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1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 This file contains a concatenation of the PCRE man pages, converted to plain
3 text format for ease of searching with a text editor, or for use on systems
4 that do not have a man page processor. The small individual files that give
5 synopses of each function in the library have not been included. Neither has
6 the pcredemo program. There are separate text files for the pcregrep and
7 pcretest commands.
8 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
11 PCRE(3) PCRE(3)
15 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
20 The PCRE library is a set of functions that implement regular expres-
21 sion pattern matching using the same syntax and semantics as Perl, with
22 just a few differences. Some features that appeared in Python and PCRE
23 before they appeared in Perl are also available using the Python syn-
24 tax, there is some support for one or two .NET and Oniguruma syntax
25 items, and there is an option for requesting some minor changes that
26 give better JavaScript compatibility.
28 The current implementation of PCRE corresponds approximately with Perl
29 5.10/5.11, including support for UTF-8 encoded strings and Unicode gen-
30 eral category properties. However, UTF-8 and Unicode support has to be
31 explicitly enabled; it is not the default. The Unicode tables corre-
32 spond to Unicode release 5.2.0.
34 In addition to the Perl-compatible matching function, PCRE contains an
35 alternative function that matches the same compiled patterns in a dif-
36 ferent way. In certain circumstances, the alternative function has some
37 advantages. For a discussion of the two matching algorithms, see the
38 pcrematching page.
40 PCRE is written in C and released as a C library. A number of people
41 have written wrappers and interfaces of various kinds. In particular,
42 Google Inc. have provided a comprehensive C++ wrapper. This is now
43 included as part of the PCRE distribution. The pcrecpp page has details
44 of this interface. Other people's contributions can be found in the
45 Contrib directory at the primary FTP site, which is:
47 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre
49 Details of exactly which Perl regular expression features are and are
50 not supported by PCRE are given in separate documents. See the pcrepat-
51 tern and pcrecompat pages. There is a syntax summary in the pcresyntax
52 page.
54 Some features of PCRE can be included, excluded, or changed when the
55 library is built. The pcre_config() function makes it possible for a
56 client to discover which features are available. The features them-
57 selves are described in the pcrebuild page. Documentation about build-
58 ing PCRE for various operating systems can be found in the README and
59 NON-UNIX-USE files in the source distribution.
61 The library contains a number of undocumented internal functions and
62 data tables that are used by more than one of the exported external
63 functions, but which are not intended for use by external callers.
64 Their names all begin with "_pcre_", which hopefully will not provoke
65 any name clashes. In some environments, it is possible to control which
66 external symbols are exported when a shared library is built, and in
67 these cases the undocumented symbols are not exported.
72 The user documentation for PCRE comprises a number of different sec-
73 tions. In the "man" format, each of these is a separate "man page". In
74 the HTML format, each is a separate page, linked from the index page.
75 In the plain text format, all the sections, except the pcredemo sec-
76 tion, are concatenated, for ease of searching. The sections are as fol-
77 lows:
79 pcre this document
80 pcre-config show PCRE installation configuration information
81 pcreapi details of PCRE's native C API
82 pcrebuild options for building PCRE
83 pcrecallout details of the callout feature
84 pcrecompat discussion of Perl compatibility
85 pcrecpp details of the C++ wrapper
86 pcredemo a demonstration C program that uses PCRE
87 pcregrep description of the pcregrep command
88 pcrematching discussion of the two matching algorithms
89 pcrepartial details of the partial matching facility
90 pcrepattern syntax and semantics of supported
91 regular expressions
92 pcreperform discussion of performance issues
93 pcreposix the POSIX-compatible C API
94 pcreprecompile details of saving and re-using precompiled patterns
95 pcresample discussion of the pcredemo program
96 pcrestack discussion of stack usage
97 pcresyntax quick syntax reference
98 pcretest description of the pcretest testing command
100 In addition, in the "man" and HTML formats, there is a short page for
101 each C library function, listing its arguments and results.
106 There are some size limitations in PCRE but it is hoped that they will
107 never in practice be relevant.
109 The maximum length of a compiled pattern is 65539 (sic) bytes if PCRE
110 is compiled with the default internal linkage size of 2. If you want to
111 process regular expressions that are truly enormous, you can compile
112 PCRE with an internal linkage size of 3 or 4 (see the README file in
113 the source distribution and the pcrebuild documentation for details).
114 In these cases the limit is substantially larger. However, the speed
115 of execution is slower.
117 All values in repeating quantifiers must be less than 65536.
119 There is no limit to the number of parenthesized subpatterns, but there
120 can be no more than 65535 capturing subpatterns.
122 The maximum length of name for a named subpattern is 32 characters, and
123 the maximum number of named subpatterns is 10000.
125 The maximum length of a subject string is the largest positive number
126 that an integer variable can hold. However, when using the traditional
127 matching function, PCRE uses recursion to handle subpatterns and indef-
128 inite repetition. This means that the available stack space may limit
129 the size of a subject string that can be processed by certain patterns.
130 For a discussion of stack issues, see the pcrestack documentation.
135 From release 3.3, PCRE has had some support for character strings
136 encoded in the UTF-8 format. For release 4.0 this was greatly extended
137 to cover most common requirements, and in release 5.0 additional sup-
138 port for Unicode general category properties was added.
140 In order process UTF-8 strings, you must build PCRE to include UTF-8
141 support in the code, and, in addition, you must call pcre_compile()
142 with the PCRE_UTF8 option flag, or the pattern must start with the
143 sequence (*UTF8). When either of these is the case, both the pattern
144 and any subject strings that are matched against it are treated as
145 UTF-8 strings instead of strings of 1-byte characters.
147 If you compile PCRE with UTF-8 support, but do not use it at run time,
148 the library will be a bit bigger, but the additional run time overhead
149 is limited to testing the PCRE_UTF8 flag occasionally, so should not be
150 very big.
152 If PCRE is built with Unicode character property support (which implies
153 UTF-8 support), the escape sequences \p{..}, \P{..}, and \X are sup-
154 ported. The available properties that can be tested are limited to the
155 general category properties such as Lu for an upper case letter or Nd
156 for a decimal number, the Unicode script names such as Arabic or Han,
157 and the derived properties Any and L&. A full list is given in the
158 pcrepattern documentation. Only the short names for properties are sup-
159 ported. For example, \p{L} matches a letter. Its Perl synonym, \p{Let-
160 ter}, is not supported. Furthermore, in Perl, many properties may
161 optionally be prefixed by "Is", for compatibility with Perl 5.6. PCRE
162 does not support this.
164 Validity of UTF-8 strings
166 When you set the PCRE_UTF8 flag, the strings passed as patterns and
167 subjects are (by default) checked for validity on entry to the relevant
168 functions. From release 7.3 of PCRE, the check is according the rules
169 of RFC 3629, which are themselves derived from the Unicode specifica-
170 tion. Earlier releases of PCRE followed the rules of RFC 2279, which
171 allows the full range of 31-bit values (0 to 0x7FFFFFFF). The current
172 check allows only values in the range U+0 to U+10FFFF, excluding U+D800
173 to U+DFFF.
175 The excluded code points are the "Low Surrogate Area" of Unicode, of
176 which the Unicode Standard says this: "The Low Surrogate Area does not
177 contain any character assignments, consequently no character code
178 charts or namelists are provided for this area. Surrogates are reserved
179 for use with UTF-16 and then must be used in pairs." The code points
180 that are encoded by UTF-16 pairs are available as independent code
181 points in the UTF-8 encoding. (In other words, the whole surrogate
182 thing is a fudge for UTF-16 which unfortunately messes up UTF-8.)
184 If an invalid UTF-8 string is passed to PCRE, an error return
185 (PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8) is given. In some situations, you may already know
186 that your strings are valid, and therefore want to skip these checks in
187 order to improve performance. If you set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK flag at
188 compile time or at run time, PCRE assumes that the pattern or subject
189 it is given (respectively) contains only valid UTF-8 codes. In this
190 case, it does not diagnose an invalid UTF-8 string.
192 If you pass an invalid UTF-8 string when PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set,
193 what happens depends on why the string is invalid. If the string con-
194 forms to the "old" definition of UTF-8 (RFC 2279), it is processed as a
195 string of characters in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. In other words,
196 apart from the initial validity test, PCRE (when in UTF-8 mode) handles
197 strings according to the more liberal rules of RFC 2279. However, if
198 the string does not even conform to RFC 2279, the result is undefined.
199 Your program may crash.
201 If you want to process strings of values in the full range 0 to
202 0x7FFFFFFF, encoded in a UTF-8-like manner as per the old RFC, you can
203 set PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK to bypass the more restrictive test. However, in
204 this situation, you will have to apply your own validity check.
206 General comments about UTF-8 mode
208 1. An unbraced hexadecimal escape sequence (such as \xb3) matches a
209 two-byte UTF-8 character if the value is greater than 127.
211 2. Octal numbers up to \777 are recognized, and match two-byte UTF-8
212 characters for values greater than \177.
214 3. Repeat quantifiers apply to complete UTF-8 characters, not to indi-
215 vidual bytes, for example: \x{100}{3}.
217 4. The dot metacharacter matches one UTF-8 character instead of a sin-
218 gle byte.
220 5. The escape sequence \C can be used to match a single byte in UTF-8
221 mode, but its use can lead to some strange effects. This facility is
222 not available in the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec().
224 6. The character escapes \b, \B, \d, \D, \s, \S, \w, and \W correctly
225 test characters of any code value, but, by default, the characters that
226 PCRE recognizes as digits, spaces, or word characters remain the same
227 set as before, all with values less than 256. This remains true even
228 when PCRE is built to include Unicode property support, because to do
229 otherwise would slow down PCRE in many common cases. Note that this
230 also applies to \b, because it is defined in terms of \w and \W. If you
231 really want to test for a wider sense of, say, "digit", you can use
232 explicit Unicode property tests such as \p{Nd}. Alternatively, if you
233 set the PCRE_UCP option, the way that the character escapes work is
234 changed so that Unicode properties are used to determine which charac-
235 ters match. There are more details in the section on generic character
236 types in the pcrepattern documentation.
238 7. Similarly, characters that match the POSIX named character classes
239 are all low-valued characters, unless the PCRE_UCP option is set.
241 8. However, the Perl 5.10 horizontal and vertical whitespace matching
242 escapes (\h, \H, \v, and \V) do match all the appropriate Unicode char-
243 acters, whether or not PCRE_UCP is set.
245 9. Case-insensitive matching applies only to characters whose values
246 are less than 128, unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support.
247 Even when Unicode property support is available, PCRE still uses its
248 own character tables when checking the case of low-valued characters,
249 so as not to degrade performance. The Unicode property information is
250 used only for characters with higher values. Even when Unicode property
251 support is available, PCRE supports case-insensitive matching only when
252 there is a one-to-one mapping between a letter's cases. There are a
253 small number of many-to-one mappings in Unicode; these are not sup-
254 ported by PCRE.
259 Philip Hazel
260 University Computing Service
261 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
263 Putting an actual email address here seems to have been a spam magnet,
264 so I've taken it away. If you want to email me, use my two initials,
265 followed by the two digits 10, at the domain cam.ac.uk.
270 Last updated: 12 May 2010
271 Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
272 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
278 NAME
279 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
284 This document describes the optional features of PCRE that can be
285 selected when the library is compiled. It assumes use of the configure
286 script, where the optional features are selected or deselected by pro-
287 viding options to configure before running the make command. However,
288 the same options can be selected in both Unix-like and non-Unix-like
289 environments using the GUI facility of cmake-gui if you are using CMake
290 instead of configure to build PCRE.
292 There is a lot more information about building PCRE in non-Unix-like
293 environments in the file called NON_UNIX_USE, which is part of the PCRE
294 distribution. You should consult this file as well as the README file
295 if you are building in a non-Unix-like environment.
297 The complete list of options for configure (which includes the standard
298 ones such as the selection of the installation directory) can be
299 obtained by running
301 ./configure --help
303 The following sections include descriptions of options whose names
304 begin with --enable or --disable. These settings specify changes to the
305 defaults for the configure command. Because of the way that configure
306 works, --enable and --disable always come in pairs, so the complemen-
307 tary option always exists as well, but as it specifies the default, it
308 is not described.
313 By default, the configure script will search for a C++ compiler and C++
314 header files. If it finds them, it automatically builds the C++ wrapper
315 library for PCRE. You can disable this by adding
317 --disable-cpp
319 to the configure command.
324 To build PCRE with support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings, add
326 --enable-utf8
328 to the configure command. Of itself, this does not make PCRE treat
329 strings as UTF-8. As well as compiling PCRE with this option, you also
330 have have to set the PCRE_UTF8 option when you call the pcre_compile()
331 or pcre_compile2() functions.
333 If you set --enable-utf8 when compiling in an EBCDIC environment, PCRE
334 expects its input to be either ASCII or UTF-8 (depending on the runtime
335 option). It is not possible to support both EBCDIC and UTF-8 codes in
336 the same version of the library. Consequently, --enable-utf8 and
337 --enable-ebcdic are mutually exclusive.
342 UTF-8 support allows PCRE to process character values greater than 255
343 in the strings that it handles. On its own, however, it does not pro-
344 vide any facilities for accessing the properties of such characters. If
345 you want to be able to use the pattern escapes \P, \p, and \X, which
346 refer to Unicode character properties, you must add
348 --enable-unicode-properties
350 to the configure command. This implies UTF-8 support, even if you have
351 not explicitly requested it.
353 Including Unicode property support adds around 30K of tables to the
354 PCRE library. Only the general category properties such as Lu and Nd
355 are supported. Details are given in the pcrepattern documentation.
360 By default, PCRE interprets the linefeed (LF) character as indicating
361 the end of a line. This is the normal newline character on Unix-like
362 systems. You can compile PCRE to use carriage return (CR) instead, by
363 adding
365 --enable-newline-is-cr
367 to the configure command. There is also a --enable-newline-is-lf
368 option, which explicitly specifies linefeed as the newline character.
370 Alternatively, you can specify that line endings are to be indicated by
371 the two character sequence CRLF. If you want this, add
373 --enable-newline-is-crlf
375 to the configure command. There is a fourth option, specified by
377 --enable-newline-is-anycrlf
379 which causes PCRE to recognize any of the three sequences CR, LF, or
380 CRLF as indicating a line ending. Finally, a fifth option, specified by
382 --enable-newline-is-any
384 causes PCRE to recognize any Unicode newline sequence.
386 Whatever line ending convention is selected when PCRE is built can be
387 overridden when the library functions are called. At build time it is
388 conventional to use the standard for your operating system.
393 By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode newline
394 sequence, whatever has been selected as the line ending sequence. If
395 you specify
397 --enable-bsr-anycrlf
399 the default is changed so that \R matches only CR, LF, or CRLF. What-
400 ever is selected when PCRE is built can be overridden when the library
401 functions are called.
406 The PCRE building process uses libtool to build both shared and static
407 Unix libraries by default. You can suppress one of these by adding one
408 of
410 --disable-shared
411 --disable-static
413 to the configure command, as required.
418 When PCRE is called through the POSIX interface (see the pcreposix doc-
419 umentation), additional working storage is required for holding the
420 pointers to capturing substrings, because PCRE requires three integers
421 per substring, whereas the POSIX interface provides only two. If the
422 number of expected substrings is small, the wrapper function uses space
423 on the stack, because this is faster than using malloc() for each call.
424 The default threshold above which the stack is no longer used is 10; it
425 can be changed by adding a setting such as
427 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
429 to the configure command.
434 Within a compiled pattern, offset values are used to point from one
435 part to another (for example, from an opening parenthesis to an alter-
436 nation metacharacter). By default, two-byte values are used for these
437 offsets, leading to a maximum size for a compiled pattern of around
438 64K. This is sufficient to handle all but the most gigantic patterns.
439 Nevertheless, some people do want to process truyl enormous patterns,
440 so it is possible to compile PCRE to use three-byte or four-byte off-
441 sets by adding a setting such as
443 --with-link-size=3
445 to the configure command. The value given must be 2, 3, or 4. Using
446 longer offsets slows down the operation of PCRE because it has to load
447 additional bytes when handling them.
452 When matching with the pcre_exec() function, PCRE implements backtrack-
453 ing by making recursive calls to an internal function called match().
454 In environments where the size of the stack is limited, this can se-
455 verely limit PCRE's operation. (The Unix environment does not usually
456 suffer from this problem, but it may sometimes be necessary to increase
457 the maximum stack size. There is a discussion in the pcrestack docu-
458 mentation.) An alternative approach to recursion that uses memory from
459 the heap to remember data, instead of using recursive function calls,
460 has been implemented to work round the problem of limited stack size.
461 If you want to build a version of PCRE that works this way, add
463 --disable-stack-for-recursion
465 to the configure command. With this configuration, PCRE will use the
466 pcre_stack_malloc and pcre_stack_free variables to call memory manage-
467 ment functions. By default these point to malloc() and free(), but you
468 can replace the pointers so that your own functions are used instead.
470 Separate functions are provided rather than using pcre_malloc and
471 pcre_free because the usage is very predictable: the block sizes
472 requested are always the same, and the blocks are always freed in
473 reverse order. A calling program might be able to implement optimized
474 functions that perform better than malloc() and free(). PCRE runs
475 noticeably more slowly when built in this way. This option affects only
476 the pcre_exec() function; it is not relevant for pcre_dfa_exec().
481 Internally, PCRE has a function called match(), which it calls repeat-
482 edly (sometimes recursively) when matching a pattern with the
483 pcre_exec() function. By controlling the maximum number of times this
484 function may be called during a single matching operation, a limit can
485 be placed on the resources used by a single call to pcre_exec(). The
486 limit can be changed at run time, as described in the pcreapi documen-
487 tation. The default is 10 million, but this can be changed by adding a
488 setting such as
490 --with-match-limit=500000
492 to the configure command. This setting has no effect on the
493 pcre_dfa_exec() matching function.
495 In some environments it is desirable to limit the depth of recursive
496 calls of match() more strictly than the total number of calls, in order
497 to restrict the maximum amount of stack (or heap, if --disable-stack-
498 for-recursion is specified) that is used. A second limit controls this;
499 it defaults to the value that is set for --with-match-limit, which
500 imposes no additional constraints. However, you can set a lower limit
501 by adding, for example,
503 --with-match-limit-recursion=10000
505 to the configure command. This value can also be overridden at run
506 time.
511 PCRE uses fixed tables for processing characters whose code values are
512 less than 256. By default, PCRE is built with a set of tables that are
513 distributed in the file pcre_chartables.c.dist. These tables are for
514 ASCII codes only. If you add
516 --enable-rebuild-chartables
518 to the configure command, the distributed tables are no longer used.
519 Instead, a program called dftables is compiled and run. This outputs
520 the source for new set of tables, created in the default locale of your
521 C runtime system. (This method of replacing the tables does not work if
522 you are cross compiling, because dftables is run on the local host. If
523 you need to create alternative tables when cross compiling, you will
524 have to do so "by hand".)
529 PCRE assumes by default that it will run in an environment where the
530 character code is ASCII (or Unicode, which is a superset of ASCII).
531 This is the case for most computer operating systems. PCRE can, how-
532 ever, be compiled to run in an EBCDIC environment by adding
534 --enable-ebcdic
536 to the configure command. This setting implies --enable-rebuild-charta-
537 bles. You should only use it if you know that you are in an EBCDIC
538 environment (for example, an IBM mainframe operating system). The
539 --enable-ebcdic option is incompatible with --enable-utf8.
544 By default, pcregrep reads all files as plain text. You can build it so
545 that it recognizes files whose names end in .gz or .bz2, and reads them
546 with libz or libbz2, respectively, by adding one or both of
548 --enable-pcregrep-libz
549 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
551 to the configure command. These options naturally require that the rel-
552 evant libraries are installed on your system. Configuration will fail
553 if they are not.
558 If you add
560 --enable-pcretest-libreadline
562 to the configure command, pcretest is linked with the libreadline
563 library, and when its input is from a terminal, it reads it using the
564 readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
565 Note that libreadline is GPL-licensed, so if you distribute a binary of
566 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
568 Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the
569 pcretest build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed
570 libreadline this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if
571 an unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), some extra
572 configuration may be necessary. The INSTALL file for libreadline says
573 this:
575 "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link with the
576 termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
577 with readline the to choose an appropriate library."
579 If your environment has not been set up so that an appropriate library
580 is automatically included, you may need to add something like
582 LIBS="-ncurses"
584 immediately before the configure command.
589 pcreapi(3), pcre_config(3).
594 Philip Hazel
595 University Computing Service
596 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
601 Last updated: 29 September 2009
602 Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.
603 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
609 NAME
610 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
615 This document describes the two different algorithms that are available
616 in PCRE for matching a compiled regular expression against a given sub-
617 ject string. The "standard" algorithm is the one provided by the
618 pcre_exec() function. This works in the same was as Perl's matching
619 function, and provides a Perl-compatible matching operation.
621 An alternative algorithm is provided by the pcre_dfa_exec() function;
622 this operates in a different way, and is not Perl-compatible. It has
623 advantages and disadvantages compared with the standard algorithm, and
624 these are described below.
626 When there is only one possible way in which a given subject string can
627 match a pattern, the two algorithms give the same answer. A difference
628 arises, however, when there are multiple possibilities. For example, if
629 the pattern
631 ^<.*>
633 is matched against the string
635 <something> <something else> <something further>
637 there are three possible answers. The standard algorithm finds only one
638 of them, whereas the alternative algorithm finds all three.
643 The set of strings that are matched by a regular expression can be rep-
644 resented as a tree structure. An unlimited repetition in the pattern
645 makes the tree of infinite size, but it is still a tree. Matching the
646 pattern to a given subject string (from a given starting point) can be
647 thought of as a search of the tree. There are two ways to search a
648 tree: depth-first and breadth-first, and these correspond to the two
649 matching algorithms provided by PCRE.
654 In the terminology of Jeffrey Friedl's book "Mastering Regular Expres-
655 sions", the standard algorithm is an "NFA algorithm". It conducts a
656 depth-first search of the pattern tree. That is, it proceeds along a
657 single path through the tree, checking that the subject matches what is
658 required. When there is a mismatch, the algorithm tries any alterna-
659 tives at the current point, and if they all fail, it backs up to the
660 previous branch point in the tree, and tries the next alternative
661 branch at that level. This often involves backing up (moving to the
662 left) in the subject string as well. The order in which repetition
663 branches are tried is controlled by the greedy or ungreedy nature of
664 the quantifier.
666 If a leaf node is reached, a matching string has been found, and at
667 that point the algorithm stops. Thus, if there is more than one possi-
668 ble match, this algorithm returns the first one that it finds. Whether
669 this is the shortest, the longest, or some intermediate length depends
670 on the way the greedy and ungreedy repetition quantifiers are specified
671 in the pattern.
673 Because it ends up with a single path through the tree, it is rela-
674 tively straightforward for this algorithm to keep track of the sub-
675 strings that are matched by portions of the pattern in parentheses.
676 This provides support for capturing parentheses and back references.
681 This algorithm conducts a breadth-first search of the tree. Starting
682 from the first matching point in the subject, it scans the subject
683 string from left to right, once, character by character, and as it does
684 this, it remembers all the paths through the tree that represent valid
685 matches. In Friedl's terminology, this is a kind of "DFA algorithm",
686 though it is not implemented as a traditional finite state machine (it
687 keeps multiple states active simultaneously).
689 Although the general principle of this matching algorithm is that it
690 scans the subject string only once, without backtracking, there is one
691 exception: when a lookaround assertion is encountered, the characters
692 following or preceding the current point have to be independently
693 inspected.
695 The scan continues until either the end of the subject is reached, or
696 there are no more unterminated paths. At this point, terminated paths
697 represent the different matching possibilities (if there are none, the
698 match has failed). Thus, if there is more than one possible match,
699 this algorithm finds all of them, and in particular, it finds the long-
700 est. There is an option to stop the algorithm after the first match
701 (which is necessarily the shortest) is found.
703 Note that all the matches that are found start at the same point in the
704 subject. If the pattern
706 cat(er(pillar)?)
708 is matched against the string "the caterpillar catchment", the result
709 will be the three strings "cat", "cater", and "caterpillar" that start
710 at the fourth character of the subject. The algorithm does not automat-
711 ically move on to find matches that start at later positions.
713 There are a number of features of PCRE regular expressions that are not
714 supported by the alternative matching algorithm. They are as follows:
716 1. Because the algorithm finds all possible matches, the greedy or
717 ungreedy nature of repetition quantifiers is not relevant. Greedy and
718 ungreedy quantifiers are treated in exactly the same way. However, pos-
719 sessive quantifiers can make a difference when what follows could also
720 match what is quantified, for example in a pattern like this:
722 ^a++\w!
724 This pattern matches "aaab!" but not "aaa!", which would be matched by
725 a non-possessive quantifier. Similarly, if an atomic group is present,
726 it is matched as if it were a standalone pattern at the current point,
727 and the longest match is then "locked in" for the rest of the overall
728 pattern.
730 2. When dealing with multiple paths through the tree simultaneously, it
731 is not straightforward to keep track of captured substrings for the
732 different matching possibilities, and PCRE's implementation of this
733 algorithm does not attempt to do this. This means that no captured sub-
734 strings are available.
736 3. Because no substrings are captured, back references within the pat-
737 tern are not supported, and cause errors if encountered.
739 4. For the same reason, conditional expressions that use a backrefer-
740 ence as the condition or test for a specific group recursion are not
741 supported.
743 5. Because many paths through the tree may be active, the \K escape
744 sequence, which resets the start of the match when encountered (but may
745 be on some paths and not on others), is not supported. It causes an
746 error if encountered.
748 6. Callouts are supported, but the value of the capture_top field is
749 always 1, and the value of the capture_last field is always -1.
751 7. The \C escape sequence, which (in the standard algorithm) matches a
752 single byte, even in UTF-8 mode, is not supported because the alterna-
753 tive algorithm moves through the subject string one character at a
754 time, for all active paths through the tree.
756 8. Except for (*FAIL), the backtracking control verbs such as (*PRUNE)
757 are not supported. (*FAIL) is supported, and behaves like a failing
758 negative assertion.
763 Using the alternative matching algorithm provides the following advan-
764 tages:
766 1. All possible matches (at a single point in the subject) are automat-
767 ically found, and in particular, the longest match is found. To find
768 more than one match using the standard algorithm, you have to do kludgy
769 things with callouts.
771 2. Because the alternative algorithm scans the subject string just
772 once, and never needs to backtrack, it is possible to pass very long
773 subject strings to the matching function in several pieces, checking
774 for partial matching each time. The pcrepartial documentation gives
775 details of partial matching.
780 The alternative algorithm suffers from a number of disadvantages:
782 1. It is substantially slower than the standard algorithm. This is
783 partly because it has to search for all possible matches, but is also
784 because it is less susceptible to optimization.
786 2. Capturing parentheses and back references are not supported.
788 3. Although atomic groups are supported, their use does not provide the
789 performance advantage that it does for the standard algorithm.
794 Philip Hazel
795 University Computing Service
796 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
801 Last updated: 29 September 2009
802 Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.
803 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
809 NAME
810 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
815 #include <pcre.h>
817 pcre *pcre_compile(const char *pattern, int options,
818 const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
819 const unsigned char *tableptr);
821 pcre *pcre_compile2(const char *pattern, int options,
822 int *errorcodeptr,
823 const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
824 const unsigned char *tableptr);
826 pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *code, int options,
827 const char **errptr);
829 int pcre_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
830 const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
831 int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize);
833 int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
834 const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
835 int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize,
836 int *workspace, int wscount);
838 int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *code,
839 const char *subject, int *ovector,
840 int stringcount, const char *stringname,
841 char *buffer, int buffersize);
843 int pcre_copy_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
844 int stringcount, int stringnumber, char *buffer,
845 int buffersize);
847 int pcre_get_named_substring(const pcre *code,
848 const char *subject, int *ovector,
849 int stringcount, const char *stringname,
850 const char **stringptr);
852 int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *code,
853 const char *name);
855 int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *code,
856 const char *name, char **first, char **last);
858 int pcre_get_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
859 int stringcount, int stringnumber,
860 const char **stringptr);
862 int pcre_get_substring_list(const char *subject,
863 int *ovector, int stringcount, const char ***listptr);
865 void pcre_free_substring(const char *stringptr);
867 void pcre_free_substring_list(const char **stringptr);
869 const unsigned char *pcre_maketables(void);
871 int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
872 int what, void *where);
874 int pcre_info(const pcre *code, int *optptr, int *firstcharptr);
876 int pcre_refcount(pcre *code, int adjust);
878 int pcre_config(int what, void *where);
880 char *pcre_version(void);
882 void *(*pcre_malloc)(size_t);
884 void (*pcre_free)(void *);
886 void *(*pcre_stack_malloc)(size_t);
888 void (*pcre_stack_free)(void *);
890 int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);
895 PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There
896 are also some wrapper functions that correspond to the POSIX regular
897 expression API. These are described in the pcreposix documentation.
