b>\Z</b> have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL  contains the <b>-dfa</b> option, the alternative matching function is called.
418  to be passed to <b>regexec()</b> respectively.  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \F
419    escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
420    found. This is always the shortest possible match.
421  </P>  </P>
422    <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>
423  <P>  <P>
424  The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
425  of the <b>/8</b> modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  <b>pcre_exec()</b>, is being used.
 any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  
 six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  
426  </P>  </P>
 <br><a name="SEC7" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST</a><br>  
427  <P>  <P>
428  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that
429  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched
430  the whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"
431  </P>  when <b>pcre_exec()</b> returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,
432  <P>  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example
433    of an interactive <b>pcretest</b> run.
434  <pre>  <pre>
435    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
436    PCRE version 4.00 08-Jan-2003    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
437  </PRE>  
 </P>  
 <P>  
 <pre>  
438      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/      re&#62; /^abc(\d+)/
439    data&#62; abc123    data&#62; abc123
440     0: abc123     0: abc123
441     1: 123     1: 123
442    data&#62; xyz    data&#62; xyz
443    No match    No match
444  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
445  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x
446  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the <b>/8</b> modifier was present on the
447  pattern. If the pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, then the output for  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
448  substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by  pattern has the <b>/+</b> modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
449  "0+" like this:  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
 </P>  
 <P>  
450  <pre>  <pre>
451      re&#62; /cat/+      re&#62; /cat/+
452    data&#62; cataract    data&#62; cataract
453     0: cat     0: cat
454     0+ aract     0+ aract
455  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
456  If the pattern has the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier, the results of successive  If the pattern has the <b>/g</b> or <b>/G</b> modifier, the results of successive
457  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
 </P>  
 <P>  
458  <pre>  <pre>
459      re&#62; /\Bi(\w\w)/g      re&#62; /\Bi(\w\w)/g
460    data&#62; Mississippi    data&#62; Mississippi
# Line 410  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 464  matching attempts are output in sequence
464     1: ss     1: ss
465     0: ipp     0: ipp
466     1: pp     1: pp
467  </PRE>  </pre>
 </P>  
 <P>  
468  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.
469  </P>  </P>
470  <P>  <P>
# Line 424  length (that is, the return from the ext Line 476  length (that is, the return from the ext
476  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.  parentheses after each string for <b>\C</b> and <b>\G</b>.
477  </P>  </P>
478  <P>  <P>
479  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain "&#62;"
480  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
481  included in data by means of the \n escape.  included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on
482    the newline sequence setting).
483    </P>
484    <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION</a><br>
485    <P>
486    When the alternative matching function, <b>pcre_dfa_exec()</b>, is used (by
487    means of the \D escape sequence or the <b>-dfa</b> command line option), the
488    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
489    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
490    <pre>
491        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
492      data&#62; yellow tangerine\D
493       0: tangerine
494       1: tang
495       2: tan
496    </pre>
497    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
498    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
499    </P>
500    <P>
501    If <b>/g</b> is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
502    at the end of the longest match. For example:
503    <pre>
504        re&#62; /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
505      data&#62; yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
506       0: tangerine
507       1: tang
508       2: tan
509       0: tang
510       1: tan
511       0: tan
512    </pre>
513    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
514    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
515    </P>
516    <br><a name="SEC9" href="#TOC1">RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH</a><br>
517    <P>
518    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
519    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
520    match with additional subject data by means of the \R escape sequence. For
521    example:
522    <pre>
523        re&#62; /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
524      data&#62; 23ja\P\D
525      Partial match: 23ja
526      data&#62; n05\R\D
527       0: n05
528    </pre>
529    For further information about partial matching, see the
530    <a href="pcrepartial.html"><b>pcrepartial</b></a>
531    documentation.
532    </P>
533    <br><a name="SEC10" href="#TOC1">CALLOUTS</a><br>
534    <P>
535    If the pattern contains any callout requests, <b>pcretest</b>'s callout function
536    is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
537    the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
538    positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
539    tested. For example, the output
540    <pre>
541      ---&#62;pqrabcdef
542        0    ^  ^     \d
543    </pre>
544    indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the
545    fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh
546    character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just one
547    circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
548    </P>
549    <P>
550    Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
551    result of the <b>/C</b> pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the
552    callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is output. For
553    example:
554    <pre>
555        re&#62; /\d?[A-E]\*/C
556      data&#62; E*
557      ---&#62;E*
558       +0 ^      \d?
