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1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 This file contains a concatenation of the PCRE man pages, converted to plain
3 text format for ease of searching with a text editor, or for use on systems
4 that do not have a man page processor. The small individual files that give
5 synopses of each function in the library have not been included. Neither has
6 the pcredemo program. There are separate text files for the pcregrep and
7 pcretest commands.
8 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
9
10
11 PCRE(3) PCRE(3)
12
13
14 NAME
15 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
16
17
18 INTRODUCTION
19
20 The PCRE library is a set of functions that implement regular expres-
21 sion pattern matching using the same syntax and semantics as Perl, with
22 just a few differences. Some features that appeared in Python and PCRE
23 before they appeared in Perl are also available using the Python syn-
24 tax, there is some support for one or two .NET and Oniguruma syntax
25 items, and there is an option for requesting some minor changes that
26 give better JavaScript compatibility.
27
28 The current implementation of PCRE corresponds approximately with Perl
29 5.12, including support for UTF-8 encoded strings and Unicode general
30 category properties. However, UTF-8 and Unicode support has to be
31 explicitly enabled; it is not the default. The Unicode tables corre-
32 spond to Unicode release 6.0.0.
33
34 In addition to the Perl-compatible matching function, PCRE contains an
35 alternative function that matches the same compiled patterns in a dif-
36 ferent way. In certain circumstances, the alternative function has some
37 advantages. For a discussion of the two matching algorithms, see the
38 pcrematching page.
39
40 PCRE is written in C and released as a C library. A number of people
41 have written wrappers and interfaces of various kinds. In particular,
42 Google Inc. have provided a comprehensive C++ wrapper. This is now
43 included as part of the PCRE distribution. The pcrecpp page has details
44 of this interface. Other people's contributions can be found in the
45 Contrib directory at the primary FTP site, which is:
46
47 ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre
48
49 Details of exactly which Perl regular expression features are and are
50 not supported by PCRE are given in separate documents. See the pcrepat-
51 tern and pcrecompat pages. There is a syntax summary in the pcresyntax
52 page.
53
54 Some features of PCRE can be included, excluded, or changed when the
55 library is built. The pcre_config() function makes it possible for a
56 client to discover which features are available. The features them-
57 selves are described in the pcrebuild page. Documentation about build-
58 ing PCRE for various operating systems can be found in the README and
59 NON-UNIX-USE files in the source distribution.
60
61 The library contains a number of undocumented internal functions and
62 data tables that are used by more than one of the exported external
63 functions, but which are not intended for use by external callers.
64 Their names all begin with "_pcre_", which hopefully will not provoke
65 any name clashes. In some environments, it is possible to control which
66 external symbols are exported when a shared library is built, and in
67 these cases the undocumented symbols are not exported.
68
69
70 USER DOCUMENTATION
71
72 The user documentation for PCRE comprises a number of different sec-
73 tions. In the "man" format, each of these is a separate "man page". In
74 the HTML format, each is a separate page, linked from the index page.
75 In the plain text format, all the sections, except the pcredemo sec-
76 tion, are concatenated, for ease of searching. The sections are as fol-
77 lows:
78
79 pcre this document
80 pcre-config show PCRE installation configuration information
81 pcreapi details of PCRE's native C API
82 pcrebuild options for building PCRE
83 pcrecallout details of the callout feature
84 pcrecompat discussion of Perl compatibility
85 pcrecpp details of the C++ wrapper
86 pcredemo a demonstration C program that uses PCRE
87 pcregrep description of the pcregrep command
88 pcrejit discussion of the just-in-time optimization support
89 pcrelimits details of size and other limits
90 pcrematching discussion of the two matching algorithms
91 pcrepartial details of the partial matching facility
92 pcrepattern syntax and semantics of supported
93 regular expressions
94 pcreperform discussion of performance issues
95 pcreposix the POSIX-compatible C API
96 pcreprecompile details of saving and re-using precompiled patterns
97 pcresample discussion of the pcredemo program
98 pcrestack discussion of stack usage
99 pcresyntax quick syntax reference
100 pcretest description of the pcretest testing command
101 pcreunicode discussion of Unicode and UTF-8 support
102
103 In addition, in the "man" and HTML formats, there is a short page for
104 each C library function, listing its arguments and results.
105
106
107 AUTHOR
108
109 Philip Hazel
110 University Computing Service
111 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
112
113 Putting an actual email address here seems to have been a spam magnet,
114 so I've taken it away. If you want to email me, use my two initials,
115 followed by the two digits 10, at the domain cam.ac.uk.