898 Both of these APIs define a set of C function calls. A C++ wrapper is
899 distributed with PCRE. It is documented in the pcrecpp page.
901 The native API C function prototypes are defined in the header file
902 pcre.h, and on Unix systems the library itself is called libpcre. It
903 can normally be accessed by adding -lpcre to the command for linking an
904 application that uses PCRE. The header file defines the macros
905 PCRE_MAJOR and PCRE_MINOR to contain the major and minor release num-
906 bers for the library. Applications can use these to include support
907 for different releases of PCRE.
909 In a Windows environment, if you want to statically link an application
910 program against a non-dll pcre.a file, you must define PCRE_STATIC
911 before including pcre.h or pcrecpp.h, because otherwise the pcre_mal-
912 loc() and pcre_free() exported functions will be declared
913 __declspec(dllimport), with unwanted results.
915 The functions pcre_compile(), pcre_compile2(), pcre_study(), and
916 pcre_exec() are used for compiling and matching regular expressions in
917 a Perl-compatible manner. A sample program that demonstrates the sim-
918 plest way of using them is provided in the file called pcredemo.c in
919 the PCRE source distribution. A listing of this program is given in the
920 pcredemo documentation, and the pcresample documentation describes how
921 to compile and run it.
923 A second matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), which is not Perl-compati-
924 ble, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the match-
925 ing. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given
926 point in the subject), and scans the subject just once (unless there
927 are lookbehind assertions). However, this algorithm does not return
928 captured substrings. A description of the two matching algorithms and
929 their advantages and disadvantages is given in the pcrematching docu-
930 mentation.
932 In addition to the main compiling and matching functions, there are
933 convenience functions for extracting captured substrings from a subject
934 string that is matched by pcre_exec(). They are:
936 pcre_copy_substring()
937 pcre_copy_named_substring()
938 pcre_get_substring()
939 pcre_get_named_substring()
940 pcre_get_substring_list()
941 pcre_get_stringnumber()
942 pcre_get_stringtable_entries()
944 pcre_free_substring() and pcre_free_substring_list() are also provided,
945 to free the memory used for extracted strings.
947 The function pcre_maketables() is used to build a set of character
948 tables in the current locale for passing to pcre_compile(),
949 pcre_exec(), or pcre_dfa_exec(). This is an optional facility that is
950 provided for specialist use. Most commonly, no special tables are
951 passed, in which case internal tables that are generated when PCRE is
952 built are used.
954 The function pcre_fullinfo() is used to find out information about a
955 compiled pattern; pcre_info() is an obsolete version that returns only
956 some of the available information, but is retained for backwards com-
957 patibility. The function pcre_version() returns a pointer to a string
958 containing the version of PCRE and its date of release.
960 The function pcre_refcount() maintains a reference count in a data
961 block containing a compiled pattern. This is provided for the benefit
962 of object-oriented applications.
964 The global variables pcre_malloc and pcre_free initially contain the
965 entry points of the standard malloc() and free() functions, respec-
966 tively. PCRE calls the memory management functions via these variables,
967 so a calling program can replace them if it wishes to intercept the
968 calls. This should be done before calling any PCRE functions.
970 The global variables pcre_stack_malloc and pcre_stack_free are also
971 indirections to memory management functions. These special functions
972 are used only when PCRE is compiled to use the heap for remembering
973 data, instead of recursive function calls, when running the pcre_exec()
974 function. See the pcrebuild documentation for details of how to do
975 this. It is a non-standard way of building PCRE, for use in environ-
976 ments that have limited stacks. Because of the greater use of memory
977 management, it runs more slowly. Separate functions are provided so
978 that special-purpose external code can be used for this case. When
979 used, these functions are always called in a stack-like manner (last
980 obtained, first freed), and always for memory blocks of the same size.
981 There is a discussion about PCRE's stack usage in the pcrestack docu-
982 mentation.
984 The global variable pcre_callout initially contains NULL. It can be set
985 by the caller to a "callout" function, which PCRE will then call at
986 specified points during a matching operation. Details are given in the
987 pcrecallout documentation.
992 PCRE supports five different conventions for indicating line breaks in
993 strings: a single CR (carriage return) character, a single LF (line-
994 feed) character, the two-character sequence CRLF, any of the three pre-
995 ceding, or any Unicode newline sequence. The Unicode newline sequences
996 are the three just mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical
997 tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line
998 separator, U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029).
1000 Each of the first three conventions is used by at least one operating
1001 system as its standard newline sequence. When PCRE is built, a default
1002 can be specified. The default default is LF, which is the Unix stan-
1003 dard. When PCRE is run, the default can be overridden, either when a
1004 pattern is compiled, or when it is matched.
1006 At compile time, the newline convention can be specified by the options
1007 argument of pcre_compile(), or it can be specified by special text at
1008 the start of the pattern itself; this overrides any other settings. See
1009 the pcrepattern page for details of the special character sequences.
1011 In the PCRE documentation the word "newline" is used to mean "the char-
1012 acter or pair of characters that indicate a line break". The choice of
1013 newline convention affects the handling of the dot, circumflex, and
1014 dollar metacharacters, the handling of #-comments in /x mode, and, when
1015 CRLF is a recognized line ending sequence, the match position advance-
1016 ment for a non-anchored pattern. There is more detail about this in the
1017 section on pcre_exec() options below.
1019 The choice of newline convention does not affect the interpretation of
1020 the \n or \r escape sequences, nor does it affect what \R matches,
1021 which is controlled in a similar way, but by separate options.
1026 The PCRE functions can be used in multi-threading applications, with
1027 the proviso that the memory management functions pointed to by
1028 pcre_malloc, pcre_free, pcre_stack_malloc, and pcre_stack_free, and the
1029 callout function pointed to by pcre_callout, are shared by all threads.
1031 The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during match-
1032 ing, so the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads
1033 at once.
1038 The compiled form of a regular expression can be saved and re-used at a
1039 later time, possibly by a different program, and even on a host other
1040 than the one on which it was compiled. Details are given in the
1041 pcreprecompile documentation. However, compiling a regular expression
1042 with one version of PCRE for use with a different version is not guar-
1043 anteed to work and may cause crashes.
1048 int pcre_config(int what, void *where);
1050 The function pcre_config() makes it possible for a PCRE client to dis-
1051 cover which optional features have been compiled into the PCRE library.
1052 The pcrebuild documentation has more details about these optional fea-
1053 tures.
1055 The first argument for pcre_config() is an integer, specifying which
1056 information is required; the second argument is a pointer to a variable
1057 into which the information is placed. The following information is
1058 available:
1062 The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is avail-
1063 able; otherwise it is set to zero.
1067 The output is an integer that is set to one if support for Unicode
1068 character properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
1072 The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character
1073 sequence that is recognized as meaning "newline". The four values that
1074 are supported are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for ANYCRLF,
1075 and -1 for ANY. Though they are derived from ASCII, the same values
1076 are returned in EBCDIC environments. The default should normally corre-
1077 spond to the standard sequence for your operating system.
1081 The output is an integer whose value indicates what character sequences
1082 the \R escape sequence matches by default. A value of 0 means that \R
1083 matches any Unicode line ending sequence; a value of 1 means that \R
1084 matches only CR, LF, or CRLF. The default can be overridden when a pat-
1085 tern is compiled or matched.
1089 The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for
1090 internal linkage in compiled regular expressions. The value is 2, 3, or
1091 4. Larger values allow larger regular expressions to be compiled, at
1092 the expense of slower matching. The default value of 2 is sufficient
1093 for all but the most massive patterns, since it allows the compiled
1094 pattern to be up to 64K in size.
1098 The output is an integer that contains the threshold above which the
1099 POSIX interface uses malloc() for output vectors. Further details are
1100 given in the pcreposix documentation.
1104 The output is a long integer that gives the default limit for the num-
1105 ber of internal matching function calls in a pcre_exec() execution.
1106 Further details are given with pcre_exec() below.
1110 The output is a long integer that gives the default limit for the depth
1111 of recursion when calling the internal matching function in a
1112 pcre_exec() execution. Further details are given with pcre_exec()
1113 below.
1117 The output is an integer that is set to one if internal recursion when
1118 running pcre_exec() is implemented by recursive function calls that use
1119 the stack to remember their state. This is the usual way that PCRE is
1120 compiled. The output is zero if PCRE was compiled to use blocks of data
1121 on the heap instead of recursive function calls. In this case,
1122 pcre_stack_malloc and pcre_stack_free are called to manage memory
1123 blocks on the heap, thus avoiding the use of the stack.
1128 pcre *pcre_compile(const char *pattern, int options,
1129 const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
1130 const unsigned char *tableptr);
1132 pcre *pcre_compile2(const char *pattern, int options,
1133 int *errorcodeptr,
1134 const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
1135 const unsigned char *tableptr);
1137 Either of the functions pcre_compile() or pcre_compile2() can be called
1138 to compile a pattern into an internal form. The only difference between
1139 the two interfaces is that pcre_compile2() has an additional argument,
1140 errorcodeptr, via which a numerical error code can be returned. To
1141 avoid too much repetition, we refer just to pcre_compile() below, but
1142 the information applies equally to pcre_compile2().
1144 The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and is passed in
1145 the pattern argument. A pointer to a single block of memory that is
1146 obtained via pcre_malloc is returned. This contains the compiled code
1147 and related data. The pcre type is defined for the returned block; this
1148 is a typedef for a structure whose contents are not externally defined.
1149 It is up to the caller to free the memory (via pcre_free) when it is no
1150 longer required.
1152 Although the compiled code of a PCRE regex is relocatable, that is, it
1153 does not depend on memory location, the complete pcre data block is not
1154 fully relocatable, because it may contain a copy of the tableptr argu-
1155 ment, which is an address (see below).
1157 The options argument contains various bit settings that affect the com-
1158 pilation. It should be zero if no options are required. The available
1159 options are described below. Some of them (in particular, those that
1160 are compatible with Perl, but some others as well) can also be set and
1161 unset from within the pattern (see the detailed description in the
1162 pcrepattern documentation). For those options that can be different in
1163 different parts of the pattern, the contents of the options argument
1164 specifies their settings at the start of compilation and execution. The
1165 PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_BSR_xxx, and PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx options can be set at
1166 the time of matching as well as at compile time.
1168 If errptr is NULL, pcre_compile() returns NULL immediately. Otherwise,
1169 if compilation of a pattern fails, pcre_compile() returns NULL, and
1170 sets the variable pointed to by errptr to point to a textual error mes-
1171 sage. This is a static string that is part of the library. You must not
1172 try to free it. The byte offset from the start of the pattern to the
1173 character that was being processed when the error was discovered is
1174 placed in the variable pointed to by erroffset, which must not be NULL.
1175 If it is, an immediate error is given. Some errors are not detected
1176 until checks are carried out when the whole pattern has been scanned;
1177 in this case the offset is set to the end of the pattern.
1179 If pcre_compile2() is used instead of pcre_compile(), and the error-
1180 codeptr argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is returned
1181 via this argument in the event of an error. This is in addition to the
1182 textual error message. Error codes and messages are listed below.
1184 If the final argument, tableptr, is NULL, PCRE uses a default set of
1185 character tables that are built when PCRE is compiled, using the
1186 default C locale. Otherwise, tableptr must be an address that is the
1187 result of a call to pcre_maketables(). This value is stored with the
1188 compiled pattern, and used again by pcre_exec(), unless another table
1189 pointer is passed to it. For more discussion, see the section on locale
1190 support below.
1192 This code fragment shows a typical straightforward call to pcre_com-
1193 pile():
1195 pcre *re;
1196 const char *error;
1197 int erroffset;
1198 re = pcre_compile(
1199 "^A.*Z", /* the pattern */
1200 0, /* default options */
1201 &error, /* for error message */
1202 &erroffset, /* for error offset */
1203 NULL); /* use default character tables */
1205 The following names for option bits are defined in the pcre.h header
1206 file:
1210 If this bit is set, the pattern is forced to be "anchored", that is, it
1211 is constrained to match only at the first matching point in the string
1212 that is being searched (the "subject string"). This effect can also be
1213 achieved by appropriate constructs in the pattern itself, which is the
1214 only way to do it in Perl.
1218 If this bit is set, pcre_compile() automatically inserts callout items,
1219 all with number 255, before each pattern item. For discussion of the
1220 callout facility, see the pcrecallout documentation.
1225 These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \R escape
1226 sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF,
1227 or to match any Unicode newline sequence. The default is specified when
1228 PCRE is built. It can be overridden from within the pattern, or by set-
1229 ting an option when a compiled pattern is matched.
1233 If this bit is set, letters in the pattern match both upper and lower
1234 case letters. It is equivalent to Perl's /i option, and it can be
1235 changed within a pattern by a (?i) option setting. In UTF-8 mode, PCRE
1236 always understands the concept of case for characters whose values are
1237 less than 128, so caseless matching is always possible. For characters
1238 with higher values, the concept of case is supported if PCRE is com-
1239 piled with Unicode property support, but not otherwise. If you want to
1240 use caseless matching for characters 128 and above, you must ensure
1241 that PCRE is compiled with Unicode property support as well as with
1242 UTF-8 support.
1246 If this bit is set, a dollar metacharacter in the pattern matches only
1247 at the end of the subject string. Without this option, a dollar also
1248 matches immediately before a newline at the end of the string (but not
1249 before any other newlines). The PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option is ignored
1250 if PCRE_MULTILINE is set. There is no equivalent to this option in
1251 Perl, and no way to set it within a pattern.
1255 If this bit is set, a dot metacharater in the pattern matches all char-
1256 acters, including those that indicate newline. Without it, a dot does
1257 not match when the current position is at a newline. This option is
1258 equivalent to Perl's /s option, and it can be changed within a pattern
1259 by a (?s) option setting. A negative class such as [^a] always matches
1260 newline characters, independent of the setting of this option.
1264 If this bit is set, names used to identify capturing subpatterns need
1265 not be unique. This can be helpful for certain types of pattern when it
1266 is known that only one instance of the named subpattern can ever be
1267 matched. There are more details of named subpatterns below; see also
1268 the pcrepattern documentation.
1272 If this bit is set, whitespace data characters in the pattern are
1273 totally ignored except when escaped or inside a character class. White-
1274 space does not include the VT character (code 11). In addition, charac-
1275 ters between an unescaped # outside a character class and the next new-
1276 line, inclusive, are also ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x
1277 option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a (?x) option set-
1278 ting.
1280 This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated
1281 patterns. Note, however, that this applies only to data characters.
1282 Whitespace characters may never appear within special character
1283 sequences in a pattern, for example within the sequence (?( which
1284 introduces a conditional subpattern.
1288 This option was invented in order to turn on additional functionality
1289 of PCRE that is incompatible with Perl, but it is currently of very
1290 little use. When set, any backslash in a pattern that is followed by a
1291 letter that has no special meaning causes an error, thus reserving
1292 these combinations for future expansion. By default, as in Perl, a
1293 backslash followed by a letter with no special meaning is treated as a
1294 literal. (Perl can, however, be persuaded to give an error for this, by
1295 running it with the -w option.) There are at present no other features
1296 controlled by this option. It can also be set by a (?X) option setting
1297 within a pattern.
1301 If this option is set, an unanchored pattern is required to match
1302 before or at the first newline in the subject string, though the
1303 matched text may continue over the newline.
1307 If this option is set, PCRE's behaviour is changed in some ways so that
1308 it is compatible with JavaScript rather than Perl. The changes are as
1309 follows:
1311 (1) A lone closing square bracket in a pattern causes a compile-time
1312 error, because this is illegal in JavaScript (by default it is treated
1313 as a data character). Thus, the pattern AB]CD becomes illegal when this
1314 option is set.
1316 (2) At run time, a back reference to an unset subpattern group matches
1317 an empty string (by default this causes the current matching alterna-
1318 tive to fail). A pattern such as (\1)(a) succeeds when this option is
1319 set (assuming it can find an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by
1320 default, for Perl compatibility.
1324 By default, PCRE treats the subject string as consisting of a single
1325 line of characters (even if it actually contains newlines). The "start
1326 of line" metacharacter (^) matches only at the start of the string,
1327 while the "end of line" metacharacter ($) matches only at the end of
1328 the string, or before a terminating newline (unless PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
1329 is set). This is the same as Perl.
1331 When PCRE_MULTILINE it is set, the "start of line" and "end of line"
1332 constructs match immediately following or immediately before internal
1333 newlines in the subject string, respectively, as well as at the very
1334 start and end. This is equivalent to Perl's /m option, and it can be
1335 changed within a pattern by a (?m) option setting. If there are no new-
1336 lines in a subject string, or no occurrences of ^ or $ in a pattern,
1337 setting PCRE_MULTILINE has no effect.
1345 These options override the default newline definition that was chosen
1346 when PCRE was built. Setting the first or the second specifies that a
1347 newline is indicated by a single character (CR or LF, respectively).
1348 Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF specifies that a newline is indicated by the
1349 two-character CRLF sequence. Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF specifies
1350 that any of the three preceding sequences should be recognized. Setting
1351 PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY specifies that any Unicode newline sequence should be
1352 recognized. The Unicode newline sequences are the three just mentioned,
1353 plus the single characters VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed,
1354 U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line separator, U+2028), and PS
1355 (paragraph separator, U+2029). The last two are recognized only in
1356 UTF-8 mode.
1358 The newline setting in the options word uses three bits that are
1359 treated as a number, giving eight possibilities. Currently only six are
1360 used (default plus the five values above). This means that if you set
1361 more than one newline option, the combination may or may not be sensi-
1362 ble. For example, PCRE_NEWLINE_CR with PCRE_NEWLINE_LF is equivalent to
1363 PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, but other combinations may yield unused numbers and
1364 cause an error.
1366 The only time that a line break is specially recognized when compiling
1367 a pattern is if PCRE_EXTENDED is set, and an unescaped # outside a
1368 character class is encountered. This indicates a comment that lasts
1369 until after the next line break sequence. In other circumstances, line
1370 break sequences are treated as literal data, except that in
1371 PCRE_EXTENDED mode, both CR and LF are treated as whitespace characters
1372 and are therefore ignored.
1374 The newline option that is set at compile time becomes the default that
1375 is used for pcre_exec() and pcre_dfa_exec(), but it can be overridden.
1379 If this option is set, it disables the use of numbered capturing paren-
1380 theses in the pattern. Any opening parenthesis that is not followed by
1381 ? behaves as if it were followed by ?: but named parentheses can still
1382 be used for capturing (and they acquire numbers in the usual way).
1383 There is no equivalent of this option in Perl.
1387 This option changes the way PCRE processes \b, \d, \s, \w, and some of
1388 the POSIX character classes. By default, only ASCII characters are rec-
1389 ognized, but if PCRE_UCP is set, Unicode properties are used instead to
1390 classify characters. More details are given in the section on generic
1391 character types in the pcrepattern page. If you set PCRE_UCP, matching
1392 one of the items it affects takes much longer. The option is available
1393 only if PCRE has been compiled with Unicode property support.
1397 This option inverts the "greediness" of the quantifiers so that they
1398 are not greedy by default, but become greedy if followed by "?". It is
1399 not compatible with Perl. It can also be set by a (?U) option setting
1400 within the pattern.
1402 PCRE_UTF8
1404 This option causes PCRE to regard both the pattern and the subject as
1405 strings of UTF-8 characters instead of single-byte character strings.
1406 However, it is available only when PCRE is built to include UTF-8 sup-
1407 port. If not, the use of this option provokes an error. Details of how
1408 this option changes the behaviour of PCRE are given in the section on
1409 UTF-8 support in the main pcre page.
1413 When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8 string is
1414 automatically checked. There is a discussion about the validity of
1415 UTF-8 strings in the main pcre page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of
1416 bytes is found, pcre_compile() returns an error. If you already know
1417 that your pattern is valid, and you want to skip this check for perfor-
1418 mance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option. When it is
1419 set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a pattern is
1420 undefined. It may cause your program to crash. Note that this option
1421 can also be passed to pcre_exec() and pcre_dfa_exec(), to suppress the
1422 UTF-8 validity checking of subject strings.
1427 The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by
1428 pcre_compile2(), along with the error messages that may be returned by
1429 both compiling functions. As PCRE has developed, some error codes have
1430 fallen out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been re-used.
1432 0 no error
1433 1 \ at end of pattern
1434 2 \c at end of pattern
1435 3 unrecognized character follows \
1436 4 numbers out of order in {} quantifier
1437 5 number too big in {} quantifier
1438 6 missing terminating ] for character class
1439 7 invalid escape sequence in character class
1440 8 range out of order in character class
1441 9 nothing to repeat
1442 10 [this code is not in use]
1443 11 internal error: unexpected repeat
1444 12 unrecognized character after (? or (?-
1445 13 POSIX named classes are supported only within a class
1446 14 missing )
1447 15 reference to non-existent subpattern
1448 16 erroffset passed as NULL
1449 17 unknown option bit(s) set
1450 18 missing ) after comment
1451 19 [this code is not in use]
1452 20 regular expression is too large
1453 21 failed to get memory
1454 22 unmatched parentheses
1455 23 internal error: code overflow
1456 24 unrecognized character after (?<
1457 25 lookbehind assertion is not fixed length
1458 26 malformed number or name after (?(
1459 27 conditional group contains more than two branches
1460 28 assertion expected after (?(
1461 29 (?R or (?[+-]digits must be followed by )
1462 30 unknown POSIX class name
1463 31 POSIX collating elements are not supported
1464 32 this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UTF8 support
1465 33 [this code is not in use]
1466 34 character value in \x{...} sequence is too large
1467 35 invalid condition (?(0)
1468 36 \C not allowed in lookbehind assertion
1469 37 PCRE does not support \L, \l, \N, \U, or \u
1470 38 number after (?C is > 255
1471 39 closing ) for (?C expected
1472 40 recursive call could loop indefinitely
1473 41 unrecognized character after (?P
1474 42 syntax error in subpattern name (missing terminator)
1475 43 two named subpatterns have the same name
1476 44 invalid UTF-8 string
1477 45 support for \P, \p, and \X has not been compiled
1478 46 malformed \P or \p sequence
1479 47 unknown property name after \P or \p
1480 48 subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)
1481 49 too many named subpatterns (maximum 10000)
1482 50 [this code is not in use]
1483 51 octal value is greater than \377 (not in UTF-8 mode)
1484 52 internal error: overran compiling workspace
1485 53 internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern
1486 not found
1487 54 DEFINE group contains more than one branch
1488 55 repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed
1489 56 inconsistent NEWLINE options
1490 57 \g is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted
1491 name/number or by a plain number
1492 58 a numbered reference must not be zero
1493 59 an argument is not allowed for (*ACCEPT), (*FAIL), or (*COMMIT)
1494 60 (*VERB) not recognized
1495 61 number is too big
1496 62 subpattern name expected
1497 63 digit expected after (?+
1498 64 ] is an invalid data character in JavaScript compatibility mode
1499 65 different names for subpatterns of the same number are
1500 not allowed
1501 66 (*MARK) must have an argument
1502 67 this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UCP support
1504 The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different
1505 values may be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.
1510 pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *code, int options
1511 const char **errptr);
1513 If a compiled pattern is going to be used several times, it is worth
1514 spending more time analyzing it in order to speed up the time taken for
1515 matching. The function pcre_study() takes a pointer to a compiled pat-
1516 tern as its first argument. If studying the pattern produces additional
1517 information that will help speed up matching, pcre_study() returns a
1518 pointer to a pcre_extra block, in which the study_data field points to
1519 the results of the study.
1521 The returned value from pcre_study() can be passed directly to
1522 pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). However, a pcre_extra block also con-
1523 tains other fields that can be set by the caller before the block is
1524 passed; these are described below in the section on matching a pattern.
1526 If studying the pattern does not produce any useful information,
1527 pcre_study() returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the calling program
1528 wants to pass any of the other fields to pcre_exec() or
1529 pcre_dfa_exec(), it must set up its own pcre_extra block.
1531 The second argument of pcre_study() contains option bits. At present,
1532 no options are defined, and this argument should always be zero.
1534 The third argument for pcre_study() is a pointer for an error message.
1535 If studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it
1536 points to is set to NULL. Otherwise it is set to point to a textual
1537 error message. This is a static string that is part of the library. You
1538 must not try to free it. You should test the error pointer for NULL
1539 after calling pcre_study(), to be sure that it has run successfully.
1541 This is a typical call to pcre_study():
1543 pcre_extra *pe;
1544 pe = pcre_study(
1545 re, /* result of pcre_compile() */
1546 0, /* no options exist */
1547 &error); /* set to NULL or points to a message */
1549 Studying a pattern does two things: first, a lower bound for the length
1550 of subject string that is needed to match the pattern is computed. This
1551 does not mean that there are any strings of that length that match, but
1552 it does guarantee that no shorter strings match. The value is used by
1553 pcre_exec() and pcre_dfa_exec() to avoid wasting time by trying to
1554 match strings that are shorter than the lower bound. You can find out
1555 the value in a calling program via the pcre_fullinfo() function.
1557 Studying a pattern is also useful for non-anchored patterns that do not
1558 have a single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting
1559 bytes is created. This speeds up finding a position in the subject at
1560 which to start matching.
1562 The two optimizations just described can be disabled by setting the
1563 PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling pcre_exec() or
1564 pcre_dfa_exec(). You might want to do this if your pattern contains
1565 callouts, or make use of (*MARK), and you make use of these in cases
1566 where matching fails. See the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
1567 below.
1572 PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are
1573 letters, digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed
1574 by character value. When running in UTF-8 mode, this applies only to
1575 characters with codes less than 128. By default, higher-valued codes
1576 never match escapes such as \w or \d, but they can be tested with \p if
1577 PCRE is built with Unicode character property support. Alternatively,
1578 the PCRE_UCP option can be set at compile time; this causes \w and
1579 friends to use Unicode property support instead of built-in tables. The
1580 use of locales with Unicode is discouraged. If you are handling charac-
1581 ters with codes greater than 128, you should either use UTF-8 and Uni-
1582 code, or use locales, but not try to mix the two.
1584 PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used when the final
1585 argument of pcre_compile() is NULL. These are sufficient for many
1586 applications. Normally, the internal tables recognize only ASCII char-
1587 acters. However, when PCRE is built, it is possible to cause the inter-
1588 nal tables to be rebuilt in the default "C" locale of the local system,
1589 which may cause them to be different.
1591 The internal tables can always be overridden by tables supplied by the
1592 application that calls PCRE. These may be created in a different locale
1593 from the default. As more and more applications change to using Uni-
1594 code, the need for this locale support is expected to die away.
1596 External tables are built by calling the pcre_maketables() function,
1597 which has no arguments, in the relevant locale. The result can then be
1598 passed to pcre_compile() or pcre_exec() as often as necessary. For
1599 example, to build and use tables that are appropriate for the French
1600 locale (where accented characters with values greater than 128 are
1601 treated as letters), the following code could be used:
1603 setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "fr_FR");
1604 tables = pcre_maketables();
1605 re = pcre_compile(..., tables);
1607 The locale name "fr_FR" is used on Linux and other Unix-like systems;
1608 if you are using Windows, the name for the French locale is "french".