559       +3 ^      [A-E]
560       +8 ^^     \*
561      +10 ^ ^
562       0: E*
563    </pre>
564    The callout function in <b>pcretest</b> returns zero (carry on matching) by
565    default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above) to
566    change this.
567    </P>
568    <P>
569    Inserting callouts can be helpful when using <b>pcretest</b> to check
570    complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
571    the
572    <a href="pcrecallout.html"><b>pcrecallout</b></a>
573    documentation.
574  </P>  </P>
575  <br><a name="SEC8" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>  <br><a name="SEC11" href="#TOC1">NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS</a><br>
576  <P>  <P>
577  Philip Hazel &#60;ph10@cam.ac.uk&#62;  When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
578    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
579    therefore shown as hex escapes.
580    </P>
581    <P>
582    When <b>pcretest</b> is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
583    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
584    the pattern (using the <b>/L</b> modifier). In this case, the <b>isprint()</b>
585    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
586    </P>
587    <br><a name="SEC12" href="#TOC1">SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS</a><br>
588    <P>
589    The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
590    inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the <b>/P</b> pattern modifier is
591    specified.
592    </P>
593    <P>
594    When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause <b>pcretest</b> to write a
595    compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with &#62; and a file name.
596    For example:
597    <pre>
598      /pattern/im &#62;/some/file
599    </pre>
600    See the
601    <a href="pcreprecompile.html"><b>pcreprecompile</b></a>
602    documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
603    </P>
604    <P>
605    The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
606    compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
607    written as four bytes in big-endian order (most significant byte first). If
608    there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
609    return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
610    exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
611    follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,
612    <b>pcretest</b> expects to read a new pattern.
613    </P>
614    <P>
615    A saved pattern can be reloaded into <b>pcretest</b> by specifing &#60; and a file
616    name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a &#60; character,
617    as otherwise <b>pcretest</b> will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by &#60;
618    characters.
619    For example:
620    <pre>
621       re&#62; &#60;/some/file
622      Compiled regex loaded from /some/file
623      No study data
624    </pre>
625    When the pattern has been loaded, <b>pcretest</b> proceeds to read data lines in
626    the usual way.
627    </P>
628    <P>
629    You can copy a file written by <b>pcretest</b> to a different host and reload it
630    there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
631    pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
632    a SPARC machine.
633    </P>
634    <P>
635    File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
636    the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not
637    available.
638    </P>
639    <P>
640    The ability to save and reload files in <b>pcretest</b> is intended for testing
641    and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because only a
642    single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is no facility for
643    supplying custom character tables for use with a reloaded pattern. If the
644    original pattern was compiled with custom tables, an attempt to match a subject
645    string using a reloaded pattern is likely to cause <b>pcretest</b> to crash.
646    Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
647    result is undefined.
648    </P>
649    <br><a name="SEC13" href="#TOC1">SEE ALSO</a><br>
650    <P>
651    <b>pcre</b>(3), <b>pcreapi</b>(3), <b>pcrecallout</b>(3), <b>pcrematching</b>(3),
652    <b>pcrepartial</b>(d), \fPpcrepattern\fP(3), <b>pcreprecompile</b>(3).
653    </P>
654    <br><a name="SEC14" href="#TOC1">AUTHOR</a><br>
655    <P>
656    Philip Hazel
657  <br>  <br>
658  University Computing Service,  University Computing Service
659    <br>
660    Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
661  <br>  <br>
 Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  
662  </P>  </P>
663    <br><a name="SEC15" href="#TOC1">REVISION</a><br>
664  <P>  <P>
665  Last updated: 20 August 2003  Last updated: 06 March 2007
666    <br>
667    Copyright &copy; 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.
668  <br>  <br>
669  Copyright &copy; 1997-2003 University of Cambridge.  <p>
670    Return to the <a href="index.html">PCRE index page</a>.
671    </p>

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