116
117
118 REVISION
119
120 Last updated: 24 August 2011
121 Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
122 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
123
124
125 PCREBUILD(3) PCREBUILD(3)
126
127
128 NAME
129 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
130
131
132 PCRE BUILD-TIME OPTIONS
133
134 This document describes the optional features of PCRE that can be
135 selected when the library is compiled. It assumes use of the configure
136 script, where the optional features are selected or deselected by pro-
137 viding options to configure before running the make command. However,
138 the same options can be selected in both Unix-like and non-Unix-like
139 environments using the GUI facility of cmake-gui if you are using CMake
140 instead of configure to build PCRE.
141
142 There is a lot more information about building PCRE in non-Unix-like
143 environments in the file called NON_UNIX_USE, which is part of the PCRE
144 distribution. You should consult this file as well as the README file
145 if you are building in a non-Unix-like environment.
146
147 The complete list of options for configure (which includes the standard
148 ones such as the selection of the installation directory) can be
149 obtained by running
150
151 ./configure --help
152
153 The following sections include descriptions of options whose names
154 begin with --enable or --disable. These settings specify changes to the
155 defaults for the configure command. Because of the way that configure
156 works, --enable and --disable always come in pairs, so the complemen-
157 tary option always exists as well, but as it specifies the default, it
158 is not described.
159
160
161 BUILDING SHARED AND STATIC LIBRARIES
162
163 The PCRE building process uses libtool to build both shared and static
164 Unix libraries by default. You can suppress one of these by adding one
165 of
166
167 --disable-shared
168 --disable-static
169
170 to the configure command, as required.
171
172
173 C++ SUPPORT
174
175 By default, the configure script will search for a C++ compiler and C++
176 header files. If it finds them, it automatically builds the C++ wrapper
177 library for PCRE. You can disable this by adding
178
179 --disable-cpp
180
181 to the configure command.
182
183
184 UTF-8 SUPPORT
185
186 To build PCRE with support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings, add
187
188 --enable-utf8
189
190 to the configure command. Of itself, this does not make PCRE treat
191 strings as UTF-8. As well as compiling PCRE with this option, you also
192 have have to set the PCRE_UTF8 option when you call the pcre_compile()
193 or pcre_compile2() functions.
194
195 If you set --enable-utf8 when compiling in an EBCDIC environment, PCRE
196 expects its input to be either ASCII or UTF-8 (depending on the runtime
197 option). It is not possible to support both EBCDIC and UTF-8 codes in
198 the same version of the library. Consequently, --enable-utf8 and
199 --enable-ebcdic are mutually exclusive.
200
201
202 UNICODE CHARACTER PROPERTY SUPPORT
203
204 UTF-8 support allows PCRE to process character values greater than 255
205 in the strings that it handles. On its own, however, it does not pro-
206 vide any facilities for accessing the properties of such characters. If
207 you want to be able to use the pattern escapes \P, \p, and \X, which
208 refer to Unicode character properties, you must add
209
210 --enable-unicode-properties
211
212 to the configure command. This implies UTF-8 support, even if you have
213 not explicitly requested it.
214
215 Including Unicode property support adds around 30K of tables to the
216 PCRE library. Only the general category properties such as Lu and Nd
217 are supported. Details are given in the pcrepattern documentation.
218
219
220 JUST-IN-TIME COMPILER SUPPORT
221
222 Just-in-time compiler support is included in the build by specifying
223
224 --enable-jit
225
226 This support is available only for certain hardware architectures. If
227 this option is set for an unsupported architecture, a compile time
228 error occurs. See the pcrejit documentation for a discussion of JIT
229 usage. When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of
230 it, unless you add
231
232 --disable-pcregrep-jit
233
234 to the "configure" command.
235
236
237 CODE VALUE OF NEWLINE
238
239 By default, PCRE interprets the linefeed (LF) character as indicating
240 the end of a line. This is the normal newline character on Unix-like
241 systems. You can compile PCRE to use carriage return (CR) instead, by
242 adding
243
244 --enable-newline-is-cr
245
246 to the configure command. There is also a --enable-newline-is-lf
247 option, which explicitly specifies linefeed as the newline character.