1610 When pcre_maketables() runs, the tables are built in memory that is
1611 obtained via pcre_malloc. It is the caller's responsibility to ensure
1612 that the memory containing the tables remains available for as long as
1613 it is needed.
1615 The pointer that is passed to pcre_compile() is saved with the compiled
1616 pattern, and the same tables are used via this pointer by pcre_study()
1617 and normally also by pcre_exec(). Thus, by default, for any single pat-
1618 tern, compilation, studying and matching all happen in the same locale,
1619 but different patterns can be compiled in different locales.
1621 It is possible to pass a table pointer or NULL (indicating the use of
1622 the internal tables) to pcre_exec(). Although not intended for this
1623 purpose, this facility could be used to match a pattern in a different
1624 locale from the one in which it was compiled. Passing table pointers at
1625 run time is discussed below in the section on matching a pattern.
1630 int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
1631 int what, void *where);
1633 The pcre_fullinfo() function returns information about a compiled pat-
1634 tern. It replaces the obsolete pcre_info() function, which is neverthe-
1635 less retained for backwards compability (and is documented below).
1637 The first argument for pcre_fullinfo() is a pointer to the compiled
1638 pattern. The second argument is the result of pcre_study(), or NULL if
1639 the pattern was not studied. The third argument specifies which piece
1640 of information is required, and the fourth argument is a pointer to a
1641 variable to receive the data. The yield of the function is zero for
1642 success, or one of the following negative numbers:
1644 PCRE_ERROR_NULL the argument code was NULL
1645 the argument where was NULL
1646 PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC the "magic number" was not found
1647 PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION the value of what was invalid
1649 The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled pattern as
1650 an simple check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. Here is a
1651 typical call of pcre_fullinfo(), to obtain the length of the compiled
1652 pattern:
1654 int rc;
1655 size_t length;
1656 rc = pcre_fullinfo(
1657 re, /* result of pcre_compile() */
1658 pe, /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */
1659 PCRE_INFO_SIZE, /* what is required */
1660 &length); /* where to put the data */
1662 The possible values for the third argument are defined in pcre.h, and
1663 are as follows:
1667 Return the number of the highest back reference in the pattern. The
1668 fourth argument should point to an int variable. Zero is returned if
1669 there are no back references.
1673 Return the number of capturing subpatterns in the pattern. The fourth
1674 argument should point to an int variable.
1678 Return a pointer to the internal default character tables within PCRE.
1679 The fourth argument should point to an unsigned char * variable. This
1680 information call is provided for internal use by the pcre_study() func-
1681 tion. External callers can cause PCRE to use its internal tables by
1682 passing a NULL table pointer.
1686 Return information about the first byte of any matched string, for a
1687 non-anchored pattern. The fourth argument should point to an int vari-
1688 able. (This option used to be called PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR; the old name
1689 is still recognized for backwards compatibility.)
1691 If there is a fixed first byte, for example, from a pattern such as
1692 (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. Otherwise, if either
1694 (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every
1695 branch starts with "^", or
1697 (b) every branch of the pattern starts with ".*" and PCRE_DOTALL is not
1698 set (if it were set, the pattern would be anchored),
1700 -1 is returned, indicating that the pattern matches only at the start
1701 of a subject string or after any newline within the string. Otherwise
1702 -2 is returned. For anchored patterns, -2 is returned.
1706 If the pattern was studied, and this resulted in the construction of a
1707 256-bit table indicating a fixed set of bytes for the first byte in any
1708 matching string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is
1709 returned. The fourth argument should point to an unsigned char * vari-
1710 able.
1714 Return 1 if the pattern contains any explicit matches for CR or LF
1715 characters, otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an int
1716 variable. An explicit match is either a literal CR or LF character, or
1717 \r or \n.
1721 Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option setting is used in the pattern,
1722 otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an int variable. (?J)
1723 and (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.
1727 Return the value of the rightmost literal byte that must exist in any
1728 matched string, other than at its start, if such a byte has been
1729 recorded. The fourth argument should point to an int variable. If there
1730 is no such byte, -1 is returned. For anchored patterns, a last literal
1731 byte is recorded only if it follows something of variable length. For
1732 example, for the pattern /^a\d+z\d+/ the returned value is "z", but for
1733 /^a\dz\d/ the returned value is -1.
1737 If the pattern was studied and a minimum length for matching subject
1738 strings was computed, its value is returned. Otherwise the returned
1739 value is -1. The value is a number of characters, not bytes (this may
1740 be relevant in UTF-8 mode). The fourth argument should point to an int
1741 variable. A non-negative value is a lower bound to the length of any
1742 matching string. There may not be any strings of that length that do
1743 actually match, but every string that does match is at least that long.
1749 PCRE supports the use of named as well as numbered capturing parenthe-
1750 ses. The names are just an additional way of identifying the parenthe-
1751 ses, which still acquire numbers. Several convenience functions such as
1752 pcre_get_named_substring() are provided for extracting captured sub-
1753 strings by name. It is also possible to extract the data directly, by
1754 first converting the name to a number in order to access the correct
1755 pointers in the output vector (described with pcre_exec() below). To do
1756 the conversion, you need to use the name-to-number map, which is
1757 described by these three values.
1759 The map consists of a number of fixed-size entries. PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT
1760 gives the number of entries, and PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE gives the size
1761 of each entry; both of these return an int value. The entry size
1762 depends on the length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE returns
1763 a pointer to the first entry of the table (a pointer to char). The
1764 first two bytes of each entry are the number of the capturing parenthe-
1765 sis, most significant byte first. The rest of the entry is the corre-
1766 sponding name, zero terminated.
1768 The names are in alphabetical order. Duplicate names may appear if (?|
1769 is used to create multiple groups with the same number, as described in
1770 the section on duplicate subpattern numbers in the pcrepattern page.
1771 Duplicate names for subpatterns with different numbers are permitted
1772 only if PCRE_DUPNAMES is set. In all cases of duplicate names, they
1773 appear in the table in the order in which they were found in the pat-
1774 tern. In the absence of (?| this is the order of increasing number;
1775 when (?| is used this is not necessarily the case because later subpat-
1776 terns may have lower numbers.
1778 As a simple example of the name/number table, consider the following
1779 pattern (assume PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including new-
1780 lines - is ignored):
1782 (?<date> (?<year>(\d\d)?\d\d) -
1783 (?<month>\d\d) - (?<day>\d\d) )
1785 There are four named subpatterns, so the table has four entries, and
1786 each entry in the table is eight bytes long. The table is as follows,
1787 with non-printing bytes shows in hexadecimal, and undefined bytes shown
1788 as ??:
1790 00 01 d a t e 00 ??
1791 00 05 d a y 00 ?? ??
1792 00 04 m o n t h 00
1793 00 02 y e a r 00 ??
1795 When writing code to extract data from named subpatterns using the
1796 name-to-number map, remember that the length of the entries is likely
1797 to be different for each compiled pattern.
1801 Return 1 if the pattern can be used for partial matching with
1802 pcre_exec(), otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an int
1803 variable. From release 8.00, this always returns 1, because the
1804 restrictions that previously applied to partial matching have been
1805 lifted. The pcrepartial documentation gives details of partial match-
1806 ing.
1810 Return a copy of the options with which the pattern was compiled. The
1811 fourth argument should point to an unsigned long int variable. These
1812 option bits are those specified in the call to pcre_compile(), modified
1813 by any top-level option settings at the start of the pattern itself. In
1814 other words, they are the options that will be in force when matching
1815 starts. For example, if the pattern /(?im)abc(?-i)d/ is compiled with
1816 the PCRE_EXTENDED option, the result is PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
1819 A pattern is automatically anchored by PCRE if all of its top-level
1820 alternatives begin with one of the following:
1822 ^ unless PCRE_MULTILINE is set
1823 \A always
1824 \G always
1825 .* if PCRE_DOTALL is set and there are no back
1826 references to the subpattern in which .* appears
1828 For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit is set in the options returned
1829 by pcre_fullinfo().
1833 Return the size of the compiled pattern, that is, the value that was
1834 passed as the argument to pcre_malloc() when PCRE was getting memory in
1835 which to place the compiled data. The fourth argument should point to a
1836 size_t variable.
1840 Return the size of the data block pointed to by the study_data field in
1841 a pcre_extra block. That is, it is the value that was passed to
1842 pcre_malloc() when PCRE was getting memory into which to place the data
1843 created by pcre_study(). If pcre_extra is NULL, or there is no study
1844 data, zero is returned. The fourth argument should point to a size_t
1845 variable.
1850 int pcre_info(const pcre *code, int *optptr, int *firstcharptr);
1852 The pcre_info() function is now obsolete because its interface is too
1853 restrictive to return all the available data about a compiled pattern.
1854 New programs should use pcre_fullinfo() instead. The yield of
1855 pcre_info() is the number of capturing subpatterns, or one of the fol-
1856 lowing negative numbers:
1858 PCRE_ERROR_NULL the argument code was NULL
1859 PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC the "magic number" was not found
1861 If the optptr argument is not NULL, a copy of the options with which
1862 the pattern was compiled is placed in the integer it points to (see
1863 PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS above).
1865 If the pattern is not anchored and the firstcharptr argument is not
1866 NULL, it is used to pass back information about the first character of
1867 any matched string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above).
1872 int pcre_refcount(pcre *code, int adjust);
1874 The pcre_refcount() function is used to maintain a reference count in
1875 the data block that contains a compiled pattern. It is provided for the
1876 benefit of applications that operate in an object-oriented manner,
1877 where different parts of the application may be using the same compiled
1878 pattern, but you want to free the block when they are all done.
1880 When a pattern is compiled, the reference count field is initialized to
1881 zero. It is changed only by calling this function, whose action is to
1882 add the adjust value (which may be positive or negative) to it. The
1883 yield of the function is the new value. However, the value of the count
1884 is constrained to lie between 0 and 65535, inclusive. If the new value
1885 is outside these limits, it is forced to the appropriate limit value.
1887 Except when it is zero, the reference count is not correctly preserved
1888 if a pattern is compiled on one host and then transferred to a host
1889 whose byte-order is different. (This seems a highly unlikely scenario.)
1894 int pcre_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
1895 const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
1896 int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize);
1898 The function pcre_exec() is called to match a subject string against a
1899 compiled pattern, which is passed in the code argument. If the pattern
1900 was studied, the result of the study should be passed in the extra
1901 argument. This function is the main matching facility of the library,
1902 and it operates in a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is also
1903 an alternative matching function, which is described below in the sec-
1904 tion about the pcre_dfa_exec() function.
1906 In most applications, the pattern will have been compiled (and option-
1907 ally studied) in the same process that calls pcre_exec(). However, it
1908 is possible to save compiled patterns and study data, and then use them
1909 later in different processes, possibly even on different hosts. For a
1910 discussion about this, see the pcreprecompile documentation.
1912 Here is an example of a simple call to pcre_exec():
1914 int rc;
1915 int ovector[30];
1916 rc = pcre_exec(
1917 re, /* result of pcre_compile() */
1918 NULL, /* we didn't study the pattern */
1919 "some string", /* the subject string */
1920 11, /* the length of the subject string */
1921 0, /* start at offset 0 in the subject */
1922 0, /* default options */
1923 ovector, /* vector of integers for substring information */
1924 30); /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
1926 Extra data for pcre_exec()
1928 If the extra argument is not NULL, it must point to a pcre_extra data
1929 block. The pcre_study() function returns such a block (when it doesn't
1930 return NULL), but you can also create one for yourself, and pass addi-
1931 tional information in it. The pcre_extra block contains the following
1932 fields (not necessarily in this order):
1934 unsigned long int flags;
1935 void *study_data;
1936 unsigned long int match_limit;
1937 unsigned long int match_limit_recursion;
1938 void *callout_data;
1939 const unsigned char *tables;
1940 unsigned char **mark;
1942 The flags field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields
1943 are set. The flag bits are:
1952 Other flag bits should be set to zero. The study_data field is set in
1953 the pcre_extra block that is returned by pcre_study(), together with
1954 the appropriate flag bit. You should not set this yourself, but you may
1955 add to the block by setting the other fields and their corresponding
1956 flag bits.
1958 The match_limit field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up
1959 a vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to
1960 match, but which have a very large number of possibilities in their
1961 search trees. The classic example is a pattern that uses nested unlim-
1962 ited repeats.
1964 Internally, PCRE uses a function called match() which it calls repeat-
1965 edly (sometimes recursively). The limit set by match_limit is imposed
1966 on the number of times this function is called during a match, which
1967 has the effect of limiting the amount of backtracking that can take
1968 place. For patterns that are not anchored, the count restarts from zero
1969 for each position in the subject string.
1971 The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the
1972 default default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme
1973 cases. You can override the default by suppling pcre_exec() with a
1974 pcre_extra block in which match_limit is set, and
1975 PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT is set in the flags field. If the limit is
1976 exceeded, pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT.
1978 The match_limit_recursion field is similar to match_limit, but instead
1979 of limiting the total number of times that match() is called, it limits
1980 the depth of recursion. The recursion depth is a smaller number than
1981 the total number of calls, because not all calls to match() are recur-
1982 sive. This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than match_limit.
1984 Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of stack that can be
1985 used, or, when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead
1986 of the stack, the amount of heap memory that can be used.
1988 The default value for match_limit_recursion can be set when PCRE is
1989 built; the default default is the same value as the default for
1990 match_limit. You can override the default by suppling pcre_exec() with
1991 a pcre_extra block in which match_limit_recursion is set, and
1992 PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION is set in the flags field. If the
1993 limit is exceeded, pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT.
1995 The callout_data field is used in conjunction with the "callout" fea-
1996 ture, and is described in the pcrecallout documentation.
1998 The tables field is used to pass a character tables pointer to
1999 pcre_exec(); this overrides the value that is stored with the compiled
2000 pattern. A non-NULL value is stored with the compiled pattern only if
2001 custom tables were supplied to pcre_compile() via its tableptr argu-
2002 ment. If NULL is passed to pcre_exec() using this mechanism, it forces
2003 PCRE's internal tables to be used. This facility is helpful when re-
2004 using patterns that have been saved after compiling with an external
2005 set of tables, because the external tables might be at a different
2006 address when pcre_exec() is called. See the pcreprecompile documenta-
2007 tion for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.
2009 If PCRE_EXTRA_MARK is set in the flags field, the mark field must be
2010 set to point to a char * variable. If the pattern contains any back-
2011 tracking control verbs such as (*MARK:NAME), and the execution ends up
2012 with a name to pass back, a pointer to the name string (zero termi-
2013 nated) is placed in the variable pointed to by the mark field. The
2014 names are within the compiled pattern; if you wish to retain such a
2015 name you must copy it before freeing the memory of a compiled pattern.
2016 If there is no name to pass back, the variable pointed to by the mark
2017 field set to NULL. For details of the backtracking control verbs, see
2018 the section entitled "Backtracking control" in the pcrepattern documen-
2019 tation.
2021 Option bits for pcre_exec()
2023 The unused bits of the options argument for pcre_exec() must be zero.
2024 The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx,
2031 The PCRE_ANCHORED option limits pcre_exec() to matching at the first
2032 matching position. If a pattern was compiled with PCRE_ANCHORED, or
2033 turned out to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made
2034 unachored at matching time.
2039 These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \R escape
2040 sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF,
2041 or to match any Unicode newline sequence. These options override the
2042 choice that was made or defaulted when the pattern was compiled.
2050 These options override the newline definition that was chosen or
2051 defaulted when the pattern was compiled. For details, see the descrip-
2052 tion of pcre_compile() above. During matching, the newline choice
2053 affects the behaviour of the dot, circumflex, and dollar metacharac-
2054 ters. It may also alter the way the match position is advanced after a
2055 match failure for an unanchored pattern.
2058 set, and a match attempt for an unanchored pattern fails when the cur-
2059 rent position is at a CRLF sequence, and the pattern contains no
2060 explicit matches for CR or LF characters, the match position is
2061 advanced by two characters instead of one, in other words, to after the
2062 CRLF.
2064 The above rule is a compromise that makes the most common cases work as
2065 expected. For example, if the pattern is .+A (and the PCRE_DOTALL
2066 option is not set), it does not match the string "\r\nA" because, after
2067 failing at the start, it skips both the CR and the LF before retrying.
2068 However, the pattern [\r\n]A does match that string, because it con-
2069 tains an explicit CR or LF reference, and so advances only by one char-
2070 acter after the first failure.
2072 An explicit match for CR of LF is either a literal appearance of one of
2073 those characters, or one of the \r or \n escape sequences. Implicit
2074 matches such as [^X] do not count, nor does \s (which includes CR and
2075 LF in the characters that it matches).
2077 Notwithstanding the above, anomalous effects may still occur when CRLF
2078 is a valid newline sequence and explicit \r or \n escapes appear in the
2079 pattern.
2083 This option specifies that first character of the subject string is not
2084 the beginning of a line, so the circumflex metacharacter should not
2085 match before it. Setting this without PCRE_MULTILINE (at compile time)
2086 causes circumflex never to match. This option affects only the behav-
2087 iour of the circumflex metacharacter. It does not affect \A.
2091 This option specifies that the end of the subject string is not the end
2092 of a line, so the dollar metacharacter should not match it nor (except
2093 in multiline mode) a newline immediately before it. Setting this with-
2094 out PCRE_MULTILINE (at compile time) causes dollar never to match. This
2095 option affects only the behaviour of the dollar metacharacter. It does
2096 not affect \Z or \z.
2100 An empty string is not considered to be a valid match if this option is
2101 set. If there are alternatives in the pattern, they are tried. If all
2102 the alternatives match the empty string, the entire match fails. For
2103 example, if the pattern
2105 a?b?
2107 is applied to a string not beginning with "a" or "b", it matches an
2108 empty string at the start of the subject. With PCRE_NOTEMPTY set, this
2109 match is not valid, so PCRE searches further into the string for occur-
2110 rences of "a" or "b".
2114 This is like PCRE_NOTEMPTY, except that an empty string match that is
2115 not at the start of the subject is permitted. If the pattern is
2116 anchored, such a match can occur only if the pattern contains \K.
2118 Perl has no direct equivalent of PCRE_NOTEMPTY or
2119 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART, but it does make a special case of a pattern
2120 match of the empty string within its split() function, and when using
2121 the /g modifier. It is possible to emulate Perl's behaviour after
2122 matching a null string by first trying the match again at the same off-
2123 set with PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and PCRE_ANCHORED, and then if that
2124 fails, by advancing the starting offset (see below) and trying an ordi-
2125 nary match again. There is some code that demonstrates how to do this
2126 in the pcredemo sample program.
2130 There are a number of optimizations that pcre_exec() uses at the start
2131 of a match, in order to speed up the process. For example, if it is
2132 known that an unanchored match must start with a specific character, it
2133 searches the subject for that character, and fails immediately if it
2134 cannot find it, without actually running the main matching function.
2135 This means that a special item such as (*COMMIT) at the start of a pat-
2136 tern is not considered until after a suitable starting point for the
2137 match has been found. When callouts or (*MARK) items are in use, these
2138 "start-up" optimizations can cause them to be skipped if the pattern is
2139 never actually used. The start-up optimizations are in effect a pre-
2140 scan of the subject that takes place before the pattern is run.
2142 The PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option disables the start-up optimizations,
2143 possibly causing performance to suffer, but ensuring that in cases
2144 where the result is "no match", the callouts do occur, and that items
2145 such as (*COMMIT) and (*MARK) are considered at every possible starting
2146 position in the subject string. Setting PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE can
2147 change the outcome of a matching operation. Consider the pattern
2151 When this is compiled, PCRE records the fact that a match must start
2152 with the character "A". Suppose the subject string is "DEFABC". The
2153 start-up optimization scans along the subject, finds "A" and runs the
2154 first match attempt from there. The (*COMMIT) item means that the pat-
2155 tern must match the current starting position, which in this case, it
2156 does. However, if the same match is run with PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
2157 set, the initial scan along the subject string does not happen. The
2158 first match attempt is run starting from "D" and when this fails,
2159 (*COMMIT) prevents any further matches being tried, so the overall
2160 result is "no match". If the pattern is studied, more start-up opti-
2161 mizations may be used. For example, a minimum length for the subject
2162 may be recorded. Consider the pattern
2164 (*MARK:A)(X|Y)
2166 The minimum length for a match is one character. If the subject is
2167 "ABC", there will be attempts to match "ABC", "BC", "C", and then
2168 finally an empty string. If the pattern is studied, the final attempt
2169 does not take place, because PCRE knows that the subject is too short,
2170 and so the (*MARK) is never encountered. In this case, studying the
2171 pattern does not affect the overall match result, which is still "no
2172 match", but it does affect the auxiliary information that is returned.
2176 When PCRE_UTF8 is set at compile time, the validity of the subject as a
2177 UTF-8 string is automatically checked when pcre_exec() is subsequently
2178 called. The value of startoffset is also checked to ensure that it
2179 points to the start of a UTF-8 character. There is a discussion about
2180 the validity of UTF-8 strings in the section on UTF-8 support in the
2181 main pcre page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found,
2182 pcre_exec() returns the error PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8. If startoffset con-
2183 tains an invalid value, PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET is returned.
2185 If you already know that your subject is valid, and you want to skip
2186 these checks for performance reasons, you can set the
2187 PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option when calling pcre_exec(). You might want to
2188 do this for the second and subsequent calls to pcre_exec() if you are
2189 making repeated calls to find all the matches in a single subject
2190 string. However, you should be sure that the value of startoffset
2191 points to the start of a UTF-8 character. When PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is
2192 set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a subject, or a
2193 value of startoffset that does not point to the start of a UTF-8 char-
2194 acter, is undefined. Your program may crash.
2199 These options turn on the partial matching feature. For backwards com-
2200 patibility, PCRE_PARTIAL is a synonym for PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. A partial
2201 match occurs if the end of the subject string is reached successfully,
2202 but there are not enough subject characters to complete the match. If
2203 this happens when PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, pcre_exec() immediately
2204 returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. Otherwise, if PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT is set,
2205 matching continues by testing any other alternatives. Only if they all
2206 fail is PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL returned (instead of PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH).
2207 The portion of the string that was inspected when the partial match was
2208 found is set as the first matching string. There is a more detailed
2209 discussion in the pcrepartial documentation.
2211 The string to be matched by pcre_exec()
2213 The subject string is passed to pcre_exec() as a pointer in subject, a
2214 length (in bytes) in length, and a starting byte offset in startoffset.
2215 In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset must point to the start of a UTF-8 char-
2216 acter. Unlike the pattern string, the subject may contain binary zero
2217 bytes. When the starting offset is zero, the search for a match starts
2218 at the beginning of the subject, and this is by far the most common
2219 case.
2221 A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match
2222 in the same subject by calling pcre_exec() again after a previous suc-
2223 cess. Setting startoffset differs from just passing over a shortened
2224 string and setting PCRE_NOTBOL in the case of a pattern that begins
2225 with any kind of lookbehind. For example, consider the pattern
2227 \Biss\B
2229 which finds occurrences of "iss" in the middle of words. (\B matches
2230 only if the current position in the subject is not a word boundary.)
2231 When applied to the string "Mississipi" the first call to pcre_exec()
2232 finds the first occurrence. If pcre_exec() is called again with just
2233 the remainder of the subject, namely "issipi", it does not match,
2234 because \B is always false at the start of the subject, which is deemed
2235 to be a word boundary. However, if pcre_exec() is passed the entire
2236 string again, but with startoffset set to 4, it finds the second occur-
2237 rence of "iss" because it is able to look behind the starting point to
2238 discover that it is preceded by a letter.
2240 If a non-zero starting offset is passed when the pattern is anchored,
2241 one attempt to match at the given offset is made. This can only succeed
2242 if the pattern does not require the match to be at the start of the
2243 subject.
2245 How pcre_exec() returns captured substrings
2247 In general, a pattern matches a certain portion of the subject, and in
2248 addition, further substrings from the subject may be picked out by
2249 parts of the pattern. Following the usage in Jeffrey Friedl's book,
2250 this is called "capturing" in what follows, and the phrase "capturing
2251 subpattern" is used for a fragment of a pattern that picks out a sub-
2252 string. PCRE supports several other kinds of parenthesized subpattern
2253 that do not cause substrings to be captured.
2255 Captured substrings are returned to the caller via a vector of integers
2256 whose address is passed in ovector. The number of elements in the vec-
2257 tor is passed in ovecsize, which must be a non-negative number. Note:
2258 this argument is NOT the size of ovector in bytes.
2260 The first two-thirds of the vector is used to pass back captured sub-
2261 strings, each substring using a pair of integers. The remaining third
2262 of the vector is used as workspace by pcre_exec() while matching cap-
2263 turing subpatterns, and is not available for passing back information.
2264 The number passed in ovecsize should always be a multiple of three. If
2265 it is not, it is rounded down.
2267 When a match is successful, information about captured substrings is
2268 returned in pairs of integers, starting at the beginning of ovector,
2269 and continuing up to two-thirds of its length at the most. The first
2270 element of each pair is set to the byte offset of the first character
2271 in a substring, and the second is set to the byte offset of the first
2272 character after the end of a substring. Note: these values are always
2273 byte offsets, even in UTF-8 mode. They are not character counts.
2275 The first pair of integers, ovector[0] and ovector[1], identify the
2276 portion of the subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next
2277 pair is used for the first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value
2278 returned by pcre_exec() is one more than the highest numbered pair that
2279 has been set. For example, if two substrings have been captured, the
2280 returned value is 3. If there are no capturing subpatterns, the return
2281 value from a successful match is 1, indicating that just the first pair
2282 of offsets has been set.
2284 If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion
2285 of the string that it matched that is returned.
2287 If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets,
2288 it is used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the
2289 function returns a value of zero. If the substring offsets are not of
2290 interest, pcre_exec() may be called with ovector passed as NULL and
2291 ovecsize as zero. However, if the pattern contains back references and
2292 the ovector is not big enough to remember the related substrings, PCRE
2293 has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usu-
2294 ally advisable to supply an ovector.
2296 The pcre_fullinfo() function can be used to find out how many capturing
2297 subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for
2298 ovector that will allow for n captured substrings, in addition to the
2299 offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (n+1)*3.
2301 It is possible for capturing subpattern number n+1 to match some part
2302 of the subject when subpattern n has not been used at all. For example,
2303 if the string "abc" is matched against the pattern (a|(z))(bc) the
2304 return from the function is 4, and subpatterns 1 and 3 are matched, but
2305 2 is not. When this happens, both values in the offset pairs corre-
2306 sponding to unused subpatterns are set to -1.
2308 Offset values that correspond to unused subpatterns at the end of the
2309 expression are also set to -1. For example, if the string "abc" is
2310 matched against the pattern (abc)(x(yz)?)? subpatterns 2 and 3 are not
2311 matched. The return from the function is 2, because the highest used
2312 capturing subpattern number is 1. However, you can refer to the offsets
2313 for the second and third capturing subpatterns if you wish (assuming
2314 the vector is large enough, of course).
2316 Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured
2317 substrings as separate strings. These are described below.
2319 Error return values from pcre_exec()
2321 If pcre_exec() fails, it returns a negative number. The following are
2322 defined in the header file:
2326 The subject string did not match the pattern.
2330 Either code or subject was passed as NULL, or ovector was NULL and
2331 ovecsize was not zero.
2335 An unrecognized bit was set in the options argument.
2339 PCRE stores a 4-byte "magic number" at the start of the compiled code,
2340 to catch the case when it is passed a junk pointer and to detect when a
2341 pattern that was compiled in an environment of one endianness is run in
2342 an environment with the other endianness. This is the error that PCRE
2343 gives when the magic number is not present.
2347 While running the pattern match, an unknown item was encountered in the
2348 compiled pattern. This error could be caused by a bug in PCRE or by
2349 overwriting of the compiled pattern.
2353 If a pattern contains back references, but the ovector that is passed
2354 to pcre_exec() is not big enough to remember the referenced substrings,
2355 PCRE gets a block of memory at the start of matching to use for this
2356 purpose. If the call via pcre_malloc() fails, this error is given. The
2357 memory is automatically freed at the end of matching.
2359 This error is also given if pcre_stack_malloc() fails in pcre_exec().
2360 This can happen only when PCRE has been compiled with --disable-stack-
2361 for-recursion.
2365 This error is used by the pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(),
2366 and pcre_get_substring_list() functions (see below). It is never
2367 returned by pcre_exec().
2371 The backtracking limit, as specified by the match_limit field in a
2372 pcre_extra structure (or defaulted) was reached. See the description
2373 above.
2377 This error is never generated by pcre_exec() itself. It is provided for
2378 use by callout functions that want to yield a distinctive error code.
2379 See the pcrecallout documentation for details.
2383 A string that contains an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence was passed as a
2384 subject.
2388 The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was valid, but the
2389 value of startoffset did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 charac-
2390 ter.
2394 The subject string did not match, but it did match partially. See the
2395 pcrepartial documentation for details of partial matching.
2399 This code is no longer in use. It was formerly returned when the
2400 PCRE_PARTIAL option was used with a compiled pattern containing items
2401 that were not supported for partial matching. From release 8.00
2402 onwards, there are no restrictions on partial matching.
2406 An unexpected internal error has occurred. This error could be caused
2407 by a bug in PCRE or by overwriting of the compiled pattern.
2411 This error is given if the value of the ovecsize argument is negative.
2415 The internal recursion limit, as specified by the match_limit_recursion
2416 field in a pcre_extra structure (or defaulted) was reached. See the
2417 description above.
2421 An invalid combination of PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx options was given.
2423 Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by pcre_exec().
2428 int pcre_copy_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
2429 int stringcount, int stringnumber, char *buffer,
2430 int buffersize);
2432 int pcre_get_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
2433 int stringcount, int stringnumber,
2434 const char **stringptr);
2436 int pcre_get_substring_list(const char *subject,
2437 int *ovector, int stringcount, const char ***listptr);
2439 Captured substrings can be accessed directly by using the offsets
2440 returned by pcre_exec() in ovector. For convenience, the functions
2441 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), and pcre_get_sub-
2442 string_list() are provided for extracting captured substrings as new,
2443 separate, zero-terminated strings. These functions identify substrings
2444 by number. The next section describes functions for extracting named
2445 substrings.
2447 A substring that contains a binary zero is correctly extracted and has
2448 a further zero added on the end, but the result is not, of course, a C
2449 string. However, you can process such a string by referring to the
2450 length that is returned by pcre_copy_substring() and pcre_get_sub-
2451 string(). Unfortunately, the interface to pcre_get_substring_list() is
2452 not adequate for handling strings containing binary zeros, because the
2453 end of the final string is not independently indicated.
2455 The first three arguments are the same for all three of these func-
2456 tions: subject is the subject string that has just been successfully
2457 matched, ovector is a pointer to the vector of integer offsets that was
2458 passed to pcre_exec(), and stringcount is the number of substrings that
2459 were captured by the match, including the substring that matched the
2460 entire regular expression. This is the value returned by pcre_exec() if
2461 it is greater than zero. If pcre_exec() returned zero, indicating that
2462 it ran out of space in ovector, the value passed as stringcount should
2463 be the number of elements in the vector divided by three.
2465 The functions pcre_copy_substring() and pcre_get_substring() extract a
2466 single substring, whose number is given as stringnumber. A value of
2467 zero extracts the substring that matched the entire pattern, whereas
2468 higher values extract the captured substrings. For pcre_copy_sub-
2469 string(), the string is placed in buffer, whose length is given by
2470 buffersize, while for pcre_get_substring() a new block of memory is
2471 obtained via pcre_malloc, and its address is returned via stringptr.
2472 The yield of the function is the length of the string, not including
2473 the terminating zero, or one of these error codes:
2477 The buffer was too small for pcre_copy_substring(), or the attempt to
2478 get memory failed for pcre_get_substring().
2482 There is no substring whose number is stringnumber.
2484 The pcre_get_substring_list() function extracts all available sub-
2485 strings and builds a list of pointers to them. All this is done in a
2486 single block of memory that is obtained via pcre_malloc. The address of
2487 the memory block is returned via listptr, which is also the start of
2488 the list of string pointers. The end of the list is marked by a NULL
2489 pointer. The yield of the function is zero if all went well, or the
2490 error code
2494 if the attempt to get the memory block failed.
2496 When any of these functions encounter a substring that is unset, which
2497 can happen when capturing subpattern number n+1 matches some part of
2498 the subject, but subpattern n has not been used at all, they return an
2499 empty string. This can be distinguished from a genuine zero-length sub-
2500 string by inspecting the appropriate offset in ovector, which is nega-
2501 tive for unset substrings.
2503 The two convenience functions pcre_free_substring() and pcre_free_sub-
2504 string_list() can be used to free the memory returned by a previous
2505 call of pcre_get_substring() or pcre_get_substring_list(), respec-
2506 tively. They do nothing more than call the function pointed to by
2507 pcre_free, which of course could be called directly from a C program.
2508 However, PCRE is used in some situations where it is linked via a spe-
2509 cial interface to another programming language that cannot use
2510 pcre_free directly; it is for these cases that the functions are pro-
2511 vided.
2516 int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *code,
2517 const char *name);
2519 int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *code,
2520 const char *subject, int *ovector,
2521 int stringcount, const char *stringname,
2522 char *buffer, int buffersize);
2524 int pcre_get_named_substring(const pcre *code,
2525 const char *subject, int *ovector,
2526 int stringcount, const char *stringname,
2527 const char **stringptr);
2529 To extract a substring by name, you first have to find associated num-
2530 ber. For example, for this pattern
2532 (a+)b(?<xxx>\d+)...
2534 the number of the subpattern called "xxx" is 2. If the name is known to
2535 be unique (PCRE_DUPNAMES was not set), you can find the number from the
2536 name by calling pcre_get_stringnumber(). The first argument is the com-
2537 piled pattern, and the second is the name. The yield of the function is
2538 the subpattern number, or PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if there is no
2539 subpattern of that name.
2541 Given the number, you can extract the substring directly, or use one of
2542 the functions described in the previous section. For convenience, there
2543 are also two functions that do the whole job.
2545 Most of the arguments of pcre_copy_named_substring() and
2546 pcre_get_named_substring() are the same as those for the similarly
2547 named functions that extract by number. As these are described in the
2548 previous section, they are not re-described here. There are just two
2549 differences:
2551 First, instead of a substring number, a substring name is given. Sec-
2552 ond, there is an extra argument, given at the start, which is a pointer
2553 to the compiled pattern. This is needed in order to gain access to the
2554 name-to-number translation table.
2556 These functions call pcre_get_stringnumber(), and if it succeeds, they
2557 then call pcre_copy_substring() or pcre_get_substring(), as appropri-
2558 ate. NOTE: If PCRE_DUPNAMES is set and there are duplicate names, the
2559 behaviour may not be what you want (see the next section).
2561 Warning: If the pattern uses the (?| feature to set up multiple subpat-
2562 terns with the same number, as described in the section on duplicate
2563 subpattern numbers in the pcrepattern page, you cannot use names to
2564 distinguish the different subpatterns, because names are not included
2565 in the compiled code. The matching process uses only numbers. For this
2566 reason, the use of different names for subpatterns of the same number
2567 causes an error at compile time.
2572 int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *code,
2573 const char *name, char **first, char **last);
2575 When a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_DUPNAMES option, names for
2576 subpatterns are not required to be unique. (Duplicate names are always
2577 allowed for subpatterns with the same number, created by using the (?|
2578 feature. Indeed, if such subpatterns are named, they are required to
2579 use the same names.)
2581 Normally, patterns with duplicate names are such that in any one match,
2582 only one of the named subpatterns participates. An example is shown in
2583 the pcrepattern documentation.
2585 When duplicates are present, pcre_copy_named_substring() and
2586 pcre_get_named_substring() return the first substring corresponding to
2587 the given name that is set. If none are set, PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING
2588 (-7) is returned; no data is returned. The pcre_get_stringnumber()
2589 function returns one of the numbers that are associated with the name,
2590 but it is not defined which it is.
2592 If you want to get full details of all captured substrings for a given
2593 name, you must use the pcre_get_stringtable_entries() function. The
2594 first argument is the compiled pattern, and the second is the name. The
2595 third and fourth are pointers to variables which are updated by the
2596 function. After it has run, they point to the first and last entries in
2597 the name-to-number table for the given name. The function itself
2598 returns the length of each entry, or PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if
2599 there are none. The format of the table is described above in the sec-
2600 tion entitled Information about a pattern. Given all the relevant
2601 entries for the name, you can extract each of their numbers, and hence
2602 the captured data, if any.
2607 The traditional matching function uses a similar algorithm to Perl,
2608 which stops when it finds the first match, starting at a given point in
2609 the subject. If you want to find all possible matches, or the longest
2610 possible match, consider using the alternative matching function (see
2611 below) instead. If you cannot use the alternative function, but still
2612 need to find all possible matches, you can kludge it up by making use
2613 of the callout facility, which is described in the pcrecallout documen-
2614 tation.
2616 What you have to do is to insert a callout right at the end of the pat-
2617 tern. When your callout function is called, extract and save the cur-
2618 rent matched substring. Then return 1, which forces pcre_exec() to
2619 backtrack and try other alternatives. Ultimately, when it runs out of
2620 matches, pcre_exec() will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.
2625 int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
2626 const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
2627 int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize,
2628 int *workspace, int wscount);
2630 The function pcre_dfa_exec() is called to match a subject string
2631 against a compiled pattern, using a matching algorithm that scans the
2632 subject string just once, and does not backtrack. This has different
2633 characteristics to the normal algorithm, and is not compatible with
2634 Perl. Some of the features of PCRE patterns are not supported. Never-
2635 theless, there are times when this kind of matching can be useful. For
2636 a discussion of the two matching algorithms, and a list of features
2637 that pcre_dfa_exec() does not support, see the pcrematching documenta-
2638 tion.
2640 The arguments for the pcre_dfa_exec() function are the same as for
2641 pcre_exec(), plus two extras. The ovector argument is used in a differ-
2642 ent way, and this is described below. The other common arguments are
2643 used in the same way as for pcre_exec(), so their description is not
2644 repeated here.
2646 The two additional arguments provide workspace for the function. The
2647 workspace vector should contain at least 20 elements. It is used for
2648 keeping track of multiple paths through the pattern tree. More
2649 workspace will be needed for patterns and subjects where there are a
2650 lot of potential matches.
2652 Here is an example of a simple call to pcre_dfa_exec():
2654 int rc;
2655 int ovector[10];
2656 int wspace[20];
2657 rc = pcre_dfa_exec(
2658 re, /* result of pcre_compile() */
2659 NULL, /* we didn't study the pattern */
2660 "some string", /* the subject string */
2661 11, /* the length of the subject string */
2662 0, /* start at offset 0 in the subject */
2663 0, /* default options */
2664 ovector, /* vector of integers for substring information */
2665 10, /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
2666 wspace, /* working space vector */
2667 20); /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
2669 Option bits for pcre_dfa_exec()
2671 The unused bits of the options argument for pcre_dfa_exec() must be
2672 zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEW-
2677 four of these are exactly the same as for pcre_exec(), so their
2678 description is not repeated here.
2683 These have the same general effect as they do for pcre_exec(), but the
2684 details are slightly different. When PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set for
2685 pcre_dfa_exec(), it returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end of the sub-
2686 ject is reached and there is still at least one matching possibility
2687 that requires additional characters. This happens even if some complete
2688 matches have also been found. When PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT is set, the return
2689 code PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH is converted into PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end
2690 of the subject is reached, there have been no complete matches, but
2691 there is still at least one matching possibility. The portion of the
2692 string that was inspected when the longest partial match was found is
2693 set as the first matching string in both cases.
2697 Setting the PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST option causes the matching algorithm to
2698 stop as soon as it has found one match. Because of the way the alterna-
2699 tive algorithm works, this is necessarily the shortest possible match
2700 at the first possible matching point in the subject string.
2704 When pcre_dfa_exec() returns a partial match, it is possible to call it
2705 again, with additional subject characters, and have it continue with
2706 the same match. The PCRE_DFA_RESTART option requests this action; when
2707 it is set, the workspace and wscount options must reference the same
2708 vector as before because data about the match so far is left in them
2709 after a partial match. There is more discussion of this facility in the
2710 pcrepartial documentation.
2712 Successful returns from pcre_dfa_exec()
2714 When pcre_dfa_exec() succeeds, it may have matched more than one sub-
2715 string in the subject. Note, however, that all the matches from one run
2716 of the function start at the same point in the subject. The shorter
2717 matches are all initial substrings of the longer matches. For example,
2718 if the pattern
2720 <.*>
2722 is matched against the string
2724 This is <something> <something else> <something further> no more
2726 the three matched strings are
2728 <something>
2729 <something> <something else>
2730 <something> <something else> <something further>
2732 On success, the yield of the function is a number greater than zero,
2733 which is the number of matched substrings. The substrings themselves
2734 are returned in ovector. Each string uses two elements; the first is
2735 the offset to the start, and the second is the offset to the end. In
2736 fact, all the strings have the same start offset. (Space could have
2737 been saved by giving this only once, but it was decided to retain some
2738 compatibility with the way pcre_exec() returns data, even though the
2739 meaning of the strings is different.)
2741 The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the long-
2742 est matching string is given first. If there were too many matches to
2743 fit into ovector, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is
2744 filled with the longest matches.
2746 Error returns from pcre_dfa_exec()
2748 The pcre_dfa_exec() function returns a negative number when it fails.
2749 Many of the errors are the same as for pcre_exec(), and these are
2750 described above. There are in addition the following errors that are
2751 specific to pcre_dfa_exec():
2755 This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() encounters an item in the pat-
2756 tern that it does not support, for instance, the use of \C or a back
2757 reference.
2761 This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() encounters a condition item
2762 that uses a back reference for the condition, or a test for recursion
2763 in a specific group. These are not supported.
2767 This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() is called with an extra block
2768 that contains a setting of the match_limit field. This is not supported
2769 (it is meaningless).
2773 This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() runs out of space in the
2774 workspace vector.
2778 When a recursive subpattern is processed, the matching function calls
2779 itself recursively, using private vectors for ovector and workspace.
2780 This error is given if the output vector is not large enough. This
2781 should be extremely rare, as a vector of size 1000 is used.
2786 pcrebuild(3), pcrecallout(3), pcrecpp(3)(3), pcrematching(3), pcrepar-
2787 tial(3), pcreposix(3), pcreprecompile(3), pcresample(3), pcrestack(3).
2792 Philip Hazel
2793 University Computing Service
2794 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
2799 Last updated: 21 June 2010
2800 Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
2801 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2807 NAME
2808 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
2813 int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);
2815 PCRE provides a feature called "callout", which is a means of temporar-
2816 ily passing control to the caller of PCRE in the middle of pattern
2817 matching. The caller of PCRE provides an external function by putting
2818 its entry point in the global variable pcre_callout. By default, this
2819 variable contains NULL, which disables all calling out.
2821 Within a regular expression, (?C) indicates the points at which the
2822 external function is to be called. Different callout points can be
2823 identified by putting a number less than 256 after the letter C. The
2824 default value is zero. For example, this pattern has two callout
2825 points:
2827 (?C1)abc(?C2)def
2829 If the PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT option bit is set when pcre_compile() or
2830 pcre_compile2() is called, PCRE automatically inserts callouts, all
2831 with number 255, before each item in the pattern. For example, if
2832 PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT is used with the pattern
2834 A(\d{2}|--)
2836 it is processed as if it were
2838 (?C255)A(?C255)((?C255)\d{2}(?C255)|(?C255)-(?C255)-(?C255))(?C255)
2840 Notice that there is a callout before and after each parenthesis and
2841 alternation bar. Automatic callouts can be used for tracking the
2842 progress of pattern matching. The pcretest command has an option that
2843 sets automatic callouts; when it is used, the output indicates how the
2844 pattern is matched. This is useful information when you are trying to
2845 optimize the performance of a particular pattern.
2850 You should be aware that, because of optimizations in the way PCRE
2851 matches patterns by default, callouts sometimes do not happen. For
2852 example, if the pattern is
2854 ab(?C4)cd
2856 PCRE knows that any matching string must contain the letter "d". If the
2857 subject string is "abyz", the lack of "d" means that matching doesn't
2858 ever start, and the callout is never reached. However, with "abyd",
2859 though the result is still no match, the callout is obeyed.
2861 If the pattern is studied, PCRE knows the minimum length of a matching
2862 string, and will immediately give a "no match" return without actually
2863 running a match if the subject is not long enough, or, for unanchored
2864 patterns, if it has been scanned far enough.
2866 You can disable these optimizations by passing the PCRE_NO_START_OPTI-
2867 MIZE option to pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). This slows down the
2868 matching process, but does ensure that callouts such as the example
2869 above are obeyed.
2874 During matching, when PCRE reaches a callout point, the external func-
2875 tion defined by pcre_callout is called (if it is set). This applies to
2876 both the pcre_exec() and the pcre_dfa_exec() matching functions. The
2877 only argument to the callout function is a pointer to a pcre_callout
2878 block. This structure contains the following fields:
2880 int version;
2881 int callout_number;
2882 int *offset_vector;
2883 const char *subject;
2884 int subject_length;
2885 int start_match;
2886 int current_position;
2887 int capture_top;
2888 int capture_last;
2889 void *callout_data;
2890 int pattern_position;
2891 int next_item_length;
2893 The version field is an integer containing the version number of the
2894 block format. The initial version was 0; the current version is 1. The
2895 version number will change again in future if additional fields are
2896 added, but the intention is never to remove any of the existing fields.
2898 The callout_number field contains the number of the callout, as com-
2899 piled into the pattern (that is, the number after ?C for manual call-
2900 outs, and 255 for automatically generated callouts).
2902 The offset_vector field is a pointer to the vector of offsets that was
2903 passed by the caller to pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). When
2904 pcre_exec() is used, the contents can be inspected in order to extract
2905 substrings that have been matched so far, in the same way as for
2906 extracting substrings after a match has completed. For pcre_dfa_exec()
2907 this field is not useful.
2909 The subject and subject_length fields contain copies of the values that
2910 were passed to pcre_exec().
2912 The start_match field normally contains the offset within the subject
2913 at which the current match attempt started. However, if the escape
2914 sequence \K has been encountered, this value is changed to reflect the
2915 modified starting point. If the pattern is not anchored, the callout
2916 function may be called several times from the same point in the pattern
2917 for different starting points in the subject.
2919 The current_position field contains the offset within the subject of
2920 the current match pointer.
2922 When the pcre_exec() function is used, the capture_top field contains
2923 one more than the number of the highest numbered captured substring so
2924 far. If no substrings have been captured, the value of capture_top is
2925 one. This is always the case when pcre_dfa_exec() is used, because it
2926 does not support captured substrings.
2928 The capture_last field contains the number of the most recently cap-
2929 tured substring. If no substrings have been captured, its value is -1.
2930 This is always the case when pcre_dfa_exec() is used.
2932 The callout_data field contains a value that is passed to pcre_exec()
2933 or pcre_dfa_exec() specifically so that it can be passed back in call-
2934 outs. It is passed in the pcre_callout field of the pcre_extra data
2935 structure. If no such data was passed, the value of callout_data in a
2936 pcre_callout block is NULL. There is a description of the pcre_extra
2937 structure in the pcreapi documentation.
2939 The pattern_position field is present from version 1 of the pcre_call-
2940 out structure. It contains the offset to the next item to be matched in
2941 the pattern string.
2943 The next_item_length field is present from version 1 of the pcre_call-
2944 out structure. It contains the length of the next item to be matched in
2945 the pattern string. When the callout immediately precedes an alterna-
2946 tion bar, a closing parenthesis, or the end of the pattern, the length
2947 is zero. When the callout precedes an opening parenthesis, the length
2948 is that of the entire subpattern.
2950 The pattern_position and next_item_length fields are intended to help
2951 in distinguishing between different automatic callouts, which all have
2952 the same callout number. However, they are set for all callouts.
2957 The external callout function returns an integer to PCRE. If the value
2958 is zero, matching proceeds as normal. If the value is greater than
2959 zero, matching fails at the current point, but the testing of other
2960 matching possibilities goes ahead, just as if a lookahead assertion had
2961 failed. If the value is less than zero, the match is abandoned, and
2962 pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() returns the negative value.
2964 Negative values should normally be chosen from the set of
2965 PCRE_ERROR_xxx values. In particular, PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH forces a stan-
2966 dard "no match" failure. The error number PCRE_ERROR_CALLOUT is
2967 reserved for use by callout functions; it will never be used by PCRE
2968 itself.
2973 Philip Hazel
2974 University Computing Service
2975 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
2980 Last updated: 29 September 2009
2981 Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.
2982 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2988 NAME
2989 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
2994 This document describes the differences in the ways that PCRE and Perl
2995 handle regular expressions. The differences described here are with
2996 respect to Perl 5.10/5.11.
2998 1. PCRE has only a subset of Perl's UTF-8 and Unicode support. Details
2999 of what it does have are given in the section on UTF-8 support in the
3000 main pcre page.
3002 2. PCRE does not allow repeat quantifiers on lookahead assertions. Perl
3003 permits them, but they do not mean what you might think. For example,
3004 (?!a){3} does not assert that the next three characters are not "a". It
3005 just asserts that the next character is not "a" three times.
3007 3. Capturing subpatterns that occur inside negative lookahead asser-
3008 tions are counted, but their entries in the offsets vector are never
3009 set. Perl sets its numerical variables from any such patterns that are
3010 matched before the assertion fails to match something (thereby succeed-
3011 ing), but only if the negative lookahead assertion contains just one
3012 branch.
3014 4. Though binary zero characters are supported in the subject string,
3015 they are not allowed in a pattern string because it is passed as a nor-
3016 mal C string, terminated by zero. The escape sequence \0 can be used in
3017 the pattern to represent a binary zero.
3019 5. The following Perl escape sequences are not supported: \l, \u, \L,
3020 \U, and \N. In fact these are implemented by Perl's general string-han-
3021 dling and are not part of its pattern matching engine. If any of these
3022 are encountered by PCRE, an error is generated.
3024 6. The Perl escape sequences \p, \P, and \X are supported only if PCRE
3025 is built with Unicode character property support. The properties that
3026 can be tested with \p and \P are limited to the general category prop-
3027 erties such as Lu and Nd, script names such as Greek or Han, and the
3028 derived properties Any and L&. PCRE does support the Cs (surrogate)
3029 property, which Perl does not; the Perl documentation says "Because
3030 Perl hides the need for the user to understand the internal representa-
3031 tion of Unicode characters, there is no need to implement the somewhat
3032 messy concept of surrogates."
3034 7. PCRE does support the \Q...\E escape for quoting substrings. Charac-
3035 ters in between are treated as literals. This is slightly different
3036 from Perl in that $ and @ are also handled as literals inside the
3037 quotes. In Perl, they cause variable interpolation (but of course PCRE
3038 does not have variables). Note the following examples:
3040 Pattern PCRE matches Perl matches
3042 \Qabc$xyz\E abc$xyz abc followed by the
3043 contents of $xyz
3044 \Qabc\$xyz\E abc\$xyz abc\$xyz
3045 \Qabc\E\$\Qxyz\E abc$xyz abc$xyz
3047 The \Q...\E sequence is recognized both inside and outside character
3048 classes.
3050 8. Fairly obviously, PCRE does not support the (?{code}) and (??{code})
3051 constructions. However, there is support for recursive patterns. This
3052 is not available in Perl 5.8, but it is in Perl 5.10. Also, the PCRE
3053 "callout" feature allows an external function to be called during pat-
3054 tern matching. See the pcrecallout documentation for details.
3056 9. Subpatterns that are called recursively or as "subroutines" are
3057 always treated as atomic groups in PCRE. This is like Python, but
3058 unlike Perl. There is a discussion of an example that explains this in
3059 more detail in the section on recursion differences from Perl in the
3060 pcrepattern page.
3062 10. There are some differences that are concerned with the settings of
3063 captured strings when part of a pattern is repeated. For example,
3064 matching "aba" against the pattern /^(a(b)?)+$/ in Perl leaves $2
3065 unset, but in PCRE it is set to "b".
3067 11. PCRE's handling of duplicate subpattern numbers and duplicate sub-
3068 pattern names is not as general as Perl's. This is a consequence of the
3069 fact the PCRE works internally just with numbers, using an external ta-
3070 ble to translate between numbers and names. In particular, a pattern
3071 such as (?|(?<a>A)|(?<b)B), where the two capturing parentheses have
3072 the same number but different names, is not supported, and causes an
3073 error at compile time. If it were allowed, it would not be possible to
3074 distinguish which parentheses matched, because both names map to cap-
3075 turing subpattern number 1. To avoid this confusing situation, an error
3076 is given at compile time.
3078 12. PCRE provides some extensions to the Perl regular expression facil-
3079 ities. Perl 5.10 includes new features that are not in earlier ver-
3080 sions of Perl, some of which (such as named parentheses) have been in
3081 PCRE for some time. This list is with respect to Perl 5.10:
3083 (a) Although lookbehind assertions in PCRE must match fixed length
3084 strings, each alternative branch of a lookbehind assertion can match a
3085 different length of string. Perl requires them all to have the same
3086 length.
3088 (b) If PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY is set and PCRE_MULTILINE is not set, the $
3089 meta-character matches only at the very end of the string.
3091 (c) If PCRE_EXTRA is set, a backslash followed by a letter with no spe-
3092 cial meaning is faulted. Otherwise, like Perl, the backslash is quietly
3093 ignored. (Perl can be made to issue a warning.)
3095 (d) If PCRE_UNGREEDY is set, the greediness of the repetition quanti-
3096 fiers is inverted, that is, by default they are not greedy, but if fol-
3097 lowed by a question mark they are.
3099 (e) PCRE_ANCHORED can be used at matching time to force a pattern to be
3100 tried only at the first matching position in the subject string.
3103 and PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE options for pcre_exec() have no Perl equiva-
3104 lents.
3106 (g) The \R escape sequence can be restricted to match only CR, LF, or
3107 CRLF by the PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF option.
3109 (h) The callout facility is PCRE-specific.
3111 (i) The partial matching facility is PCRE-specific.
3113 (j) Patterns compiled by PCRE can be saved and re-used at a later time,
3114 even on different hosts that have the other endianness.
3116 (k) The alternative matching function (pcre_dfa_exec()) matches in a
3117 different way and is not Perl-compatible.
3119 (l) PCRE recognizes some special sequences such as (*CR) at the start
3120 of a pattern that set overall options that cannot be changed within the
3121 pattern.
3126 Philip Hazel
3127 University Computing Service
3128 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
3133 Last updated: 12 May 2010
3134 Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
3135 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3141 NAME
3142 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
3147 The syntax and semantics of the regular expressions that are supported
3148 by PCRE are described in detail below. There is a quick-reference syn-
3149 tax summary in the pcresyntax page. PCRE tries to match Perl syntax and
3150 semantics as closely as it can. PCRE also supports some alternative
3151 regular expression syntax (which does not conflict with the Perl syn-
3152 tax) in order to provide some compatibility with regular expressions in
3153 Python, .NET, and Oniguruma.
3155 Perl's regular expressions are described in its own documentation, and
3156 regular expressions in general are covered in a number of books, some
3157 of which have copious examples. Jeffrey Friedl's "Mastering Regular
3158 Expressions", published by O'Reilly, covers regular expressions in
3159 great detail. This description of PCRE's regular expressions is
3160 intended as reference material.
3162 The original operation of PCRE was on strings of one-byte characters.
3163 However, there is now also support for UTF-8 character strings. To use
3164 this, PCRE must be built to include UTF-8 support, and you must call
3165 pcre_compile() or pcre_compile2() with the PCRE_UTF8 option. There is
3166 also a special sequence that can be given at the start of a pattern:
3168 (*UTF8)
3170 Starting a pattern with this sequence is equivalent to setting the
3171 PCRE_UTF8 option. This feature is not Perl-compatible. How setting
3172 UTF-8 mode affects pattern matching is mentioned in several places
3173 below. There is also a summary of UTF-8 features in the section on
3174 UTF-8 support in the main pcre page.
3176 Another special sequence that may appear at the start of a pattern or
3177 in combination with (*UTF8) is:
3179 (*UCP)
3181 This has the same effect as setting the PCRE_UCP option: it causes
3182 sequences such as \d and \w to use Unicode properties to determine
3183 character types, instead of recognizing only characters with codes less
3184 than 128 via a lookup table.