248
249 Alternatively, you can specify that line endings are to be indicated by
250 the two character sequence CRLF. If you want this, add
251
252 --enable-newline-is-crlf
253
254 to the configure command. There is a fourth option, specified by
255
256 --enable-newline-is-anycrlf
257
258 which causes PCRE to recognize any of the three sequences CR, LF, or
259 CRLF as indicating a line ending. Finally, a fifth option, specified by
260
261 --enable-newline-is-any
262
263 causes PCRE to recognize any Unicode newline sequence.
264
265 Whatever line ending convention is selected when PCRE is built can be
266 overridden when the library functions are called. At build time it is
267 conventional to use the standard for your operating system.
268
269
270 WHAT \R MATCHES
271
272 By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode newline
273 sequence, whatever has been selected as the line ending sequence. If
274 you specify
275
276 --enable-bsr-anycrlf
277
278 the default is changed so that \R matches only CR, LF, or CRLF. What-
279 ever is selected when PCRE is built can be overridden when the library
280 functions are called.
281
282
283 POSIX MALLOC USAGE
284
285 When PCRE is called through the POSIX interface (see the pcreposix doc-
286 umentation), additional working storage is required for holding the
287 pointers to capturing substrings, because PCRE requires three integers
288 per substring, whereas the POSIX interface provides only two. If the
289 number of expected substrings is small, the wrapper function uses space
290 on the stack, because this is faster than using malloc() for each call.
291 The default threshold above which the stack is no longer used is 10; it
292 can be changed by adding a setting such as
293
294 --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
295
296 to the configure command.
297
298
299 HANDLING VERY LARGE PATTERNS
300
301 Within a compiled pattern, offset values are used to point from one
302 part to another (for example, from an opening parenthesis to an alter-
303 nation metacharacter). By default, two-byte values are used for these
304 offsets, leading to a maximum size for a compiled pattern of around
305 64K. This is sufficient to handle all but the most gigantic patterns.
306 Nevertheless, some people do want to process truyl enormous patterns,
307 so it is possible to compile PCRE to use three-byte or four-byte off-
308 sets by adding a setting such as
309
310 --with-link-size=3
311
312 to the configure command. The value given must be 2, 3, or 4. Using
313 longer offsets slows down the operation of PCRE because it has to load
314 additional bytes when handling them.
315
316
317 AVOIDING EXCESSIVE STACK USAGE
318
319 When matching with the pcre_exec() function, PCRE implements backtrack-
320 ing by making recursive calls to an internal function called match().
321 In environments where the size of the stack is limited, this can se-
322 verely limit PCRE's operation. (The Unix environment does not usually
323 suffer from this problem, but it may sometimes be necessary to increase
324 the maximum stack size. There is a discussion in the pcrestack docu-
325 mentation.) An alternative approach to recursion that uses memory from
326 the heap to remember data, instead of using recursive function calls,
327 has been implemented to work round the problem of limited stack size.
328 If you want to build a version of PCRE that works this way, add
329
330 --disable-stack-for-recursion
331
332 to the configure command. With this configuration, PCRE will use the
333 pcre_stack_malloc and pcre_stack_free variables to call memory manage-
334 ment functions. By default these point to malloc() and free(), but you
335 can replace the pointers so that your own functions are used instead.
336
337 Separate functions are provided rather than using pcre_malloc and
338 pcre_free because the usage is very predictable: the block sizes
339 requested are always the same, and the blocks are always freed in
340 reverse order. A calling program might be able to implement optimized
341 functions that perform better than malloc() and free(). PCRE runs
342 noticeably more slowly when built in this way. This option affects only
343 the pcre_exec() function; it is not relevant for pcre_dfa_exec().
344
345
346 LIMITING PCRE RESOURCE USAGE
347
348 Internally, PCRE has a function called match(), which it calls repeat-
349 edly (sometimes recursively) when matching a pattern with the
350 pcre_exec() function. By controlling the maximum number of times this
351 function may be called during a single matching operation, a limit can
352 be placed on the resources used by a single call to pcre_exec(). The
353 limit can be changed at run time, as described in the pcreapi documen-
354 tation. The default is 10 million, but this can be changed by adding a
355 setting such as
356
357 --with-match-limit=500000
358
359 to the configure command. This setting has no effect on the
360 pcre_dfa_exec() matching function.
361
362 In some environments it is desirable to limit the depth of recursive
363 calls of match() more strictly than the total number of calls, in order
364 to restrict the maximum amount of stack (or heap, if --disable-stack-
365 for-recursion is specified) that is used. A second limit controls this;
366 it defaults to the value that is set for --with-match-limit, which
367 imposes no additional constraints. However, you can set a lower limit
368 by adding, for example,
369
370 --with-match-limit-recursion=10000
371
372 to the configure command. This value can also be overridden at run
373 time.