3186 The remainder of this document discusses the patterns that are sup-
3187 ported by PCRE when its main matching function, pcre_exec(), is used.
3188 From release 6.0, PCRE offers a second matching function,
3189 pcre_dfa_exec(), which matches using a different algorithm that is not
3190 Perl-compatible. Some of the features discussed below are not available
3191 when pcre_dfa_exec() is used. The advantages and disadvantages of the
3192 alternative function, and how it differs from the normal function, are
3193 discussed in the pcrematching page.
3198 PCRE supports five different conventions for indicating line breaks in
3199 strings: a single CR (carriage return) character, a single LF (line-
3200 feed) character, the two-character sequence CRLF, any of the three pre-
3201 ceding, or any Unicode newline sequence. The pcreapi page has further
3202 discussion about newlines, and shows how to set the newline convention
3203 in the options arguments for the compiling and matching functions.
3205 It is also possible to specify a newline convention by starting a pat-
3206 tern string with one of the following five sequences:
3208 (*CR) carriage return
3209 (*LF) linefeed
3210 (*CRLF) carriage return, followed by linefeed
3211 (*ANYCRLF) any of the three above
3212 (*ANY) all Unicode newline sequences
3214 These override the default and the options given to pcre_compile() or
3215 pcre_compile2(). For example, on a Unix system where LF is the default
3216 newline sequence, the pattern
3218 (*CR)a.b
3220 changes the convention to CR. That pattern matches "a\nb" because LF is
3221 no longer a newline. Note that these special settings, which are not
3222 Perl-compatible, are recognized only at the very start of a pattern,
3223 and that they must be in upper case. If more than one of them is
3224 present, the last one is used.
3226 The newline convention affects the interpretation of the dot metachar-
3227 acter when PCRE_DOTALL is not set, and also the behaviour of \N. How-
3228 ever, it does not affect what the \R escape sequence matches. By
3229 default, this is any Unicode newline sequence, for Perl compatibility.
3230 However, this can be changed; see the description of \R in the section
3231 entitled "Newline sequences" below. A change of \R setting can be com-
3232 bined with a change of newline convention.
3237 A regular expression is a pattern that is matched against a subject
3238 string from left to right. Most characters stand for themselves in a
3239 pattern, and match the corresponding characters in the subject. As a
3240 trivial example, the pattern
3242 The quick brown fox
3244 matches a portion of a subject string that is identical to itself. When
3245 caseless matching is specified (the PCRE_CASELESS option), letters are
3246 matched independently of case. In UTF-8 mode, PCRE always understands
3247 the concept of case for characters whose values are less than 128, so
3248 caseless matching is always possible. For characters with higher val-
3249 ues, the concept of case is supported if PCRE is compiled with Unicode
3250 property support, but not otherwise. If you want to use caseless
3251 matching for characters 128 and above, you must ensure that PCRE is
3252 compiled with Unicode property support as well as with UTF-8 support.
3254 The power of regular expressions comes from the ability to include
3255 alternatives and repetitions in the pattern. These are encoded in the
3256 pattern by the use of metacharacters, which do not stand for themselves
3257 but instead are interpreted in some special way.
3259 There are two different sets of metacharacters: those that are recog-
3260 nized anywhere in the pattern except within square brackets, and those
3261 that are recognized within square brackets. Outside square brackets,
3262 the metacharacters are as follows:
3264 \ general escape character with several uses
3265 ^ assert start of string (or line, in multiline mode)
3266 $ assert end of string (or line, in multiline mode)
3267 . match any character except newline (by default)
3268 [ start character class definition
3269 | start of alternative branch
3270 ( start subpattern
3271 ) end subpattern
3272 ? extends the meaning of (
3273 also 0 or 1 quantifier
3274 also quantifier minimizer
3275 * 0 or more quantifier
3276 + 1 or more quantifier
3277 also "possessive quantifier"
3278 { start min/max quantifier
3280 Part of a pattern that is in square brackets is called a "character
3281 class". In a character class the only metacharacters are:
3283 \ general escape character
3284 ^ negate the class, but only if the first character
3285 - indicates character range
3286 [ POSIX character class (only if followed by POSIX
3287 syntax)
3288 ] terminates the character class
3290 The following sections describe the use of each of the metacharacters.
3295 The backslash character has several uses. Firstly, if it is followed by
3296 a non-alphanumeric character, it takes away any special meaning that
3297 character may have. This use of backslash as an escape character
3298 applies both inside and outside character classes.
3300 For example, if you want to match a * character, you write \* in the
3301 pattern. This escaping action applies whether or not the following
3302 character would otherwise be interpreted as a metacharacter, so it is
3303 always safe to precede a non-alphanumeric with backslash to specify
3304 that it stands for itself. In particular, if you want to match a back-
3305 slash, you write \\.
3307 If a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_EXTENDED option, whitespace in
3308 the pattern (other than in a character class) and characters between a
3309 # outside a character class and the next newline are ignored. An escap-
3310 ing backslash can be used to include a whitespace or # character as
3311 part of the pattern.
3313 If you want to remove the special meaning from a sequence of charac-
3314 ters, you can do so by putting them between \Q and \E. This is differ-
3315 ent from Perl in that $ and @ are handled as literals in \Q...\E
3316 sequences in PCRE, whereas in Perl, $ and @ cause variable interpola-
3317 tion. Note the following examples:
3319 Pattern PCRE matches Perl matches
3321 \Qabc$xyz\E abc$xyz abc followed by the
3322 contents of $xyz
3323 \Qabc\$xyz\E abc\$xyz abc\$xyz
3324 \Qabc\E\$\Qxyz\E abc$xyz abc$xyz
3326 The \Q...\E sequence is recognized both inside and outside character
3327 classes.
3329 Non-printing characters
3331 A second use of backslash provides a way of encoding non-printing char-
3332 acters in patterns in a visible manner. There is no restriction on the
3333 appearance of non-printing characters, apart from the binary zero that
3334 terminates a pattern, but when a pattern is being prepared by text
3335 editing, it is often easier to use one of the following escape
3336 sequences than the binary character it represents:
3338 \a alarm, that is, the BEL character (hex 07)
3339 \cx "control-x", where x is any character
3340 \e escape (hex 1B)
3341 \f formfeed (hex 0C)
3342 \n linefeed (hex 0A)
3343 \r carriage return (hex 0D)
3344 \t tab (hex 09)
3345 \ddd character with octal code ddd, or back reference
3346 \xhh character with hex code hh
3347 \x{hhh..} character with hex code hhh..
3349 The precise effect of \cx is as follows: if x is a lower case letter,
3350 it is converted to upper case. Then bit 6 of the character (hex 40) is
3351 inverted. Thus \cz becomes hex 1A, but \c{ becomes hex 3B, while \c;
3352 becomes hex 7B.
3354 After \x, from zero to two hexadecimal digits are read (letters can be
3355 in upper or lower case). Any number of hexadecimal digits may appear
3356 between \x{ and }, but the value of the character code must be less
3357 than 256 in non-UTF-8 mode, and less than 2**31 in UTF-8 mode. That is,
3358 the maximum value in hexadecimal is 7FFFFFFF. Note that this is bigger
3359 than the largest Unicode code point, which is 10FFFF.
3361 If characters other than hexadecimal digits appear between \x{ and },
3362 or if there is no terminating }, this form of escape is not recognized.
3363 Instead, the initial \x will be interpreted as a basic hexadecimal
3364 escape, with no following digits, giving a character whose value is
3365 zero.
3367 Characters whose value is less than 256 can be defined by either of the
3368 two syntaxes for \x. There is no difference in the way they are han-
3369 dled. For example, \xdc is exactly the same as \x{dc}.
3371 After \0 up to two further octal digits are read. If there are fewer
3372 than two digits, just those that are present are used. Thus the
3373 sequence \0\x\07 specifies two binary zeros followed by a BEL character
3374 (code value 7). Make sure you supply two digits after the initial zero
3375 if the pattern character that follows is itself an octal digit.
3377 The handling of a backslash followed by a digit other than 0 is compli-
3378 cated. Outside a character class, PCRE reads it and any following dig-
3379 its as a decimal number. If the number is less than 10, or if there
3380 have been at least that many previous capturing left parentheses in the
3381 expression, the entire sequence is taken as a back reference. A
3382 description of how this works is given later, following the discussion
3383 of parenthesized subpatterns.
3385 Inside a character class, or if the decimal number is greater than 9
3386 and there have not been that many capturing subpatterns, PCRE re-reads
3387 up to three octal digits following the backslash, and uses them to gen-
3388 erate a data character. Any subsequent digits stand for themselves. In
3389 non-UTF-8 mode, the value of a character specified in octal must be
3390 less than \400. In UTF-8 mode, values up to \777 are permitted. For
3391 example:
3393 \040 is another way of writing a space
3394 \40 is the same, provided there are fewer than 40
3395 previous capturing subpatterns
3396 \7 is always a back reference
3397 \11 might be a back reference, or another way of
3398 writing a tab
3399 \011 is always a tab
3400 \0113 is a tab followed by the character "3"
3401 \113 might be a back reference, otherwise the
3402 character with octal code 113
3403 \377 might be a back reference, otherwise
3404 the byte consisting entirely of 1 bits
3405 \81 is either a back reference, or a binary zero
3406 followed by the two characters "8" and "1"
3408 Note that octal values of 100 or greater must not be introduced by a
3409 leading zero, because no more than three octal digits are ever read.
3411 All the sequences that define a single character value can be used both
3412 inside and outside character classes. In addition, inside a character
3413 class, the sequence \b is interpreted as the backspace character (hex
3414 08). The sequences \B, \N, \R, and \X are not special inside a charac-
3415 ter class. Like any other unrecognized escape sequences, they are
3416 treated as the literal characters "B", "N", "R", and "X" by default,
3417 but cause an error if the PCRE_EXTRA option is set. Outside a character
3418 class, these sequences have different meanings.
3420 Absolute and relative back references
3422 The sequence \g followed by an unsigned or a negative number, option-
3423 ally enclosed in braces, is an absolute or relative back reference. A
3424 named back reference can be coded as \g{name}. Back references are dis-
3425 cussed later, following the discussion of parenthesized subpatterns.
3427 Absolute and relative subroutine calls
3429 For compatibility with Oniguruma, the non-Perl syntax \g followed by a
3430 name or a number enclosed either in angle brackets or single quotes, is
3431 an alternative syntax for referencing a subpattern as a "subroutine".
3432 Details are discussed later. Note that \g{...} (Perl syntax) and
3433 \g<...> (Oniguruma syntax) are not synonymous. The former is a back
3434 reference; the latter is a subroutine call.
3436 Generic character types
3438 Another use of backslash is for specifying generic character types:
3440 \d any decimal digit
3441 \D any character that is not a decimal digit
3442 \h any horizontal whitespace character
3443 \H any character that is not a horizontal whitespace character
3444 \s any whitespace character
3445 \S any character that is not a whitespace character
3446 \v any vertical whitespace character
3447 \V any character that is not a vertical whitespace character
3448 \w any "word" character
3449 \W any "non-word" character
3451 There is also the single sequence \N, which matches a non-newline char-
3452 acter. This is the same as the "." metacharacter when PCRE_DOTALL is
3453 not set.
3455 Each pair of lower and upper case escape sequences partitions the com-
3456 plete set of characters into two disjoint sets. Any given character
3457 matches one, and only one, of each pair. The sequences can appear both
3458 inside and outside character classes. They each match one character of
3459 the appropriate type. If the current matching point is at the end of
3460 the subject string, all of them fail, because there is no character to
3461 match.
3463 For compatibility with Perl, \s does not match the VT character (code
3464 11). This makes it different from the the POSIX "space" class. The \s
3465 characters are HT (9), LF (10), FF (12), CR (13), and space (32). If
3466 "use locale;" is included in a Perl script, \s may match the VT charac-
3467 ter. In PCRE, it never does.
3469 A "word" character is an underscore or any character that is a letter
3470 or digit. By default, the definition of letters and digits is con-
3471 trolled by PCRE's low-valued character tables, and may vary if locale-
3472 specific matching is taking place (see "Locale support" in the pcreapi
3473 page). For example, in a French locale such as "fr_FR" in Unix-like
3474 systems, or "french" in Windows, some character codes greater than 128
3475 are used for accented letters, and these are then matched by \w. The
3476 use of locales with Unicode is discouraged.
3478 By default, in UTF-8 mode, characters with values greater than 128
3479 never match \d, \s, or \w, and always match \D, \S, and \W. These
3480 sequences retain their original meanings from before UTF-8 support was
3481 available, mainly for efficiency reasons. However, if PCRE is compiled
3482 with Unicode property support, and the PCRE_UCP option is set, the be-
3483 haviour is changed so that Unicode properties are used to determine
3484 character types, as follows:
3486 \d any character that \p{Nd} matches (decimal digit)
3487 \s any character that \p{Z} matches, plus HT, LF, FF, CR
3488 \w any character that \p{L} or \p{N} matches, plus underscore
3490 The upper case escapes match the inverse sets of characters. Note that
3491 \d matches only decimal digits, whereas \w matches any Unicode digit,
3492 as well as any Unicode letter, and underscore. Note also that PCRE_UCP
3493 affects \b, and \B because they are defined in terms of \w and \W.
3494 Matching these sequences is noticeably slower when PCRE_UCP is set.
3496 The sequences \h, \H, \v, and \V are Perl 5.10 features. In contrast to
3497 the other sequences, which match only ASCII characters by default,
3498 these always match certain high-valued codepoints in UTF-8 mode,
3499 whether or not PCRE_UCP is set. The horizontal space characters are:
3501 U+0009 Horizontal tab
3502 U+0020 Space
3503 U+00A0 Non-break space
3504 U+1680 Ogham space mark
3505 U+180E Mongolian vowel separator
3506 U+2000 En quad
3507 U+2001 Em quad
3508 U+2002 En space
3509 U+2003 Em space
3510 U+2004 Three-per-em space
3511 U+2005 Four-per-em space
3512 U+2006 Six-per-em space
3513 U+2007 Figure space
3514 U+2008 Punctuation space
3515 U+2009 Thin space
3516 U+200A Hair space
3517 U+202F Narrow no-break space
3518 U+205F Medium mathematical space
3519 U+3000 Ideographic space
3521 The vertical space characters are:
3523 U+000A Linefeed
3524 U+000B Vertical tab
3525 U+000C Formfeed
3526 U+000D Carriage return
3527 U+0085 Next line
3528 U+2028 Line separator
3529 U+2029 Paragraph separator
3531 Newline sequences
3533 Outside a character class, by default, the escape sequence \R matches
3534 any Unicode newline sequence. This is a Perl 5.10 feature. In non-UTF-8
3535 mode \R is equivalent to the following:
3537 (?>\r\n|\n|\x0b|\f|\r|\x85)
3539 This is an example of an "atomic group", details of which are given
3540 below. This particular group matches either the two-character sequence
3541 CR followed by LF, or one of the single characters LF (linefeed,
3542 U+000A), VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), CR (carriage
3543 return, U+000D), or NEL (next line, U+0085). The two-character sequence
3544 is treated as a single unit that cannot be split.
3546 In UTF-8 mode, two additional characters whose codepoints are greater
3547 than 255 are added: LS (line separator, U+2028) and PS (paragraph sepa-
3548 rator, U+2029). Unicode character property support is not needed for
3549 these characters to be recognized.
3551 It is possible to restrict \R to match only CR, LF, or CRLF (instead of
3552 the complete set of Unicode line endings) by setting the option
3553 PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF either at compile time or when the pattern is matched.
3554 (BSR is an abbrevation for "backslash R".) This can be made the default
3555 when PCRE is built; if this is the case, the other behaviour can be
3556 requested via the PCRE_BSR_UNICODE option. It is also possible to
3557 specify these settings by starting a pattern string with one of the
3558 following sequences:
3560 (*BSR_ANYCRLF) CR, LF, or CRLF only
3561 (*BSR_UNICODE) any Unicode newline sequence
3563 These override the default and the options given to pcre_compile() or
3564 pcre_compile2(), but they can be overridden by options given to
3565 pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). Note that these special settings, which
3566 are not Perl-compatible, are recognized only at the very start of a
3567 pattern, and that they must be in upper case. If more than one of them
3568 is present, the last one is used. They can be combined with a change of
3569 newline convention; for example, a pattern can start with:
3573 They can also be combined with the (*UTF8) or (*UCP) special sequences.
3574 Inside a character class, \R is treated as an unrecognized escape
3575 sequence, and so matches the letter "R" by default, but causes an error
3576 if PCRE_EXTRA is set.
3578 Unicode character properties
3580 When PCRE is built with Unicode character property support, three addi-
3581 tional escape sequences that match characters with specific properties
3582 are available. When not in UTF-8 mode, these sequences are of course
3583 limited to testing characters whose codepoints are less than 256, but
3584 they do work in this mode. The extra escape sequences are:
3586 \p{xx} a character with the xx property
3587 \P{xx} a character without the xx property
3588 \X an extended Unicode sequence
3590 The property names represented by xx above are limited to the Unicode
3591 script names, the general category properties, "Any", which matches any
3592 character (including newline), and some special PCRE properties
3593 (described in the next section). Other Perl properties such as "InMu-
3594 sicalSymbols" are not currently supported by PCRE. Note that \P{Any}
3595 does not match any characters, so always causes a match failure.
3597 Sets of Unicode characters are defined as belonging to certain scripts.
3598 A character from one of these sets can be matched using a script name.
3599 For example:
3601 \p{Greek}
3602 \P{Han}
3604 Those that are not part of an identified script are lumped together as
3605 "Common". The current list of scripts is:
3607 Arabic, Armenian, Avestan, Balinese, Bamum, Bengali, Bopomofo, Braille,
3608 Buginese, Buhid, Canadian_Aboriginal, Carian, Cham, Cherokee, Common,
3609 Coptic, Cuneiform, Cypriot, Cyrillic, Deseret, Devanagari, Egyp-
3610 tian_Hieroglyphs, Ethiopic, Georgian, Glagolitic, Gothic, Greek,
3611 Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Han, Hangul, Hanunoo, Hebrew, Hiragana, Impe-
3612 rial_Aramaic, Inherited, Inscriptional_Pahlavi, Inscriptional_Parthian,
3613 Javanese, Kaithi, Kannada, Katakana, Kayah_Li, Kharoshthi, Khmer, Lao,
3614 Latin, Lepcha, Limbu, Linear_B, Lisu, Lycian, Lydian, Malayalam,
3615 Meetei_Mayek, Mongolian, Myanmar, New_Tai_Lue, Nko, Ogham, Old_Italic,
3616 Old_Persian, Old_South_Arabian, Old_Turkic, Ol_Chiki, Oriya, Osmanya,
3617 Phags_Pa, Phoenician, Rejang, Runic, Samaritan, Saurashtra, Shavian,
3618 Sinhala, Sundanese, Syloti_Nagri, Syriac, Tagalog, Tagbanwa, Tai_Le,
3619 Tai_Tham, Tai_Viet, Tamil, Telugu, Thaana, Thai, Tibetan, Tifinagh,
3620 Ugaritic, Vai, Yi.
3622 Each character has exactly one Unicode general category property, spec-
3623 ified by a two-letter abbreviation. For compatibility with Perl, nega-
3624 tion can be specified by including a circumflex between the opening
3625 brace and the property name. For example, \p{^Lu} is the same as
3626 \P{Lu}.
3628 If only one letter is specified with \p or \P, it includes all the gen-
3629 eral category properties that start with that letter. In this case, in
3630 the absence of negation, the curly brackets in the escape sequence are
3631 optional; these two examples have the same effect:
3633 \p{L}
3634 \pL
3636 The following general category property codes are supported:
3638 C Other
3639 Cc Control
3640 Cf Format
3641 Cn Unassigned
3642 Co Private use
3643 Cs Surrogate
3645 L Letter
3646 Ll Lower case letter
3647 Lm Modifier letter
3648 Lo Other letter
3649 Lt Title case letter
3650 Lu Upper case letter
3652 M Mark
3653 Mc Spacing mark
3654 Me Enclosing mark
3655 Mn Non-spacing mark
3657 N Number
3658 Nd Decimal number
3659 Nl Letter number
3660 No Other number
3662 P Punctuation
3663 Pc Connector punctuation
3664 Pd Dash punctuation
3665 Pe Close punctuation
3666 Pf Final punctuation
3667 Pi Initial punctuation
3668 Po Other punctuation
3669 Ps Open punctuation
3671 S Symbol
3672 Sc Currency symbol
3673 Sk Modifier symbol
3674 Sm Mathematical symbol
3675 So Other symbol
3677 Z Separator
3678 Zl Line separator
3679 Zp Paragraph separator
3680 Zs Space separator
3682 The special property L& is also supported: it matches a character that
3683 has the Lu, Ll, or Lt property, in other words, a letter that is not
3684 classified as a modifier or "other".
3686 The Cs (Surrogate) property applies only to characters in the range
3687 U+D800 to U+DFFF. Such characters are not valid in UTF-8 strings (see
3688 RFC 3629) and so cannot be tested by PCRE, unless UTF-8 validity check-
3689 ing has been turned off (see the discussion of PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK in
3690 the pcreapi page). Perl does not support the Cs property.
3692 The long synonyms for property names that Perl supports (such as
3693 \p{Letter}) are not supported by PCRE, nor is it permitted to prefix
3694 any of these properties with "Is".
3696 No character that is in the Unicode table has the Cn (unassigned) prop-
3697 erty. Instead, this property is assumed for any code point that is not
3698 in the Unicode table.
3700 Specifying caseless matching does not affect these escape sequences.
3701 For example, \p{Lu} always matches only upper case letters.
3703 The \X escape matches any number of Unicode characters that form an
3704 extended Unicode sequence. \X is equivalent to
3706 (?>\PM\pM*)
3708 That is, it matches a character without the "mark" property, followed
3709 by zero or more characters with the "mark" property, and treats the
3710 sequence as an atomic group (see below). Characters with the "mark"
3711 property are typically accents that affect the preceding character.
3712 None of them have codepoints less than 256, so in non-UTF-8 mode \X
3713 matches any one character.
3715 Matching characters by Unicode property is not fast, because PCRE has
3716 to search a structure that contains data for over fifteen thousand
3717 characters. That is why the traditional escape sequences such as \d and
3718 \w do not use Unicode properties in PCRE by default, though you can
3719 make them do so by setting the PCRE_UCP option for pcre_compile() or by
3720 starting the pattern with (*UCP).
3722 PCRE's additional properties
3724 As well as the standard Unicode properties described in the previous
3725 section, PCRE supports four more that make it possible to convert tra-
3726 ditional escape sequences such as \w and \s and POSIX character classes
3727 to use Unicode properties. PCRE uses these non-standard, non-Perl prop-
3728 erties internally when PCRE_UCP is set. They are:
3730 Xan Any alphanumeric character
3731 Xps Any POSIX space character
3732 Xsp Any Perl space character
3733 Xwd Any Perl "word" character
3735 Xan matches characters that have either the L (letter) or the N (num-
3736 ber) property. Xps matches the characters tab, linefeed, vertical tab,
3737 formfeed, or carriage return, and any other character that has the Z
3738 (separator) property. Xsp is the same as Xps, except that vertical tab
3739 is excluded. Xwd matches the same characters as Xan, plus underscore.
3741 Resetting the match start
3743 The escape sequence \K, which is a Perl 5.10 feature, causes any previ-
3744 ously matched characters not to be included in the final matched
3745 sequence. For example, the pattern:
3747 foo\Kbar
3749 matches "foobar", but reports that it has matched "bar". This feature
3750 is similar to a lookbehind assertion (described below). However, in
3751 this case, the part of the subject before the real match does not have
3752 to be of fixed length, as lookbehind assertions do. The use of \K does
3753 not interfere with the setting of captured substrings. For example,
3754 when the pattern
3756 (foo)\Kbar
3758 matches "foobar", the first substring is still set to "foo".
3760 Perl documents that the use of \K within assertions is "not well
3761 defined". In PCRE, \K is acted upon when it occurs inside positive
3762 assertions, but is ignored in negative assertions.
3764 Simple assertions
3766 The final use of backslash is for certain simple assertions. An asser-
3767 tion specifies a condition that has to be met at a particular point in
3768 a match, without consuming any characters from the subject string. The
3769 use of subpatterns for more complicated assertions is described below.
3770 The backslashed assertions are:
3772 \b matches at a word boundary
3773 \B matches when not at a word boundary
3774 \A matches at the start of the subject
3775 \Z matches at the end of the subject
3776 also matches before a newline at the end of the subject
3777 \z matches only at the end of the subject
3778 \G matches at the first matching position in the subject
3780 Inside a character class, \b has a different meaning; it matches the
3781 backspace character. If any other of these assertions appears in a
3782 character class, by default it matches the corresponding literal char-
3783 acter (for example, \B matches the letter B). However, if the
3784 PCRE_EXTRA option is set, an "invalid escape sequence" error is gener-
3785 ated instead.
3787 A word boundary is a position in the subject string where the current
3788 character and the previous character do not both match \w or \W (i.e.
3789 one matches \w and the other matches \W), or the start or end of the
3790 string if the first or last character matches \w, respectively. In
3791 UTF-8 mode, the meanings of \w and \W can be changed by setting the
3792 PCRE_UCP option. When this is done, it also affects \b and \B. Neither
3793 PCRE nor Perl has a separate "start of word" or "end of word" metase-
3794 quence. However, whatever follows \b normally determines which it is.
3795 For example, the fragment \ba matches "a" at the start of a word.
3797 The \A, \Z, and \z assertions differ from the traditional circumflex
3798 and dollar (described in the next section) in that they only ever match
3799 at the very start and end of the subject string, whatever options are
3800 set. Thus, they are independent of multiline mode. These three asser-
3801 tions are not affected by the PCRE_NOTBOL or PCRE_NOTEOL options, which
3802 affect only the behaviour of the circumflex and dollar metacharacters.
3803 However, if the startoffset argument of pcre_exec() is non-zero, indi-
3804 cating that matching is to start at a point other than the beginning of
3805 the subject, \A can never match. The difference between \Z and \z is
3806 that \Z matches before a newline at the end of the string as well as at
3807 the very end, whereas \z matches only at the end.
3809 The \G assertion is true only when the current matching position is at
3810 the start point of the match, as specified by the startoffset argument
3811 of pcre_exec(). It differs from \A when the value of startoffset is
3812 non-zero. By calling pcre_exec() multiple times with appropriate argu-
3813 ments, you can mimic Perl's /g option, and it is in this kind of imple-
3814 mentation where \G can be useful.
3816 Note, however, that PCRE's interpretation of \G, as the start of the
3817 current match, is subtly different from Perl's, which defines it as the
3818 end of the previous match. In Perl, these can be different when the
3819 previously matched string was empty. Because PCRE does just one match
3820 at a time, it cannot reproduce this behaviour.
3822 If all the alternatives of a pattern begin with \G, the expression is
3823 anchored to the starting match position, and the "anchored" flag is set
3824 in the compiled regular expression.
3829 Outside a character class, in the default matching mode, the circumflex
3830 character is an assertion that is true only if the current matching
3831 point is at the start of the subject string. If the startoffset argu-
3832 ment of pcre_exec() is non-zero, circumflex can never match if the
3833 PCRE_MULTILINE option is unset. Inside a character class, circumflex
3834 has an entirely different meaning (see below).
3836 Circumflex need not be the first character of the pattern if a number
3837 of alternatives are involved, but it should be the first thing in each
3838 alternative in which it appears if the pattern is ever to match that
3839 branch. If all possible alternatives start with a circumflex, that is,
3840 if the pattern is constrained to match only at the start of the sub-
3841 ject, it is said to be an "anchored" pattern. (There are also other
3842 constructs that can cause a pattern to be anchored.)
3844 A dollar character is an assertion that is true only if the current
3845 matching point is at the end of the subject string, or immediately
3846 before a newline at the end of the string (by default). Dollar need not
3847 be the last character of the pattern if a number of alternatives are
3848 involved, but it should be the last item in any branch in which it
3849 appears. Dollar has no special meaning in a character class.
3851 The meaning of dollar can be changed so that it matches only at the
3852 very end of the string, by setting the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option at
3853 compile time. This does not affect the \Z assertion.
3855 The meanings of the circumflex and dollar characters are changed if the
3856 PCRE_MULTILINE option is set. When this is the case, a circumflex
3857 matches immediately after internal newlines as well as at the start of
3858 the subject string. It does not match after a newline that ends the
3859 string. A dollar matches before any newlines in the string, as well as
3860 at the very end, when PCRE_MULTILINE is set. When newline is specified
3861 as the two-character sequence CRLF, isolated CR and LF characters do
3862 not indicate newlines.
3864 For example, the pattern /^abc$/ matches the subject string "def\nabc"
3865 (where \n represents a newline) in multiline mode, but not otherwise.
3866 Consequently, patterns that are anchored in single line mode because
3867 all branches start with ^ are not anchored in multiline mode, and a
3868 match for circumflex is possible when the startoffset argument of
3869 pcre_exec() is non-zero. The PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option is ignored if
3870 PCRE_MULTILINE is set.
3872 Note that the sequences \A, \Z, and \z can be used to match the start
3873 and end of the subject in both modes, and if all branches of a pattern
3874 start with \A it is always anchored, whether or not PCRE_MULTILINE is
3875 set.
3880 Outside a character class, a dot in the pattern matches any one charac-
3881 ter in the subject string except (by default) a character that signi-
3882 fies the end of a line. In UTF-8 mode, the matched character may be
3883 more than one byte long.
3885 When a line ending is defined as a single character, dot never matches
3886 that character; when the two-character sequence CRLF is used, dot does
3887 not match CR if it is immediately followed by LF, but otherwise it
3888 matches all characters (including isolated CRs and LFs). When any Uni-
3889 code line endings are being recognized, dot does not match CR or LF or
3890 any of the other line ending characters.
3892 The behaviour of dot with regard to newlines can be changed. If the
3893 PCRE_DOTALL option is set, a dot matches any one character, without
3894 exception. If the two-character sequence CRLF is present in the subject
3895 string, it takes two dots to match it.
3897 The handling of dot is entirely independent of the handling of circum-
3898 flex and dollar, the only relationship being that they both involve
3899 newlines. Dot has no special meaning in a character class.
3901 The escape sequence \N always behaves as a dot does when PCRE_DOTALL is
3902 not set. In other words, it matches any one character except one that
3903 signifies the end of a line.
3908 Outside a character class, the escape sequence \C matches any one byte,
3909 both in and out of UTF-8 mode. Unlike a dot, it always matches any
3910 line-ending characters. The feature is provided in Perl in order to
3911 match individual bytes in UTF-8 mode. Because it breaks up UTF-8 char-
3912 acters into individual bytes, what remains in the string may be a mal-
3913 formed UTF-8 string. For this reason, the \C escape sequence is best
3914 avoided.
3916 PCRE does not allow \C to appear in lookbehind assertions (described
3917 below), because in UTF-8 mode this would make it impossible to calcu-
3918 late the length of the lookbehind.
3923 An opening square bracket introduces a character class, terminated by a
3924 closing square bracket. A closing square bracket on its own is not spe-
3925 cial by default. However, if the PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT option is set,
3926 a lone closing square bracket causes a compile-time error. If a closing
3927 square bracket is required as a member of the class, it should be the
3928 first data character in the class (after an initial circumflex, if
3929 present) or escaped with a backslash.
3931 A character class matches a single character in the subject. In UTF-8
3932 mode, the character may be more than one byte long. A matched character
3933 must be in the set of characters defined by the class, unless the first
3934 character in the class definition is a circumflex, in which case the
3935 subject character must not be in the set defined by the class. If a
3936 circumflex is actually required as a member of the class, ensure it is
3937 not the first character, or escape it with a backslash.
3939 For example, the character class [aeiou] matches any lower case vowel,
3940 while [^aeiou] matches any character that is not a lower case vowel.
3941 Note that a circumflex is just a convenient notation for specifying the
3942 characters that are in the class by enumerating those that are not. A
3943 class that starts with a circumflex is not an assertion; it still con-
3944 sumes a character from the subject string, and therefore it fails if
3945 the current pointer is at the end of the string.
3947 In UTF-8 mode, characters with values greater than 255 can be included
3948 in a class as a literal string of bytes, or by using the \x{ escaping
3949 mechanism.
3951 When caseless matching is set, any letters in a class represent both
3952 their upper case and lower case versions, so for example, a caseless
3953 [aeiou] matches "A" as well as "a", and a caseless [^aeiou] does not
3954 match "A", whereas a caseful version would. In UTF-8 mode, PCRE always
3955 understands the concept of case for characters whose values are less
3956 than 128, so caseless matching is always possible. For characters with
3957 higher values, the concept of case is supported if PCRE is compiled
3958 with Unicode property support, but not otherwise. If you want to use
3959 caseless matching in UTF8-mode for characters 128 and above, you must
3960 ensure that PCRE is compiled with Unicode property support as well as
3961 with UTF-8 support.
3963 Characters that might indicate line breaks are never treated in any
3964 special way when matching character classes, whatever line-ending
3965 sequence is in use, and whatever setting of the PCRE_DOTALL and
3966 PCRE_MULTILINE options is used. A class such as [^a] always matches one
3967 of these characters.
3969 The minus (hyphen) character can be used to specify a range of charac-
3970 ters in a character class. For example, [d-m] matches any letter
3971 between d and m, inclusive. If a minus character is required in a
3972 class, it must be escaped with a backslash or appear in a position
3973 where it cannot be interpreted as indicating a range, typically as the
3974 first or last character in the class.
3976 It is not possible to have the literal character "]" as the end charac-
3977 ter of a range. A pattern such as [W-]46] is interpreted as a class of
3978 two characters ("W" and "-") followed by a literal string "46]", so it
3979 would match "W46]" or "-46]". However, if the "]" is escaped with a
3980 backslash it is interpreted as the end of range, so [W-\]46] is inter-
3981 preted as a class containing a range followed by two other characters.
3982 The octal or hexadecimal representation of "]" can also be used to end
3983 a range.
3985 Ranges operate in the collating sequence of character values. They can
3986 also be used for characters specified numerically, for example
3987 [\000-\037]. In UTF-8 mode, ranges can include characters whose values
3988 are greater than 255, for example [\x{100}-\x{2ff}].
3990 If a range that includes letters is used when caseless matching is set,
3991 it matches the letters in either case. For example, [W-c] is equivalent
3992 to [][\\^_`wxyzabc], matched caselessly, and in non-UTF-8 mode, if
3993 character tables for a French locale are in use, [\xc8-\xcb] matches
3994 accented E characters in both cases. In UTF-8 mode, PCRE supports the
3995 concept of case for characters with values greater than 128 only when
3996 it is compiled with Unicode property support.
3998 The character types \d, \D, \h, \H, \p, \P, \s, \S, \v, \V, \w, and \W
3999 may also appear in a character class, and add the characters that they
4000 match to the class. For example, [\dABCDEF] matches any hexadecimal
4001 digit. A circumflex can conveniently be used with the upper case char-
4002 acter types to specify a more restricted set of characters than the
4003 matching lower case type. For example, the class [^\W_] matches any
4004 letter or digit, but not underscore.
4006 The only metacharacters that are recognized in character classes are
4007 backslash, hyphen (only where it can be interpreted as specifying a
4008 range), circumflex (only at the start), opening square bracket (only
4009 when it can be interpreted as introducing a POSIX class name - see the
4010 next section), and the terminating closing square bracket. However,
4011 escaping other non-alphanumeric characters does no harm.
4016 Perl supports the POSIX notation for character classes. This uses names
4017 enclosed by [: and :] within the enclosing square brackets. PCRE also
4018 supports this notation. For example,
4020 [01[:alpha:]%]
4022 matches "0", "1", any alphabetic character, or "%". The supported class
4023 names are:
4025 alnum letters and digits
4026 alpha letters
4027 ascii character codes 0 - 127
4028 blank space or tab only
4029 cntrl control characters
4030 digit decimal digits (same as \d)
4031 graph printing characters, excluding space
4032 lower lower case letters
4033 print printing characters, including space
4034 punct printing characters, excluding letters and digits and space
4035 space white space (not quite the same as \s)
4036 upper upper case letters
4037 word "word" characters (same as \w)
4038 xdigit hexadecimal digits
4040 The "space" characters are HT (9), LF (10), VT (11), FF (12), CR (13),
4041 and space (32). Notice that this list includes the VT character (code
4042 11). This makes "space" different to \s, which does not include VT (for
4043 Perl compatibility).
4045 The name "word" is a Perl extension, and "blank" is a GNU extension
4046 from Perl 5.8. Another Perl extension is negation, which is indicated
4047 by a ^ character after the colon. For example,
4049 [12[:^digit:]]
4051 matches "1", "2", or any non-digit. PCRE (and Perl) also recognize the
4052 POSIX syntax [.ch.] and [=ch=] where "ch" is a "collating element", but
4053 these are not supported, and an error is given if they are encountered.
4055 By default, in UTF-8 mode, characters with values greater than 128 do
4056 not match any of the POSIX character classes. However, if the PCRE_UCP
4057 option is passed to pcre_compile(), some of the classes are changed so
4058 that Unicode character properties are used. This is achieved by replac-
4059 ing the POSIX classes by other sequences, as follows:
4061 [:alnum:] becomes \p{Xan}
4062 [:alpha:] becomes \p{L}
4063 [:blank:] becomes \h
4064 [:digit:] becomes \p{Nd}
4065 [:lower:] becomes \p{Ll}
4066 [:space:] becomes \p{Xps}
4067 [:upper:] becomes \p{Lu}
4068 [:word:] becomes \p{Xwd}
4070 Negated versions, such as [:^alpha:] use \P instead of \p. The other
4071 POSIX classes are unchanged, and match only characters with code points
4072 less than 128.
4077 Vertical bar characters are used to separate alternative patterns. For
4078 example, the pattern
4080 gilbert|sullivan
4082 matches either "gilbert" or "sullivan". Any number of alternatives may
4083 appear, and an empty alternative is permitted (matching the empty
4084 string). The matching process tries each alternative in turn, from left
4085 to right, and the first one that succeeds is used. If the alternatives
4086 are within a subpattern (defined below), "succeeds" means matching the
4087 rest of the main pattern as well as the alternative in the subpattern.
4092 The settings of the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, and
4093 PCRE_EXTENDED options (which are Perl-compatible) can be changed from
4094 within the pattern by a sequence of Perl option letters enclosed
4095 between "(?" and ")". The option letters are
4097 i for PCRE_CASELESS
4099 s for PCRE_DOTALL
4100 x for PCRE_EXTENDED
4102 For example, (?im) sets caseless, multiline matching. It is also possi-
4103 ble to unset these options by preceding the letter with a hyphen, and a
4104 combined setting and unsetting such as (?im-sx), which sets PCRE_CASE-
4106 is also permitted. If a letter appears both before and after the
4107 hyphen, the option is unset.
4110 can be changed in the same way as the Perl-compatible options by using
4111 the characters J, U and X respectively.
4113 When one of these option changes occurs at top level (that is, not
4114 inside subpattern parentheses), the change applies to the remainder of
4115 the pattern that follows. If the change is placed right at the start of
4116 a pattern, PCRE extracts it into the global options (and it will there-
4117 fore show up in data extracted by the pcre_fullinfo() function).
4119 An option change within a subpattern (see below for a description of
4120 subpatterns) affects only that part of the current pattern that follows
4121 it, so
4123 (a(?i)b)c
4125 matches abc and aBc and no other strings (assuming PCRE_CASELESS is not
4126 used). By this means, options can be made to have different settings
4127 in different parts of the pattern. Any changes made in one alternative
4128 do carry on into subsequent branches within the same subpattern. For
4129 example,
4131 (a(?i)b|c)
4133 matches "ab", "aB", "c", and "C", even though when matching "C" the
4134 first branch is abandoned before the option setting. This is because
4135 the effects of option settings happen at compile time. There would be
4136 some very weird behaviour otherwise.
4138 Note: There are other PCRE-specific options that can be set by the
4139 application when the compile or match functions are called. In some
4140 cases the pattern can contain special leading sequences such as (*CRLF)
4141 to override what the application has set or what has been defaulted.
4142 Details are given in the section entitled "Newline sequences" above.
4143 There are also the (*UTF8) and (*UCP) leading sequences that can be
4144 used to set UTF-8 and Unicode property modes; they are equivalent to
4145 setting the PCRE_UTF8 and the PCRE_UCP options, respectively.
4150 Subpatterns are delimited by parentheses (round brackets), which can be
4151 nested. Turning part of a pattern into a subpattern does two things:
4153 1. It localizes a set of alternatives. For example, the pattern
4155 cat(aract|erpillar|)
4157 matches one of the words "cat", "cataract", or "caterpillar". Without
4158 the parentheses, it would match "cataract", "erpillar" or an empty
4159 string.
4161 2. It sets up the subpattern as a capturing subpattern. This means
4162 that, when the whole pattern matches, that portion of the subject
4163 string that matched the subpattern is passed back to the caller via the
4164 ovector argument of pcre_exec(). Opening parentheses are counted from
4165 left to right (starting from 1) to obtain numbers for the capturing
4166 subpatterns.
4168 For example, if the string "the red king" is matched against the pat-
4169 tern
4171 the ((red|white) (king|queen))
4173 the captured substrings are "red king", "red", and "king", and are num-
4174 bered 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
4176 The fact that plain parentheses fulfil two functions is not always
4177 helpful. There are often times when a grouping subpattern is required
4178 without a capturing requirement. If an opening parenthesis is followed
4179 by a question mark and a colon, the subpattern does not do any captur-
4180 ing, and is not counted when computing the number of any subsequent
4181 capturing subpatterns. For example, if the string "the white queen" is
4182 matched against the pattern
4184 the ((?:red|white) (king|queen))
4186 the captured substrings are "white queen" and "queen", and are numbered
4187 1 and 2. The maximum number of capturing subpatterns is 65535.
4189 As a convenient shorthand, if any option settings are required at the
4190 start of a non-capturing subpattern, the option letters may appear
4191 between the "?" and the ":". Thus the two patterns
4193 (?i:saturday|sunday)
4194 (?:(?i)saturday|sunday)
4196 match exactly the same set of strings. Because alternative branches are
4197 tried from left to right, and options are not reset until the end of
4198 the subpattern is reached, an option setting in one branch does affect
4199 subsequent branches, so the above patterns match "SUNDAY" as well as
4200 "Saturday".
4205 Perl 5.10 introduced a feature whereby each alternative in a subpattern
4206 uses the same numbers for its capturing parentheses. Such a subpattern
4207 starts with (?| and is itself a non-capturing subpattern. For example,
4208 consider this pattern:
4210 (?|(Sat)ur|(Sun))day
4212 Because the two alternatives are inside a (?| group, both sets of cap-
4213 turing parentheses are numbered one. Thus, when the pattern matches,
4214 you can look at captured substring number one, whichever alternative
4215 matched. This construct is useful when you want to capture part, but
4216 not all, of one of a number of alternatives. Inside a (?| group, paren-
4217 theses are numbered as usual, but the number is reset at the start of
4218 each branch. The numbers of any capturing buffers that follow the sub-
4219 pattern start after the highest number used in any branch. The follow-
4220 ing example is taken from the Perl documentation. The numbers under-
4221 neath show in which buffer the captured content will be stored.
4223 # before ---------------branch-reset----------- after
4224 / ( a ) (?| x ( y ) z | (p (q) r) | (t) u (v) ) ( z ) /x
4225 # 1 2 2 3 2 3 4
4227 A back reference to a numbered subpattern uses the most recent value
4228 that is set for that number by any subpattern. The following pattern
4229 matches "abcabc" or "defdef":
4231 /(?|(abc)|(def))\1/
4233 In contrast, a recursive or "subroutine" call to a numbered subpattern
4234 always refers to the first one in the pattern with the given number.
4235 The following pattern matches "abcabc" or "defabc":
4237 /(?|(abc)|(def))(?1)/
4239 If a condition test for a subpattern's having matched refers to a non-
4240 unique number, the test is true if any of the subpatterns of that num-
4241 ber have matched.
4243 An alternative approach to using this "branch reset" feature is to use
4244 duplicate named subpatterns, as described in the next section.
4249 Identifying capturing parentheses by number is simple, but it can be
4250 very hard to keep track of the numbers in complicated regular expres-
4251 sions. Furthermore, if an expression is modified, the numbers may
4252 change. To help with this difficulty, PCRE supports the naming of sub-
4253 patterns. This feature was not added to Perl until release 5.10. Python
4254 had the feature earlier, and PCRE introduced it at release 4.0, using
4255 the Python syntax. PCRE now supports both the Perl and the Python syn-
4256 tax. Perl allows identically numbered subpatterns to have different
4257 names, but PCRE does not.
4259 In PCRE, a subpattern can be named in one of three ways: (?<name>...)
4260 or (?'name'...) as in Perl, or (?P<name>...) as in Python. References
4261 to capturing parentheses from other parts of the pattern, such as back
4262 references, recursion, and conditions, can be made by name as well as
4263 by number.
4265 Names consist of up to 32 alphanumeric characters and underscores.
4266 Named capturing parentheses are still allocated numbers as well as
4267 names, exactly as if the names were not present. The PCRE API provides
4268 function calls for extracting the name-to-number translation table from
4269 a compiled pattern. There is also a convenience function for extracting
4270 a captured substring by name.
4272 By default, a name must be unique within a pattern, but it is possible
4273 to relax this constraint by setting the PCRE_DUPNAMES option at compile
4274 time. (Duplicate names are also always permitted for subpatterns with
4275 the same number, set up as described in the previous section.) Dupli-
4276 cate names can be useful for patterns where only one instance of the
4277 named parentheses can match. Suppose you want to match the name of a
4278 weekday, either as a 3-letter abbreviation or as the full name, and in
4279 both cases you want to extract the abbreviation. This pattern (ignoring
4280 the line breaks) does the job:
4282 (?<DN>Mon|Fri|Sun)(?:day)?|
4283 (?<DN>Tue)(?:sday)?|
4284 (?<DN>Wed)(?:nesday)?|
4285 (?<DN>Thu)(?:rsday)?|
4286 (?<DN>Sat)(?:urday)?
4288 There are five capturing substrings, but only one is ever set after a
4289 match. (An alternative way of solving this problem is to use a "branch
4290 reset" subpattern, as described in the previous section.)
4292 The convenience function for extracting the data by name returns the
4293 substring for the first (and in this example, the only) subpattern of
4294 that name that matched. This saves searching to find which numbered
4295 subpattern it was.
4297 If you make a back reference to a non-unique named subpattern from
4298 elsewhere in the pattern, the one that corresponds to the first occur-
4299 rence of the name is used. In the absence of duplicate numbers (see the
4300 previous section) this is the one with the lowest number. If you use a
4301 named reference in a condition test (see the section about conditions
4302 below), either to check whether a subpattern has matched, or to check
4303 for recursion, all subpatterns with the same name are tested. If the
4304 condition is true for any one of them, the overall condition is true.
4305 This is the same behaviour as testing by number. For further details of
4306 the interfaces for handling named subpatterns, see the pcreapi documen-
4307 tation.
4309 Warning: You cannot use different names to distinguish between two sub-
4310 patterns with the same number because PCRE uses only the numbers when
4311 matching. For this reason, an error is given at compile time if differ-
4312 ent names are given to subpatterns with the same number. However, you
4313 can give the same name to subpatterns with the same number, even when
4314 PCRE_DUPNAMES is not set.
4319 Repetition is specified by quantifiers, which can follow any of the
4320 following items:
4322 a literal data character
4323 the dot metacharacter
4324 the \C escape sequence
4325 the \X escape sequence (in UTF-8 mode with Unicode properties)
4326 the \R escape sequence
4327 an escape such as \d that matches a single character
4328 a character class
4329 a back reference (see next section)
4330 a parenthesized subpattern (unless it is an assertion)
4331 a recursive or "subroutine" call to a subpattern
4333 The general repetition quantifier specifies a minimum and maximum num-
4334 ber of permitted matches, by giving the two numbers in curly brackets
4335 (braces), separated by a comma. The numbers must be less than 65536,
4336 and the first must be less than or equal to the second. For example:
4338 z{2,4}
4340 matches "zz", "zzz", or "zzzz". A closing brace on its own is not a
4341 special character. If the second number is omitted, but the comma is
4342 present, there is no upper limit; if the second number and the comma
4343 are both omitted, the quantifier specifies an exact number of required
4344 matches. Thus
4346 [aeiou]{3,}
4348 matches at least 3 successive vowels, but may match many more, while
4350 \d{8}
4352 matches exactly 8 digits. An opening curly bracket that appears in a
4353 position where a quantifier is not allowed, or one that does not match
4354 the syntax of a quantifier, is taken as a literal character. For exam-
4355 ple, {,6} is not a quantifier, but a literal string of four characters.
4357 In UTF-8 mode, quantifiers apply to UTF-8 characters rather than to
4358 individual bytes. Thus, for example, \x{100}{2} matches two UTF-8 char-
4359 acters, each of which is represented by a two-byte sequence. Similarly,
4360 when Unicode property support is available, \X{3} matches three Unicode
4361 extended sequences, each of which may be several bytes long (and they
4362 may be of different lengths).
4364 The quantifier {0} is permitted, causing the expression to behave as if
4365 the previous item and the quantifier were not present. This may be use-
4366 ful for subpatterns that are referenced as subroutines from elsewhere
4367 in the pattern. Items other than subpatterns that have a {0} quantifier
4368 are omitted from the compiled pattern.
4370 For convenience, the three most common quantifiers have single-charac-
4371 ter abbreviations:
4373 * is equivalent to {0,}
4374 + is equivalent to {1,}
4375 ? is equivalent to {0,1}
4377 It is possible to construct infinite loops by following a subpattern
4378 that can match no characters with a quantifier that has no upper limit,
4379 for example:
4381 (a?)*
4383 Earlier versions of Perl and PCRE used to give an error at compile time
4384 for such patterns. However, because there are cases where this can be
4385 useful, such patterns are now accepted, but if any repetition of the
4386 subpattern does in fact match no characters, the loop is forcibly bro-
4387 ken.
4389 By default, the quantifiers are "greedy", that is, they match as much
4390 as possible (up to the maximum number of permitted times), without
4391 causing the rest of the pattern to fail. The classic example of where
4392 this gives problems is in trying to match comments in C programs. These
4393 appear between /* and */ and within the comment, individual * and /
4394 characters may appear. An attempt to match C comments by applying the
4395 pattern
4397 /\*.*\*/
4399 to the string
4401 /* first comment */ not comment /* second comment */
4403 fails, because it matches the entire string owing to the greediness of
4404 the .* item.
4406 However, if a quantifier is followed by a question mark, it ceases to
4407 be greedy, and instead matches the minimum number of times possible, so
4408 the pattern
4410 /\*.*?\*/
4412 does the right thing with the C comments. The meaning of the various
4413 quantifiers is not otherwise changed, just the preferred number of
4414 matches. Do not confuse this use of question mark with its use as a
4415 quantifier in its own right. Because it has two uses, it can sometimes
4416 appear doubled, as in
4418 \d??\d
4420 which matches one digit by preference, but can match two if that is the
4421 only way the rest of the pattern matches.
4423 If the PCRE_UNGREEDY option is set (an option that is not available in
4424 Perl), the quantifiers are not greedy by default, but individual ones
4425 can be made greedy by following them with a question mark. In other
4426 words, it inverts the default behaviour.
4428 When a parenthesized subpattern is quantified with a minimum repeat
4429 count that is greater than 1 or with a limited maximum, more memory is
4430 required for the compiled pattern, in proportion to the size of the
4431 minimum or maximum.
4433 If a pattern starts with .* or .{0,} and the PCRE_DOTALL option (equiv-
4434 alent to Perl's /s) is set, thus allowing the dot to match newlines,
4435 the pattern is implicitly anchored, because whatever follows will be
4436 tried against every character position in the subject string, so there
4437 is no point in retrying the overall match at any position after the
4438 first. PCRE normally treats such a pattern as though it were preceded
4439 by \A.
4441 In cases where it is known that the subject string contains no new-
4442 lines, it is worth setting PCRE_DOTALL in order to obtain this opti-
4443 mization, or alternatively using ^ to indicate anchoring explicitly.
4445 However, there is one situation where the optimization cannot be used.
4446 When .* is inside capturing parentheses that are the subject of a back
4447 reference elsewhere in the pattern, a match at the start may fail where
4448 a later one succeeds. Consider, for example:
4450 (.*)abc\1
4452 If the subject is "xyz123abc123" the match point is the fourth charac-
4453 ter. For this reason, such a pattern is not implicitly anchored.
4455 When a capturing subpattern is repeated, the value captured is the sub-
4456 string that matched the final iteration. For example, after
4458 (tweedle[dume]{3}\s*)+
4460 has matched "tweedledum tweedledee" the value of the captured substring
4461 is "tweedledee". However, if there are nested capturing subpatterns,
4462 the corresponding captured values may have been set in previous itera-
4463 tions. For example, after
4465 /(a|(b))+/
4467 matches "aba" the value of the second captured substring is "b".
4472 With both maximizing ("greedy") and minimizing ("ungreedy" or "lazy")
4473 repetition, failure of what follows normally causes the repeated item
4474 to be re-evaluated to see if a different number of repeats allows the
4475 rest of the pattern to match. Sometimes it is useful to prevent this,
4476 either to change the nature of the match, or to cause it fail earlier
4477 than it otherwise might, when the author of the pattern knows there is
4478 no point in carrying on.
4480 Consider, for example, the pattern \d+foo when applied to the subject
4481 line
4483 123456bar
4485 After matching all 6 digits and then failing to match "foo", the normal
4486 action of the matcher is to try again with only 5 digits matching the
4487 \d+ item, and then with 4, and so on, before ultimately failing.
4488 "Atomic grouping" (a term taken from Jeffrey Friedl's book) provides
4489 the means for specifying that once a subpattern has matched, it is not
4490 to be re-evaluated in this way.
4492 If we use atomic grouping for the previous example, the matcher gives
4493 up immediately on failing to match "foo" the first time. The notation
4494 is a kind of special parenthesis, starting with (?> as in this example:
4496 (?>\d+)foo
4498 This kind of parenthesis "locks up" the part of the pattern it con-
4499 tains once it has matched, and a failure further into the pattern is
4500 prevented from backtracking into it. Backtracking past it to previous
4501 items, however, works as normal.
4503 An alternative description is that a subpattern of this type matches
4504 the string of characters that an identical standalone pattern would
4505 match, if anchored at the current point in the subject string.
4507 Atomic grouping subpatterns are not capturing subpatterns. Simple cases
4508 such as the above example can be thought of as a maximizing repeat that
4509 must swallow everything it can. So, while both \d+ and \d+? are pre-
4510 pared to adjust the number of digits they match in order to make the
4511 rest of the pattern match, (?>\d+) can only match an entire sequence of
4512 digits.
4514 Atomic groups in general can of course contain arbitrarily complicated
4515 subpatterns, and can be nested. However, when the subpattern for an
4516 atomic group is just a single repeated item, as in the example above, a
4517 simpler notation, called a "possessive quantifier" can be used. This
4518 consists of an additional + character following a quantifier. Using
4519 this notation, the previous example can be rewritten as
4521 \d++foo
4523 Note that a possessive quantifier can be used with an entire group, for
4524 example:
4526 (abc|xyz){2,3}+
4528 Possessive quantifiers are always greedy; the setting of the
4529 PCRE_UNGREEDY option is ignored. They are a convenient notation for the
4530 simpler forms of atomic group. However, there is no difference in the
4531 meaning of a possessive quantifier and the equivalent atomic group,
4532 though there may be a performance difference; possessive quantifiers
4533 should be slightly faster.