374
375
376 CREATING CHARACTER TABLES AT BUILD TIME
377
378 PCRE uses fixed tables for processing characters whose code values are
379 less than 256. By default, PCRE is built with a set of tables that are
380 distributed in the file pcre_chartables.c.dist. These tables are for
381 ASCII codes only. If you add
382
383 --enable-rebuild-chartables
384
385 to the configure command, the distributed tables are no longer used.
386 Instead, a program called dftables is compiled and run. This outputs
387 the source for new set of tables, created in the default locale of your
388 C runtime system. (This method of replacing the tables does not work if
389 you are cross compiling, because dftables is run on the local host. If
390 you need to create alternative tables when cross compiling, you will
391 have to do so "by hand".)
392
393
394 USING EBCDIC CODE
395
396 PCRE assumes by default that it will run in an environment where the
397 character code is ASCII (or Unicode, which is a superset of ASCII).
398 This is the case for most computer operating systems. PCRE can, how-
399 ever, be compiled to run in an EBCDIC environment by adding
400
401 --enable-ebcdic
402
403 to the configure command. This setting implies --enable-rebuild-charta-
404 bles. You should only use it if you know that you are in an EBCDIC
405 environment (for example, an IBM mainframe operating system). The
406 --enable-ebcdic option is incompatible with --enable-utf8.
407
408
409 PCREGREP OPTIONS FOR COMPRESSED FILE SUPPORT
410
411 By default, pcregrep reads all files as plain text. You can build it so
412 that it recognizes files whose names end in .gz or .bz2, and reads them
413 with libz or libbz2, respectively, by adding one or both of
414
415 --enable-pcregrep-libz
416 --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
417
418 to the configure command. These options naturally require that the rel-
419 evant libraries are installed on your system. Configuration will fail
420 if they are not.
421
422
423 PCREGREP BUFFER SIZE
424
425 pcregrep uses an internal buffer to hold a "window" on the file it is
426 scanning, in order to be able to output "before" and "after" lines when
427 it finds a match. The size of the buffer is controlled by a parameter
428 whose default value is 20K. The buffer itself is three times this size,
429 but because of the way it is used for holding "before" lines, the long-
430 est line that is guaranteed to be processable is the parameter size.
431 You can change the default parameter value by adding, for example,
432
433 --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
434
435 to the configure command. The caller of pcregrep can, however, override
436 this value by specifying a run-time option.
437
438
439 PCRETEST OPTION FOR LIBREADLINE SUPPORT
440
441 If you add
442
443 --enable-pcretest-libreadline
444
445 to the configure command, pcretest is linked with the libreadline
446 library, and when its input is from a terminal, it reads it using the
447 readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
448 Note that libreadline is GPL-licensed, so if you distribute a binary of
449 pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
450
451 Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the
452 pcretest build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed
453 libreadline this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if
454 an unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), some extra
455 configuration may be necessary. The INSTALL file for libreadline says
456 this:
457
458 "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link with the
459 termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
460 with readline the to choose an appropriate library."
461
462 If your environment has not been set up so that an appropriate library
463 is automatically included, you may need to add something like
464
465 LIBS="-ncurses"
466
467 immediately before the configure command.
468
469
470 SEE ALSO
471
472 pcreapi(3), pcre_config(3).
473
474
475 AUTHOR
476
477 Philip Hazel
478 University Computing Service
479 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
480
481
482 REVISION
483
484 Last updated: 06 September 2011
485 Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
486 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
487
488
489 PCREMATCHING(3) PCREMATCHING(3)
490
491
492 NAME
493 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
494
495
496 PCRE MATCHING ALGORITHMS
497
498 This document describes the two different algorithms that are available
499 in PCRE for matching a compiled regular expression against a given sub-
500 ject string. The "standard" algorithm is the one provided by the
501 pcre_exec() function. This works in the same was as Perl's matching
502 function, and provides a Perl-compatible matching operation.
503
504 An alternative algorithm is provided by the pcre_dfa_exec() function;
505 this operates in a different way, and is not Perl-compatible. It has
506 advantages and disadvantages compared with the standard algorithm, and
507 these are described below.
508
509 When there is only one possible way in which a given subject string can
510 match a pattern, the two algorithms give the same answer. A difference
511 arises, however, when there are multiple possibilities. For example, if
512 the pattern
513
514 ^<.*>
515
516 is matched against the string
517
518 <something> <something else> <something further>
519
520 there are three possible answers. The standard algorithm finds only one
521 of them, whereas the alternative algorithm finds all three.