4535 The possessive quantifier syntax is an extension to the Perl 5.8 syn-
4536 tax. Jeffrey Friedl originated the idea (and the name) in the first
4537 edition of his book. Mike McCloskey liked it, so implemented it when he
4538 built Sun's Java package, and PCRE copied it from there. It ultimately
4539 found its way into Perl at release 5.10.
4541 PCRE has an optimization that automatically "possessifies" certain sim-
4542 ple pattern constructs. For example, the sequence A+B is treated as
4543 A++B because there is no point in backtracking into a sequence of A's
4544 when B must follow.
4546 When a pattern contains an unlimited repeat inside a subpattern that
4547 can itself be repeated an unlimited number of times, the use of an
4548 atomic group is the only way to avoid some failing matches taking a
4549 very long time indeed. The pattern
4551 (\D+|<\d+>)*[!?]
4553 matches an unlimited number of substrings that either consist of non-
4554 digits, or digits enclosed in <>, followed by either ! or ?. When it
4555 matches, it runs quickly. However, if it is applied to
4557 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
4559 it takes a long time before reporting failure. This is because the
4560 string can be divided between the internal \D+ repeat and the external
4561 * repeat in a large number of ways, and all have to be tried. (The
4562 example uses [!?] rather than a single character at the end, because
4563 both PCRE and Perl have an optimization that allows for fast failure
4564 when a single character is used. They remember the last single charac-
4565 ter that is required for a match, and fail early if it is not present
4566 in the string.) If the pattern is changed so that it uses an atomic
4567 group, like this:
4569 ((?>\D+)|<\d+>)*[!?]
4571 sequences of non-digits cannot be broken, and failure happens quickly.
4576 Outside a character class, a backslash followed by a digit greater than
4577 0 (and possibly further digits) is a back reference to a capturing sub-
4578 pattern earlier (that is, to its left) in the pattern, provided there
4579 have been that many previous capturing left parentheses.
4581 However, if the decimal number following the backslash is less than 10,
4582 it is always taken as a back reference, and causes an error only if
4583 there are not that many capturing left parentheses in the entire pat-
4584 tern. In other words, the parentheses that are referenced need not be
4585 to the left of the reference for numbers less than 10. A "forward back
4586 reference" of this type can make sense when a repetition is involved
4587 and the subpattern to the right has participated in an earlier itera-
4588 tion.
4590 It is not possible to have a numerical "forward back reference" to a
4591 subpattern whose number is 10 or more using this syntax because a
4592 sequence such as \50 is interpreted as a character defined in octal.
4593 See the subsection entitled "Non-printing characters" above for further
4594 details of the handling of digits following a backslash. There is no
4595 such problem when named parentheses are used. A back reference to any
4596 subpattern is possible using named parentheses (see below).
4598 Another way of avoiding the ambiguity inherent in the use of digits
4599 following a backslash is to use the \g escape sequence, which is a fea-
4600 ture introduced in Perl 5.10. This escape must be followed by an
4601 unsigned number or a negative number, optionally enclosed in braces.
4602 These examples are all identical:
4604 (ring), \1
4605 (ring), \g1
4606 (ring), \g{1}
4608 An unsigned number specifies an absolute reference without the ambigu-
4609 ity that is present in the older syntax. It is also useful when literal
4610 digits follow the reference. A negative number is a relative reference.
4611 Consider this example:
4613 (abc(def)ghi)\g{-1}
4615 The sequence \g{-1} is a reference to the most recently started captur-
4616 ing subpattern before \g, that is, is it equivalent to \2. Similarly,
4617 \g{-2} would be equivalent to \1. The use of relative references can be
4618 helpful in long patterns, and also in patterns that are created by
4619 joining together fragments that contain references within themselves.
4621 A back reference matches whatever actually matched the capturing sub-
4622 pattern in the current subject string, rather than anything matching
4623 the subpattern itself (see "Subpatterns as subroutines" below for a way
4624 of doing that). So the pattern
4626 (sens|respons)e and \1ibility
4628 matches "sense and sensibility" and "response and responsibility", but
4629 not "sense and responsibility". If caseful matching is in force at the
4630 time of the back reference, the case of letters is relevant. For exam-
4631 ple,
4633 ((?i)rah)\s+\1
4635 matches "rah rah" and "RAH RAH", but not "RAH rah", even though the
4636 original capturing subpattern is matched caselessly.
4638 There are several different ways of writing back references to named
4639 subpatterns. The .NET syntax \k{name} and the Perl syntax \k<name> or
4640 \k'name' are supported, as is the Python syntax (?P=name). Perl 5.10's
4641 unified back reference syntax, in which \g can be used for both numeric
4642 and named references, is also supported. We could rewrite the above
4643 example in any of the following ways:
4645 (?<p1>(?i)rah)\s+\k<p1>
4646 (?'p1'(?i)rah)\s+\k{p1}
4647 (?P<p1>(?i)rah)\s+(?P=p1)
4648 (?<p1>(?i)rah)\s+\g{p1}
4650 A subpattern that is referenced by name may appear in the pattern
4651 before or after the reference.
4653 There may be more than one back reference to the same subpattern. If a
4654 subpattern has not actually been used in a particular match, any back
4655 references to it always fail by default. For example, the pattern
4657 (a|(bc))\2
4659 always fails if it starts to match "a" rather than "bc". However, if
4660 the PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT option is set at compile time, a back refer-
4661 ence to an unset value matches an empty string.
4663 Because there may be many capturing parentheses in a pattern, all dig-
4664 its following a backslash are taken as part of a potential back refer-
4665 ence number. If the pattern continues with a digit character, some
4666 delimiter must be used to terminate the back reference. If the
4667 PCRE_EXTENDED option is set, this can be whitespace. Otherwise, the \g{
4668 syntax or an empty comment (see "Comments" below) can be used.
4670 Recursive back references
4672 A back reference that occurs inside the parentheses to which it refers
4673 fails when the subpattern is first used, so, for example, (a\1) never
4674 matches. However, such references can be useful inside repeated sub-
4675 patterns. For example, the pattern
4677 (a|b\1)+
4679 matches any number of "a"s and also "aba", "ababbaa" etc. At each iter-
4680 ation of the subpattern, the back reference matches the character
4681 string corresponding to the previous iteration. In order for this to
4682 work, the pattern must be such that the first iteration does not need
4683 to match the back reference. This can be done using alternation, as in
4684 the example above, or by a quantifier with a minimum of zero.
4686 Back references of this type cause the group that they reference to be
4687 treated as an atomic group. Once the whole group has been matched, a
4688 subsequent matching failure cannot cause backtracking into the middle
4689 of the group.
4694 An assertion is a test on the characters following or preceding the
4695 current matching point that does not actually consume any characters.
4696 The simple assertions coded as \b, \B, \A, \G, \Z, \z, ^ and $ are
4697 described above.
4699 More complicated assertions are coded as subpatterns. There are two
4700 kinds: those that look ahead of the current position in the subject
4701 string, and those that look behind it. An assertion subpattern is
4702 matched in the normal way, except that it does not cause the current
4703 matching position to be changed.
4705 Assertion subpatterns are not capturing subpatterns, and may not be
4706 repeated, because it makes no sense to assert the same thing several
4707 times. If any kind of assertion contains capturing subpatterns within
4708 it, these are counted for the purposes of numbering the capturing sub-
4709 patterns in the whole pattern. However, substring capturing is carried
4710 out only for positive assertions, because it does not make sense for
4711 negative assertions.
4713 Lookahead assertions
4715 Lookahead assertions start with (?= for positive assertions and (?! for
4716 negative assertions. For example,
4718 \w+(?=;)
4720 matches a word followed by a semicolon, but does not include the semi-
4721 colon in the match, and
4723 foo(?!bar)
4725 matches any occurrence of "foo" that is not followed by "bar". Note
4726 that the apparently similar pattern
4728 (?!foo)bar
4730 does not find an occurrence of "bar" that is preceded by something
4731 other than "foo"; it finds any occurrence of "bar" whatsoever, because
4732 the assertion (?!foo) is always true when the next three characters are
4733 "bar". A lookbehind assertion is needed to achieve the other effect.
4735 If you want to force a matching failure at some point in a pattern, the
4736 most convenient way to do it is with (?!) because an empty string
4737 always matches, so an assertion that requires there not to be an empty
4738 string must always fail. The Perl 5.10 backtracking control verb
4739 (*FAIL) or (*F) is essentially a synonym for (?!).
4741 Lookbehind assertions
4743 Lookbehind assertions start with (?<= for positive assertions and (?<!
4744 for negative assertions. For example,
4746 (?<!foo)bar
4748 does find an occurrence of "bar" that is not preceded by "foo". The
4749 contents of a lookbehind assertion are restricted such that all the
4750 strings it matches must have a fixed length. However, if there are sev-
4751 eral top-level alternatives, they do not all have to have the same
4752 fixed length. Thus
4754 (?<=bullock|donkey)
4756 is permitted, but
4758 (?<!dogs?|cats?)
4760 causes an error at compile time. Branches that match different length
4761 strings are permitted only at the top level of a lookbehind assertion.
4762 This is an extension compared with Perl (5.8 and 5.10), which requires
4763 all branches to match the same length of string. An assertion such as
4765 (?<=ab(c|de))
4767 is not permitted, because its single top-level branch can match two
4768 different lengths, but it is acceptable to PCRE if rewritten to use two
4769 top-level branches:
4771 (?<=abc|abde)
4773 In some cases, the Perl 5.10 escape sequence \K (see above) can be used
4774 instead of a lookbehind assertion to get round the fixed-length
4775 restriction.
4777 The implementation of lookbehind assertions is, for each alternative,
4778 to temporarily move the current position back by the fixed length and
4779 then try to match. If there are insufficient characters before the cur-
4780 rent position, the assertion fails.
4782 PCRE does not allow the \C escape (which matches a single byte in UTF-8
4783 mode) to appear in lookbehind assertions, because it makes it impossi-
4784 ble to calculate the length of the lookbehind. The \X and \R escapes,
4785 which can match different numbers of bytes, are also not permitted.
4787 "Subroutine" calls (see below) such as (?2) or (?&X) are permitted in
4788 lookbehinds, as long as the subpattern matches a fixed-length string.
4789 Recursion, however, is not supported.
4791 Possessive quantifiers can be used in conjunction with lookbehind
4792 assertions to specify efficient matching of fixed-length strings at the
4793 end of subject strings. Consider a simple pattern such as
4795 abcd$
4797 when applied to a long string that does not match. Because matching
4798 proceeds from left to right, PCRE will look for each "a" in the subject
4799 and then see if what follows matches the rest of the pattern. If the
4800 pattern is specified as
4802 ^.*abcd$
4804 the initial .* matches the entire string at first, but when this fails
4805 (because there is no following "a"), it backtracks to match all but the
4806 last character, then all but the last two characters, and so on. Once
4807 again the search for "a" covers the entire string, from right to left,
4808 so we are no better off. However, if the pattern is written as
4810 ^.*+(?<=abcd)
4812 there can be no backtracking for the .*+ item; it can match only the
4813 entire string. The subsequent lookbehind assertion does a single test
4814 on the last four characters. If it fails, the match fails immediately.
4815 For long strings, this approach makes a significant difference to the
4816 processing time.
4818 Using multiple assertions
4820 Several assertions (of any sort) may occur in succession. For example,
4822 (?<=\d{3})(?<!999)foo
4824 matches "foo" preceded by three digits that are not "999". Notice that
4825 each of the assertions is applied independently at the same point in
4826 the subject string. First there is a check that the previous three
4827 characters are all digits, and then there is a check that the same
4828 three characters are not "999". This pattern does not match "foo" pre-
4829 ceded by six characters, the first of which are digits and the last
4830 three of which are not "999". For example, it doesn't match "123abc-
4831 foo". A pattern to do that is
4833 (?<=\d{3}...)(?<!999)foo
4835 This time the first assertion looks at the preceding six characters,
4836 checking that the first three are digits, and then the second assertion
4837 checks that the preceding three characters are not "999".
4839 Assertions can be nested in any combination. For example,
4841 (?<=(?<!foo)bar)baz
4843 matches an occurrence of "baz" that is preceded by "bar" which in turn
4844 is not preceded by "foo", while
4846 (?<=\d{3}(?!999)...)foo
4848 is another pattern that matches "foo" preceded by three digits and any
4849 three characters that are not "999".
4854 It is possible to cause the matching process to obey a subpattern con-
4855 ditionally or to choose between two alternative subpatterns, depending
4856 on the result of an assertion, or whether a specific capturing subpat-
4857 tern has already been matched. The two possible forms of conditional
4858 subpattern are:
4860 (?(condition)yes-pattern)
4861 (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)
4863 If the condition is satisfied, the yes-pattern is used; otherwise the
4864 no-pattern (if present) is used. If there are more than two alterna-
4865 tives in the subpattern, a compile-time error occurs.
4867 There are four kinds of condition: references to subpatterns, refer-
4868 ences to recursion, a pseudo-condition called DEFINE, and assertions.
4870 Checking for a used subpattern by number
4872 If the text between the parentheses consists of a sequence of digits,
4873 the condition is true if a capturing subpattern of that number has pre-
4874 viously matched. If there is more than one capturing subpattern with
4875 the same number (see the earlier section about duplicate subpattern
4876 numbers), the condition is true if any of them have been set. An alter-
4877 native notation is to precede the digits with a plus or minus sign. In
4878 this case, the subpattern number is relative rather than absolute. The
4879 most recently opened parentheses can be referenced by (?(-1), the next
4880 most recent by (?(-2), and so on. In looping constructs it can also
4881 make sense to refer to subsequent groups with constructs such as
4882 (?(+2).
4884 Consider the following pattern, which contains non-significant white
4885 space to make it more readable (assume the PCRE_EXTENDED option) and to
4886 divide it into three parts for ease of discussion:
4888 ( \( )? [^()]+ (?(1) \) )
4890 The first part matches an optional opening parenthesis, and if that
4891 character is present, sets it as the first captured substring. The sec-
4892 ond part matches one or more characters that are not parentheses. The
4893 third part is a conditional subpattern that tests whether the first set
4894 of parentheses matched or not. If they did, that is, if subject started
4895 with an opening parenthesis, the condition is true, and so the yes-pat-
4896 tern is executed and a closing parenthesis is required. Otherwise,
4897 since no-pattern is not present, the subpattern matches nothing. In
4898 other words, this pattern matches a sequence of non-parentheses,
4899 optionally enclosed in parentheses.
4901 If you were embedding this pattern in a larger one, you could use a
4902 relative reference:
4904 ...other stuff... ( \( )? [^()]+ (?(-1) \) ) ...
4906 This makes the fragment independent of the parentheses in the larger
4907 pattern.
4909 Checking for a used subpattern by name
4911 Perl uses the syntax (?(<name>)...) or (?('name')...) to test for a
4912 used subpattern by name. For compatibility with earlier versions of
4913 PCRE, which had this facility before Perl, the syntax (?(name)...) is
4914 also recognized. However, there is a possible ambiguity with this syn-
4915 tax, because subpattern names may consist entirely of digits. PCRE
4916 looks first for a named subpattern; if it cannot find one and the name
4917 consists entirely of digits, PCRE looks for a subpattern of that num-
4918 ber, which must be greater than zero. Using subpattern names that con-
4919 sist entirely of digits is not recommended.
4921 Rewriting the above example to use a named subpattern gives this:
4923 (?<OPEN> \( )? [^()]+ (?(<OPEN>) \) )
4925 If the name used in a condition of this kind is a duplicate, the test
4926 is applied to all subpatterns of the same name, and is true if any one
4927 of them has matched.
4929 Checking for pattern recursion
4931 If the condition is the string (R), and there is no subpattern with the
4932 name R, the condition is true if a recursive call to the whole pattern
4933 or any subpattern has been made. If digits or a name preceded by amper-
4934 sand follow the letter R, for example:
4936 (?(R3)...) or (?(R&name)...)
4938 the condition is true if the most recent recursion is into a subpattern
4939 whose number or name is given. This condition does not check the entire
4940 recursion stack. If the name used in a condition of this kind is a
4941 duplicate, the test is applied to all subpatterns of the same name, and
4942 is true if any one of them is the most recent recursion.
4944 At "top level", all these recursion test conditions are false. The
4945 syntax for recursive patterns is described below.
4947 Defining subpatterns for use by reference only
4949 If the condition is the string (DEFINE), and there is no subpattern
4950 with the name DEFINE, the condition is always false. In this case,
4951 there may be only one alternative in the subpattern. It is always
4952 skipped if control reaches this point in the pattern; the idea of
4953 DEFINE is that it can be used to define "subroutines" that can be ref-
4954 erenced from elsewhere. (The use of "subroutines" is described below.)
4955 For example, a pattern to match an IPv4 address could be written like
4956 this (ignore whitespace and line breaks):
4958 (?(DEFINE) (?<byte> 2[0-4]\d | 25[0-5] | 1\d\d | [1-9]?\d) )
4959 \b (?&byte) (\.(?&byte)){3} \b
4961 The first part of the pattern is a DEFINE group inside which a another
4962 group named "byte" is defined. This matches an individual component of
4963 an IPv4 address (a number less than 256). When matching takes place,
4964 this part of the pattern is skipped because DEFINE acts like a false
4965 condition. The rest of the pattern uses references to the named group
4966 to match the four dot-separated components of an IPv4 address, insist-
4967 ing on a word boundary at each end.
4969 Assertion conditions
4971 If the condition is not in any of the above formats, it must be an
4972 assertion. This may be a positive or negative lookahead or lookbehind
4973 assertion. Consider this pattern, again containing non-significant
4974 white space, and with the two alternatives on the second line:
4976 (?(?=[^a-z]*[a-z])
4977 \d{2}-[a-z]{3}-\d{2} | \d{2}-\d{2}-\d{2} )
4979 The condition is a positive lookahead assertion that matches an
4980 optional sequence of non-letters followed by a letter. In other words,
4981 it tests for the presence of at least one letter in the subject. If a
4982 letter is found, the subject is matched against the first alternative;
4983 otherwise it is matched against the second. This pattern matches
4984 strings in one of the two forms dd-aaa-dd or dd-dd-dd, where aaa are
4985 letters and dd are digits.
4990 The sequence (?# marks the start of a comment that continues up to the
4991 next closing parenthesis. Nested parentheses are not permitted. The
4992 characters that make up a comment play no part in the pattern matching
4993 at all.
4995 If the PCRE_EXTENDED option is set, an unescaped # character outside a
4996 character class introduces a comment that continues to immediately
4997 after the next newline in the pattern.
5002 Consider the problem of matching a string in parentheses, allowing for
5003 unlimited nested parentheses. Without the use of recursion, the best
5004 that can be done is to use a pattern that matches up to some fixed
5005 depth of nesting. It is not possible to handle an arbitrary nesting
5006 depth.
5008 For some time, Perl has provided a facility that allows regular expres-
5009 sions to recurse (amongst other things). It does this by interpolating
5010 Perl code in the expression at run time, and the code can refer to the
5011 expression itself. A Perl pattern using code interpolation to solve the
5012 parentheses problem can be created like this:
5014 $re = qr{\( (?: (?>[^()]+) | (?p{$re}) )* \)}x;
5016 The (?p{...}) item interpolates Perl code at run time, and in this case
5017 refers recursively to the pattern in which it appears.
5019 Obviously, PCRE cannot support the interpolation of Perl code. Instead,
5020 it supports special syntax for recursion of the entire pattern, and
5021 also for individual subpattern recursion. After its introduction in
5022 PCRE and Python, this kind of recursion was subsequently introduced
5023 into Perl at release 5.10.
5025 A special item that consists of (? followed by a number greater than
5026 zero and a closing parenthesis is a recursive call of the subpattern of
5027 the given number, provided that it occurs inside that subpattern. (If
5028 not, it is a "subroutine" call, which is described in the next sec-
5029 tion.) The special item (?R) or (?0) is a recursive call of the entire
5030 regular expression.
5032 This PCRE pattern solves the nested parentheses problem (assume the
5033 PCRE_EXTENDED option is set so that white space is ignored):
5035 \( ( [^()]++ | (?R) )* \)
5037 First it matches an opening parenthesis. Then it matches any number of
5038 substrings which can either be a sequence of non-parentheses, or a
5039 recursive match of the pattern itself (that is, a correctly parenthe-
5040 sized substring). Finally there is a closing parenthesis. Note the use
5041 of a possessive quantifier to avoid backtracking into sequences of non-
5042 parentheses.
5044 If this were part of a larger pattern, you would not want to recurse
5045 the entire pattern, so instead you could use this:
5047 ( \( ( [^()]++ | (?1) )* \) )
5049 We have put the pattern into parentheses, and caused the recursion to
5050 refer to them instead of the whole pattern.
5052 In a larger pattern, keeping track of parenthesis numbers can be
5053 tricky. This is made easier by the use of relative references (a Perl
5054 5.10 feature). Instead of (?1) in the pattern above you can write
5055 (?-2) to refer to the second most recently opened parentheses preceding
5056 the recursion. In other words, a negative number counts capturing
5057 parentheses leftwards from the point at which it is encountered.
5059 It is also possible to refer to subsequently opened parentheses, by
5060 writing references such as (?+2). However, these cannot be recursive
5061 because the reference is not inside the parentheses that are refer-
5062 enced. They are always "subroutine" calls, as described in the next
5063 section.
5065 An alternative approach is to use named parentheses instead. The Perl
5066 syntax for this is (?&name); PCRE's earlier syntax (?P>name) is also
5067 supported. We could rewrite the above example as follows:
5069 (?<pn> \( ( [^()]++ | (?&pn) )* \) )
5071 If there is more than one subpattern with the same name, the earliest
5072 one is used.
5074 This particular example pattern that we have been looking at contains
5075 nested unlimited repeats, and so the use of a possessive quantifier for
5076 matching strings of non-parentheses is important when applying the pat-
5077 tern to strings that do not match. For example, when this pattern is
5078 applied to
5080 (aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa()
5082 it yields "no match" quickly. However, if a possessive quantifier is
5083 not used, the match runs for a very long time indeed because there are
5084 so many different ways the + and * repeats can carve up the subject,
5085 and all have to be tested before failure can be reported.
5087 At the end of a match, the values of capturing parentheses are those
5088 from the outermost level. If you want to obtain intermediate values, a
5089 callout function can be used (see below and the pcrecallout documenta-
5090 tion). If the pattern above is matched against
5092 (ab(cd)ef)
5094 the value for the inner capturing parentheses (numbered 2) is "ef",
5095 which is the last value taken on at the top level. If a capturing sub-
5096 pattern is not matched at the top level, its final value is unset, even
5097 if it is (temporarily) set at a deeper level.
5099 If there are more than 15 capturing parentheses in a pattern, PCRE has
5100 to obtain extra memory to store data during a recursion, which it does
5101 by using pcre_malloc, freeing it via pcre_free afterwards. If no memory
5102 can be obtained, the match fails with the PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY error.
5104 Do not confuse the (?R) item with the condition (R), which tests for
5105 recursion. Consider this pattern, which matches text in angle brack-
5106 ets, allowing for arbitrary nesting. Only digits are allowed in nested
5107 brackets (that is, when recursing), whereas any characters are permit-
5108 ted at the outer level.
5110 < (?: (?(R) \d++ | [^<>]*+) | (?R)) * >
5112 In this pattern, (?(R) is the start of a conditional subpattern, with
5113 two different alternatives for the recursive and non-recursive cases.
5114 The (?R) item is the actual recursive call.
5116 Recursion difference from Perl
5118 In PCRE (like Python, but unlike Perl), a recursive subpattern call is
5119 always treated as an atomic group. That is, once it has matched some of
5120 the subject string, it is never re-entered, even if it contains untried
5121 alternatives and there is a subsequent matching failure. This can be
5122 illustrated by the following pattern, which purports to match a palin-
5123 dromic string that contains an odd number of characters (for example,
5124 "a", "aba", "abcba", "abcdcba"):
5126 ^(.|(.)(?1)\2)$
5128 The idea is that it either matches a single character, or two identical
5129 characters surrounding a sub-palindrome. In Perl, this pattern works;
5130 in PCRE it does not if the pattern is longer than three characters.
5131 Consider the subject string "abcba":
5133 At the top level, the first character is matched, but as it is not at
5134 the end of the string, the first alternative fails; the second alterna-
5135 tive is taken and the recursion kicks in. The recursive call to subpat-
5136 tern 1 successfully matches the next character ("b"). (Note that the
5137 beginning and end of line tests are not part of the recursion).
5139 Back at the top level, the next character ("c") is compared with what
5140 subpattern 2 matched, which was "a". This fails. Because the recursion
5141 is treated as an atomic group, there are now no backtracking points,
5142 and so the entire match fails. (Perl is able, at this point, to re-
5143 enter the recursion and try the second alternative.) However, if the
5144 pattern is written with the alternatives in the other order, things are
5145 different:
5147 ^((.)(?1)\2|.)$
5149 This time, the recursing alternative is tried first, and continues to
5150 recurse until it runs out of characters, at which point the recursion
5151 fails. But this time we do have another alternative to try at the
5152 higher level. That is the big difference: in the previous case the
5153 remaining alternative is at a deeper recursion level, which PCRE cannot
5154 use.
5156 To change the pattern so that matches all palindromic strings, not just
5157 those with an odd number of characters, it is tempting to change the
5158 pattern to this:
5160 ^((.)(?1)\2|.?)$
5162 Again, this works in Perl, but not in PCRE, and for the same reason.
5163 When a deeper recursion has matched a single character, it cannot be
5164 entered again in order to match an empty string. The solution is to
5165 separate the two cases, and write out the odd and even cases as alter-
5166 natives at the higher level:
5168 ^(?:((.)(?1)\2|)|((.)(?3)\4|.))
5170 If you want to match typical palindromic phrases, the pattern has to
5171 ignore all non-word characters, which can be done like this:
5173 ^\W*+(?:((.)\W*+(?1)\W*+\2|)|((.)\W*+(?3)\W*+\4|\W*+.\W*+))\W*+$
5175 If run with the PCRE_CASELESS option, this pattern matches phrases such
5176 as "A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!" and it works well in both PCRE and
5177 Perl. Note the use of the possessive quantifier *+ to avoid backtrack-
5178 ing into sequences of non-word characters. Without this, PCRE takes a
5179 great deal longer (ten times or more) to match typical phrases, and
5180 Perl takes so long that you think it has gone into a loop.
5182 WARNING: The palindrome-matching patterns above work only if the sub-
5183 ject string does not start with a palindrome that is shorter than the
5184 entire string. For example, although "abcba" is correctly matched, if
5185 the subject is "ababa", PCRE finds the palindrome "aba" at the start,
5186 then fails at top level because the end of the string does not follow.
5187 Once again, it cannot jump back into the recursion to try other alter-
5188 natives, so the entire match fails.
5193 If the syntax for a recursive subpattern reference (either by number or
5194 by name) is used outside the parentheses to which it refers, it oper-
5195 ates like a subroutine in a programming language. The "called" subpat-
5196 tern may be defined before or after the reference. A numbered reference
5197 can be absolute or relative, as in these examples:
5199 (...(absolute)...)...(?2)...
5200 (...(relative)...)...(?-1)...
5201 (...(?+1)...(relative)...
5203 An earlier example pointed out that the pattern
5205 (sens|respons)e and \1ibility
5207 matches "sense and sensibility" and "response and responsibility", but
5208 not "sense and responsibility". If instead the pattern
5210 (sens|respons)e and (?1)ibility
5212 is used, it does match "sense and responsibility" as well as the other
5213 two strings. Another example is given in the discussion of DEFINE
5214 above.
5216 Like recursive subpatterns, a subroutine call is always treated as an
5217 atomic group. That is, once it has matched some of the subject string,
5218 it is never re-entered, even if it contains untried alternatives and
5219 there is a subsequent matching failure. Any capturing parentheses that
5220 are set during the subroutine call revert to their previous values
5221 afterwards.
5223 When a subpattern is used as a subroutine, processing options such as
5224 case-independence are fixed when the subpattern is defined. They cannot
5225 be changed for different calls. For example, consider this pattern:
5227 (abc)(?i:(?-1))
5229 It matches "abcabc". It does not match "abcABC" because the change of
5230 processing option does not affect the called subpattern.
5235 For compatibility with Oniguruma, the non-Perl syntax \g followed by a
5236 name or a number enclosed either in angle brackets or single quotes, is
5237 an alternative syntax for referencing a subpattern as a subroutine,
5238 possibly recursively. Here are two of the examples used above, rewrit-
5239 ten using this syntax:
5241 (?<pn> \( ( (?>[^()]+) | \g<pn> )* \) )
5242 (sens|respons)e and \g'1'ibility
5244 PCRE supports an extension to Oniguruma: if a number is preceded by a
5245 plus or a minus sign it is taken as a relative reference. For example:
5247 (abc)(?i:\g<-1>)
5249 Note that \g{...} (Perl syntax) and \g<...> (Oniguruma syntax) are not
5250 synonymous. The former is a back reference; the latter is a subroutine
5251 call.
5256 Perl has a feature whereby using the sequence (?{...}) causes arbitrary
5257 Perl code to be obeyed in the middle of matching a regular expression.
5258 This makes it possible, amongst other things, to extract different sub-
5259 strings that match the same pair of parentheses when there is a repeti-
5260 tion.
5262 PCRE provides a similar feature, but of course it cannot obey arbitrary
5263 Perl code. The feature is called "callout". The caller of PCRE provides
5264 an external function by putting its entry point in the global variable
5265 pcre_callout. By default, this variable contains NULL, which disables
5266 all calling out.
5268 Within a regular expression, (?C) indicates the points at which the
5269 external function is to be called. If you want to identify different
5270 callout points, you can put a number less than 256 after the letter C.
5271 The default value is zero. For example, this pattern has two callout
5272 points:
5274 (?C1)abc(?C2)def
5276 If the PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT flag is passed to pcre_compile(), callouts are
5277 automatically installed before each item in the pattern. They are all
5278 numbered 255.
5280 During matching, when PCRE reaches a callout point (and pcre_callout is
5281 set), the external function is called. It is provided with the number
5282 of the callout, the position in the pattern, and, optionally, one item
5283 of data originally supplied by the caller of pcre_exec(). The callout
5284 function may cause matching to proceed, to backtrack, or to fail alto-
5285 gether. A complete description of the interface to the callout function
5286 is given in the pcrecallout documentation.
5291 Perl 5.10 introduced a number of "Special Backtracking Control Verbs",
5292 which are described in the Perl documentation as "experimental and sub-
5293 ject to change or removal in a future version of Perl". It goes on to
5294 say: "Their usage in production code should be noted to avoid problems
5295 during upgrades." The same remarks apply to the PCRE features described
5296 in this section.
5298 Since these verbs are specifically related to backtracking, most of
5299 them can be used only when the pattern is to be matched using
5300 pcre_exec(), which uses a backtracking algorithm. With the exception of
5301 (*FAIL), which behaves like a failing negative assertion, they cause an
5302 error if encountered by pcre_dfa_exec().
5304 If any of these verbs are used in an assertion or subroutine subpattern
5305 (including recursive subpatterns), their effect is confined to that
5306 subpattern; it does not extend to the surrounding pattern. Note that
5307 such subpatterns are processed as anchored at the point where they are
5308 tested.
5310 The new verbs make use of what was previously invalid syntax: an open-
5311 ing parenthesis followed by an asterisk. They are generally of the form
5312 (*VERB) or (*VERB:NAME). Some may take either form, with differing be-
5313 haviour, depending on whether or not an argument is present. An name is
5314 a sequence of letters, digits, and underscores. If the name is empty,
5315 that is, if the closing parenthesis immediately follows the colon, the
5316 effect is as if the colon were not there. Any number of these verbs may
5317 occur in a pattern.
5319 PCRE contains some optimizations that are used to speed up matching by
5320 running some checks at the start of each match attempt. For example, it
5321 may know the minimum length of matching subject, or that a particular
5322 character must be present. When one of these optimizations suppresses
5323 the running of a match, any included backtracking verbs will not, of
5324 course, be processed. You can suppress the start-of-match optimizations
5325 by setting the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling pcre_exec().
5327 Verbs that act immediately
5329 The following verbs act as soon as they are encountered. They may not
5330 be followed by a name.
5332 (*ACCEPT)
5334 This verb causes the match to end successfully, skipping the remainder
5335 of the pattern. When inside a recursion, only the innermost pattern is
5336 ended immediately. If (*ACCEPT) is inside capturing parentheses, the
5337 data so far is captured. (This feature was added to PCRE at release
5338 8.00.) For example:
5340 A((?:A|B(*ACCEPT)|C)D)
5342 This matches "AB", "AAD", or "ACD"; when it matches "AB", "B" is cap-
5343 tured by the outer parentheses.
5345 (*FAIL) or (*F)
5347 This verb causes the match to fail, forcing backtracking to occur. It
5348 is equivalent to (?!) but easier to read. The Perl documentation notes
5349 that it is probably useful only when combined with (?{}) or (??{}).
5350 Those are, of course, Perl features that are not present in PCRE. The
5351 nearest equivalent is the callout feature, as for example in this pat-
5352 tern:
5354 a+(?C)(*FAIL)
5356 A match with the string "aaaa" always fails, but the callout is taken
5357 before each backtrack happens (in this example, 10 times).
5359 Recording which path was taken
5361 There is one verb whose main purpose is to track how a match was
5362 arrived at, though it also has a secondary use in conjunction with
5363 advancing the match starting point (see (*SKIP) below).
5365 (*MARK:NAME) or (*:NAME)
5367 A name is always required with this verb. There may be as many
5368 instances of (*MARK) as you like in a pattern, and their names do not
5369 have to be unique.
5371 When a match succeeds, the name of the last-encountered (*MARK) is
5372 passed back to the caller via the pcre_extra data structure, as
5373 described in the section on pcre_extra in the pcreapi documentation. No
5374 data is returned for a partial match. Here is an example of pcretest
5375 output, where the /K modifier requests the retrieval and outputting of
5376 (*MARK) data:
5378 /X(*MARK:A)Y|X(*MARK:B)Z/K
5379 XY
5380 0: XY
5381 MK: A
5382 XZ
5383 0: XZ
5384 MK: B
5386 The (*MARK) name is tagged with "MK:" in this output, and in this exam-
5387 ple it indicates which of the two alternatives matched. This is a more
5388 efficient way of obtaining this information than putting each alterna-
5389 tive in its own capturing parentheses.
5391 A name may also be returned after a failed match if the final path
5392 through the pattern involves (*MARK). However, unless (*MARK) used in
5393 conjunction with (*COMMIT), this is unlikely to happen for an unan-
5394 chored pattern because, as the starting point for matching is advanced,
5395 the final check is often with an empty string, causing a failure before
5396 (*MARK) is reached. For example:
5398 /X(*MARK:A)Y|X(*MARK:B)Z/K
5399 XP
5400 No match
5402 There are three potential starting points for this match (starting with
5403 X, starting with P, and with an empty string). If the pattern is
5404 anchored, the result is different:
5406 /^X(*MARK:A)Y|^X(*MARK:B)Z/K
5407 XP
5408 No match, mark = B
5410 PCRE's start-of-match optimizations can also interfere with this. For
5411 example, if, as a result of a call to pcre_study(), it knows the mini-
5412 mum subject length for a match, a shorter subject will not be scanned
5413 at all.
5415 Note that similar anomalies (though different in detail) exist in Perl,
5416 no doubt for the same reasons. The use of (*MARK) data after a failed
5417 match of an unanchored pattern is not recommended, unless (*COMMIT) is
5418 involved.
5420 Verbs that act after backtracking
5422 The following verbs do nothing when they are encountered. Matching con-
5423 tinues with what follows, but if there is no subsequent match, causing
5424 a backtrack to the verb, a failure is forced. That is, backtracking
5425 cannot pass to the left of the verb. However, when one of these verbs
5426 appears inside an atomic group, its effect is confined to that group,
5427 because once the group has been matched, there is never any backtrack-
5428 ing into it. In this situation, backtracking can "jump back" to the
5429 left of the entire atomic group. (Remember also, as stated above, that
5430 this localization also applies in subroutine calls and assertions.)
5432 These verbs differ in exactly what kind of failure occurs when back-
5433 tracking reaches them.
5435 (*COMMIT)
5437 This verb, which may not be followed by a name, causes the whole match
5438 to fail outright if the rest of the pattern does not match. Even if the
5439 pattern is unanchored, no further attempts to find a match by advancing
5440 the starting point take place. Once (*COMMIT) has been passed,
5441 pcre_exec() is committed to finding a match at the current starting
5442 point, or not at all. For example:
5444 a+(*COMMIT)b
5446 This matches "xxaab" but not "aacaab". It can be thought of as a kind
5447 of dynamic anchor, or "I've started, so I must finish." The name of the
5448 most recently passed (*MARK) in the path is passed back when (*COMMIT)
5449 forces a match failure.
5451 Note that (*COMMIT) at the start of a pattern is not the same as an
5452 anchor, unless PCRE's start-of-match optimizations are turned off, as
5453 shown in this pcretest example:
5455 /(*COMMIT)abc/
5456 xyzabc
5457 0: abc
5458 xyzabc\Y
5459 No match
5461 PCRE knows that any match must start with "a", so the optimization
5462 skips along the subject to "a" before running the first match attempt,
5463 which succeeds. When the optimization is disabled by the \Y escape in
5464 the second subject, the match starts at "x" and so the (*COMMIT) causes
5465 it to fail without trying any other starting points.
5467 (*PRUNE) or (*PRUNE:NAME)
5469 This verb causes the match to fail at the current starting position in
5470 the subject if the rest of the pattern does not match. If the pattern
5471 is unanchored, the normal "bumpalong" advance to the next starting
5472 character then happens. Backtracking can occur as usual to the left of
5473 (*PRUNE), before it is reached, or when matching to the right of
5474 (*PRUNE), but if there is no match to the right, backtracking cannot
5475 cross (*PRUNE). In simple cases, the use of (*PRUNE) is just an alter-
5476 native to an atomic group or possessive quantifier, but there are some
5477 uses of (*PRUNE) that cannot be expressed in any other way. The behav-
5478 iour of (*PRUNE:NAME) is the same as (*MARK:NAME)(*PRUNE) when the
5479 match fails completely; the name is passed back if this is the final
5480 attempt. (*PRUNE:NAME) does not pass back a name if the match suc-
5481 ceeds. In an anchored pattern (*PRUNE) has the same effect as (*COM-
5482 MIT).
5484 (*SKIP)
5486 This verb, when given without a name, is like (*PRUNE), except that if
5487 the pattern is unanchored, the "bumpalong" advance is not to the next
5488 character, but to the position in the subject where (*SKIP) was encoun-
5489 tered. (*SKIP) signifies that whatever text was matched leading up to
5490 it cannot be part of a successful match. Consider:
5492 a+(*SKIP)b
5494 If the subject is "aaaac...", after the first match attempt fails
5495 (starting at the first character in the string), the starting point
5496 skips on to start the next attempt at "c". Note that a possessive quan-
5497 tifer does not have the same effect as this example; although it would
5498 suppress backtracking during the first match attempt, the second
5499 attempt would start at the second character instead of skipping on to
5500 "c".
5502 (*SKIP:NAME)
5504 When (*SKIP) has an associated name, its behaviour is modified. If the
5505 following pattern fails to match, the previous path through the pattern
5506 is searched for the most recent (*MARK) that has the same name. If one
5507 is found, the "bumpalong" advance is to the subject position that cor-
5508 responds to that (*MARK) instead of to where (*SKIP) was encountered.
5509 If no (*MARK) with a matching name is found, normal "bumpalong" of one
5510 character happens (the (*SKIP) is ignored).
5512 (*THEN) or (*THEN:NAME)
5514 This verb causes a skip to the next alternation if the rest of the pat-
5515 tern does not match. That is, it cancels pending backtracking, but only
5516 within the current alternation. Its name comes from the observation
5517 that it can be used for a pattern-based if-then-else block:
5519 ( COND1 (*THEN) FOO | COND2 (*THEN) BAR | COND3 (*THEN) BAZ ) ...
5521 If the COND1 pattern matches, FOO is tried (and possibly further items
5522 after the end of the group if FOO succeeds); on failure the matcher
5523 skips to the second alternative and tries COND2, without backtracking
5524 into COND1. The behaviour of (*THEN:NAME) is exactly the same as
5525 (*MARK:NAME)(*THEN) if the overall match fails. If (*THEN) is not
5526 directly inside an alternation, it acts like (*PRUNE).
5531 pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3), pcresyntax(3), pcre(3).
5536 Philip Hazel
5537 University Computing Service
5538 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
5543 Last updated: 18 May 2010
5544 Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
5545 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5551 NAME
5552 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
5557 The full syntax and semantics of the regular expressions that are sup-
5558 ported by PCRE are described in the pcrepattern documentation. This
5559 document contains just a quick-reference summary of the syntax.
5564 \x where x is non-alphanumeric is a literal x
5565 \Q...\E treat enclosed characters as literal
5570 \a alarm, that is, the BEL character (hex 07)
5571 \cx "control-x", where x is any character
5572 \e escape (hex 1B)
5573 \f formfeed (hex 0C)
5574 \n newline (hex 0A)
5575 \r carriage return (hex 0D)
5576 \t tab (hex 09)
5577 \ddd character with octal code ddd, or backreference
5578 \xhh character with hex code hh
5579 \x{hhh..} character with hex code hhh..
5584 . any character except newline;
5585 in dotall mode, any character whatsoever
5586 \C one byte, even in UTF-8 mode (best avoided)
5587 \d a decimal digit
5588 \D a character that is not a decimal digit
5589 \h a horizontal whitespace character
5590 \H a character that is not a horizontal whitespace character
5591 \N a character that is not a newline
5592 \p{xx} a character with the xx property
5593 \P{xx} a character without the xx property
5594 \R a newline sequence
5595 \s a whitespace character
5596 \S a character that is not a whitespace character
5597 \v a vertical whitespace character
5598 \V a character that is not a vertical whitespace character
5599 \w a "word" character
5600 \W a "non-word" character
5601 \X an extended Unicode sequence
5603 In PCRE, by default, \d, \D, \s, \S, \w, and \W recognize only ASCII
5604 characters, even in UTF-8 mode. However, this can be changed by setting
5605 the PCRE_UCP option.
5610 C Other
5611 Cc Control
5612 Cf Format
5613 Cn Unassigned
5614 Co Private use
5615 Cs Surrogate
5617 L Letter
5618 Ll Lower case letter
5619 Lm Modifier letter
5620 Lo Other letter
5621 Lt Title case letter
5622 Lu Upper case letter
5623 L& Ll, Lu, or Lt
5625 M Mark
5626 Mc Spacing mark
5627 Me Enclosing mark
5628 Mn Non-spacing mark
5630 N Number
5631 Nd Decimal number
5632 Nl Letter number
5633 No Other number
5635 P Punctuation
5636 Pc Connector punctuation
5637 Pd Dash punctuation
5638 Pe Close punctuation
5639 Pf Final punctuation
5640 Pi Initial punctuation
5641 Po Other punctuation
5642 Ps Open punctuation
5644 S Symbol
5645 Sc Currency symbol
5646 Sk Modifier symbol
5647 Sm Mathematical symbol
5648 So Other symbol
5650 Z Separator
5651 Zl Line separator
5652 Zp Paragraph separator
5653 Zs Space separator
5658 Xan Alphanumeric: union of properties L and N
5659 Xps POSIX space: property Z or tab, NL, VT, FF, CR
5660 Xsp Perl space: property Z or tab, NL, FF, CR
5661 Xwd Perl word: property Xan or underscore
5666 Arabic, Armenian, Avestan, Balinese, Bamum, Bengali, Bopomofo, Braille,
5667 Buginese, Buhid, Canadian_Aboriginal, Carian, Cham, Cherokee, Common,
5668 Coptic, Cuneiform, Cypriot, Cyrillic, Deseret, Devanagari, Egyp-
5669 tian_Hieroglyphs, Ethiopic, Georgian, Glagolitic, Gothic, Greek,
5670 Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Han, Hangul, Hanunoo, Hebrew, Hiragana, Impe-
5671 rial_Aramaic, Inherited, Inscriptional_Pahlavi, Inscriptional_Parthian,
5672 Javanese, Kaithi, Kannada, Katakana, Kayah_Li, Kharoshthi, Khmer, Lao,
5673 Latin, Lepcha, Limbu, Linear_B, Lisu, Lycian, Lydian, Malayalam,
5674 Meetei_Mayek, Mongolian, Myanmar, New_Tai_Lue, Nko, Ogham, Old_Italic,
5675 Old_Persian, Old_South_Arabian, Old_Turkic, Ol_Chiki, Oriya, Osmanya,
5676 Phags_Pa, Phoenician, Rejang, Runic, Samaritan, Saurashtra, Shavian,
5677 Sinhala, Sundanese, Syloti_Nagri, Syriac, Tagalog, Tagbanwa, Tai_Le,
5678 Tai_Tham, Tai_Viet, Tamil, Telugu, Thaana, Thai, Tibetan, Tifinagh,
5679 Ugaritic, Vai, Yi.
5684 [...] positive character class
5685 [^...] negative character class
5686 [x-y] range (can be used for hex characters)
5687 [[:xxx:]] positive POSIX named set
5688 [[:^xxx:]] negative POSIX named set
5690 alnum alphanumeric
5691 alpha alphabetic
5692 ascii 0-127
5693 blank space or tab
5694 cntrl control character
5695 digit decimal digit
5696 graph printing, excluding space
5697 lower lower case letter
5698 print printing, including space
5699 punct printing, excluding alphanumeric
5700 space whitespace
5701 upper upper case letter
5702 word same as \w
5703 xdigit hexadecimal digit
5705 In PCRE, POSIX character set names recognize only ASCII characters by
5706 default, but some of them use Unicode properties if PCRE_UCP is set.
5707 You can use \Q...\E inside a character class.
5712 ? 0 or 1, greedy
5713 ?+ 0 or 1, possessive
5714 ?? 0 or 1, lazy
5715 * 0 or more, greedy
5716 *+ 0 or more, possessive
5717 *? 0 or more, lazy
5718 + 1 or more, greedy
5719 ++ 1 or more, possessive
5720 +? 1 or more, lazy
5721 {n} exactly n
5722 {n,m} at least n, no more than m, greedy
5723 {n,m}+ at least n, no more than m, possessive
5724 {n,m}? at least n, no more than m, lazy
5725 {n,} n or more, greedy
5726 {n,}+ n or more, possessive
5727 {n,}? n or more, lazy
5732 \b word boundary
5733 \B not a word boundary
5734 ^ start of subject
5735 also after internal newline in multiline mode
5736 \A start of subject
5737 $ end of subject
5738 also before newline at end of subject
5739 also before internal newline in multiline mode
5740 \Z end of subject
5741 also before newline at end of subject
5742 \z end of subject
5743 \G first matching position in subject
5748 \K reset start of match
5753 expr|expr|expr...
5758 (...) capturing group
5759 (?<name>...) named capturing group (Perl)
5760 (?'name'...) named capturing group (Perl)
5761 (?P<name>...) named capturing group (Python)
5762 (?:...) non-capturing group
5763 (?|...) non-capturing group; reset group numbers for
5764 capturing groups in each alternative
5769 (?>...) atomic, non-capturing group
5774 (?#....) comment (not nestable)
5779 (?i) caseless
5780 (?J) allow duplicate names
5781 (?m) multiline
5782 (?s) single line (dotall)
5783 (?U) default ungreedy (lazy)
5784 (?x) extended (ignore white space)
5785 (?-...) unset option(s)
5787 The following are recognized only at the start of a pattern or after
5788 one of the newline-setting options with similar syntax:
5790 (*UTF8) set UTF-8 mode (PCRE_UTF8)
5791 (*UCP) set PCRE_UCP (use Unicode properties for \d etc)
5796 (?=...) positive look ahead
5797 (?!...) negative look ahead
5798 (?<=...) positive look behind
5799 (?<!...) negative look behind
5801 Each top-level branch of a look behind must be of a fixed length.
5806 \n reference by number (can be ambiguous)
5807 \gn reference by number
5808 \g{n} reference by number
5809 \g{-n} relative reference by number
5810 \k<name> reference by name (Perl)
5811 \k'name' reference by name (Perl)
5812 \g{name} reference by name (Perl)
5813 \k{name} reference by name (.NET)
5814 (?P=name) reference by name (Python)
5819 (?R) recurse whole pattern
5820 (?n) call subpattern by absolute number
5821 (?+n) call subpattern by relative number
5822 (?-n) call subpattern by relative number
5823 (?&name) call subpattern by name (Perl)
5824 (?P>name) call subpattern by name (Python)
5825 \g<name> call subpattern by name (Oniguruma)
5826 \g'name' call subpattern by name (Oniguruma)
5827 \g<n> call subpattern by absolute number (Oniguruma)
5828 \g'n' call subpattern by absolute number (Oniguruma)
5829 \g<+n> call subpattern by relative number (PCRE extension)
5830 \g'+n' call subpattern by relative number (PCRE extension)
5831 \g<-n> call subpattern by relative number (PCRE extension)
5832 \g'-n' call subpattern by relative number (PCRE extension)
5837 (?(condition)yes-pattern)
5838 (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)
5840 (?(n)... absolute reference condition
5841 (?(+n)... relative reference condition
5842 (?(-n)... relative reference condition
5843 (?(<name>)... named reference condition (Perl)
5844 (?('name')... named reference condition (Perl)
5845 (?(name)... named reference condition (PCRE)
5846 (?(R)... overall recursion condition
5847 (?(Rn)... specific group recursion condition
5848 (?(R&name)... specific recursion condition
5849 (?(DEFINE)... define subpattern for reference
5850 (?(assert)... assertion condition
5855 The following act immediately they are reached:
5857 (*ACCEPT) force successful match
5858 (*FAIL) force backtrack; synonym (*F)
5860 The following act only when a subsequent match failure causes a back-
5861 track to reach them. They all force a match failure, but they differ in
5862 what happens afterwards. Those that advance the start-of-match point do
5863 so only if the pattern is not anchored.
5865 (*COMMIT) overall failure, no advance of starting point
5866 (*PRUNE) advance to next starting character
5867 (*SKIP) advance start to current matching position
5868 (*THEN) local failure, backtrack to next alternation
5873 These are recognized only at the very start of the pattern or after a
5874 (*BSR_...) or (*UTF8) or (*UCP) option.
5876 (*CR) carriage return only
5877 (*LF) linefeed only
5878 (*CRLF) carriage return followed by linefeed
5879 (*ANYCRLF) all three of the above
5880 (*ANY) any Unicode newline sequence
5885 These are recognized only at the very start of the pattern or after a
5886 (*...) option that sets the newline convention or UTF-8 or UCP mode.
5889 (*BSR_UNICODE) any Unicode newline sequence
5894 (?C) callout
5895 (?Cn) callout with data n
5900 pcrepattern(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3), pcre(3).
5905 Philip Hazel
5906 University Computing Service
5907 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
5912 Last updated: 12 May 2010
5913 Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
5914 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5920 NAME
5921 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
5926 In normal use of PCRE, if the subject string that is passed to
5927 pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() matches as far as it goes, but is too
5928 short to match the entire pattern, PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH is returned.
5929 There are circumstances where it might be helpful to distinguish this
5930 case from other cases in which there is no match.
5932 Consider, for example, an application where a human is required to type
5933 in data for a field with specific formatting requirements. An example
5934 might be a date in the form ddmmmyy, defined by this pattern:
5936 ^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$
5938 If the application sees the user's keystrokes one by one, and can check
5939 that what has been typed so far is potentially valid, it is able to
5940 raise an error as soon as a mistake is made, by beeping and not
5941 reflecting the character that has been typed, for example. This immedi-
5942 ate feedback is likely to be a better user interface than a check that
5943 is delayed until the entire string has been entered. Partial matching
5944 can also sometimes be useful when the subject string is very long and
5945 is not all available at once.
5947 PCRE supports partial matching by means of the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT and
5948 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD options, which can be set when calling pcre_exec() or
5949 pcre_dfa_exec(). For backwards compatibility, PCRE_PARTIAL is a synonym
5950 for PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. The essential difference between the two options
5951 is whether or not a partial match is preferred to an alternative com-
5952 plete match, though the details differ between the two matching func-
5953 tions. If both options are set, PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD takes precedence.
5955 Setting a partial matching option disables two of PCRE's optimizations.
5956 PCRE remembers the last literal byte in a pattern, and abandons match-
5957 ing immediately if such a byte is not present in the subject string.
5958 This optimization cannot be used for a subject string that might match
5959 only partially. If the pattern was studied, PCRE knows the minimum
5960 length of a matching string, and does not bother to run the matching
5961 function on shorter strings. This optimization is also disabled for
5962 partial matching.
5967 A partial match occurs during a call to pcre_exec() whenever the end of
5968 the subject string is reached successfully, but matching cannot con-
5969 tinue because more characters are needed. However, at least one charac-
5970 ter must have been matched. (In other words, a partial match can never
5971 be an empty string.)
5973 If PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT is set, the partial match is remembered, but
5974 matching continues as normal, and other alternatives in the pattern are
5975 tried. If no complete match can be found, pcre_exec() returns
5976 PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL instead of PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH. If there are at least
5977 two slots in the offsets vector, the first of them is set to the offset
5978 of the earliest character that was inspected when the partial match was
5979 found. For convenience, the second offset points to the end of the
5980 string so that a substring can easily be identified.
5982 For the majority of patterns, the first offset identifies the start of
5983 the partially matched string. However, for patterns that contain look-
5984 behind assertions, or \K, or begin with \b or \B, earlier characters
5985 have been inspected while carrying out the match. For example:
5987 /(?<=abc)123/
5989 This pattern matches "123", but only if it is preceded by "abc". If the
5990 subject string is "xyzabc12", the offsets after a partial match are for
5991 the substring "abc12", because all these characters are needed if
5992 another match is tried with extra characters added.
5994 If there is more than one partial match, the first one that was found
5995 provides the data that is returned. Consider this pattern:
5997 /123\w+X|dogY/
5999 If this is matched against the subject string "abc123dog", both alter-
6000 natives fail to match, but the end of the subject is reached during
6001 matching, so PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL is returned instead of
6002 PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH. The offsets are set to 3 and 9, identifying
6003 "123dog" as the first partial match that was found. (In this example,
6004 there are two partial matches, because "dog" on its own partially
6005 matches the second alternative.)
6007 If PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set for pcre_exec(), it returns PCRE_ERROR_PAR-
6008 TIAL as soon as a partial match is found, without continuing to search
6009 for possible complete matches. The difference between the two options
6010 can be illustrated by a pattern such as:
6012 /dog(sbody)?/
6014 This matches either "dog" or "dogsbody", greedily (that is, it prefers
6015 the longer string if possible). If it is matched against the string
6016 "dog" with PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, it yields a complete match for "dog".
6017 However, if PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, the result is PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.
6018 On the other hand, if the pattern is made ungreedy the result is dif-
6019 ferent:
6021 /dog(sbody)??/
6023 In this case the result is always a complete match because pcre_exec()
6024 finds that first, and it never continues after finding a match. It
6025 might be easier to follow this explanation by thinking of the two pat-
6026 terns like this:
6028 /dog(sbody)?/ is the same as /dogsbody|dog/
6029 /dog(sbody)??/ is the same as /dog|dogsbody/
6031 The second pattern will never match "dogsbody" when pcre_exec() is
6032 used, because it will always find the shorter match first.
6035 PARTIAL MATCHING USING pcre_dfa_exec()
6037 The pcre_dfa_exec() function moves along the subject string character
6038 by character, without backtracking, searching for all possible matches
6039 simultaneously. If the end of the subject is reached before the end of
6040 the pattern, there is the possibility of a partial match, again pro-
6041 vided that at least one character has matched.
6043 When PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT is set, PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL is returned only if
6044 there have been no complete matches. Otherwise, the complete matches
6045 are returned. However, if PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, a partial match
6046 takes precedence over any complete matches. The portion of the string
6047 that was inspected whe