522
523
524 REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AS TREES
525
526 The set of strings that are matched by a regular expression can be rep-
527 resented as a tree structure. An unlimited repetition in the pattern
528 makes the tree of infinite size, but it is still a tree. Matching the
529 pattern to a given subject string (from a given starting point) can be
530 thought of as a search of the tree. There are two ways to search a
531 tree: depth-first and breadth-first, and these correspond to the two
532 matching algorithms provided by PCRE.
533
534
535 THE STANDARD MATCHING ALGORITHM
536
537 In the terminology of Jeffrey Friedl's book "Mastering Regular Expres-
538 sions", the standard algorithm is an "NFA algorithm". It conducts a
539 depth-first search of the pattern tree. That is, it proceeds along a
540 single path through the tree, checking that the subject matches what is
541 required. When there is a mismatch, the algorithm tries any alterna-
542 tives at the current point, and if they all fail, it backs up to the
543 previous branch point in the tree, and tries the next alternative
544 branch at that level. This often involves backing up (moving to the
545 left) in the subject string as well. The order in which repetition
546 branches are tried is controlled by the greedy or ungreedy nature of
547 the quantifier.
548
549 If a leaf node is reached, a matching string has been found, and at
550 that point the algorithm stops. Thus, if there is more than one possi-
551 ble match, this algorithm returns the first one that it finds. Whether
552 this is the shortest, the longest, or some intermediate length depends
553 on the way the greedy and ungreedy repetition quantifiers are specified
554 in the pattern.
555
556 Because it ends up with a single path through the tree, it is rela-
557 tively straightforward for this algorithm to keep track of the sub-
558 strings that are matched by portions of the pattern in parentheses.
559 This provides support for capturing parentheses and back references.
560
561
562 THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING ALGORITHM
563
564 This algorithm conducts a breadth-first search of the tree. Starting
565 from the first matching point in the subject, it scans the subject
566 string from left to right, once, character by character, and as it does
567 this, it remembers all the paths through the tree that represent valid
568 matches. In Friedl's terminology, this is a kind of "DFA algorithm",
569 though it is not implemented as a traditional finite state machine (it
570 keeps multiple states active simultaneously).
571
572 Although the general principle of this matching algorithm is that it
573 scans the subject string only once, without backtracking, there is one
574 exception: when a lookaround assertion is encountered, the characters
575 following or preceding the current point have to be independently
576 inspected.
577
578 The scan continues until either the end of the subject is reached, or
579 there are no more unterminated paths. At this point, terminated paths
580 represent the different matching possibilities (if there are none, the
581 match has failed). Thus, if there is more than one possible match,
582 this algorithm finds all of them, and in particular, it finds the long-
583 est. The matches are returned in decreasing order of length. There is
584 an option to stop the algorithm after the first match (which is neces-
585 sarily the shortest) is found.
586
587 Note that all the matches that are found start at the same point in the
588 subject. If the pattern
589
590 cat(er(pillar)?)?
591
592 is matched against the string "the caterpillar catchment", the result
593 will be the three strings "caterpillar", "cater", and "cat" that start
594 at the fifth character of the subject. The algorithm does not automati-
595 cally move on to find matches that start at later positions.
596
597 There are a number of features of PCRE regular expressions that are not
598 supported by the alternative matching algorithm. They are as follows:
599
600 1. Because the algorithm finds all possible matches, the greedy or
601 ungreedy nature of repetition quantifiers is not relevant. Greedy and
602 ungreedy quantifiers are treated in exactly the same way. However, pos-
603 sessive quantifiers can make a difference when what follows could also
604 match what is quantified, for example in a pattern like this:
605
606 ^a++\w!
607
608 This pattern matches "aaab!" but not "aaa!", which would be matched by
609 a non-possessive quantifier. Similarly, if an atomic group is present,
610 it is matched as if it were a standalone pattern at the current point,
611 and the longest match is then "locked in" for the rest of the overall
612 pattern.
613
614 2. When dealing with multiple paths through the tree simultaneously, it
615 is not straightforward to keep track of captured substrings for the
616 different matching possibilities, and PCRE's implementation of this
617 algorithm does not attempt to do this. This means that no captured sub-
618 strings are available.
619
620 3. Because no substrings are captured, back references within the pat-
621 tern are not supported, and cause errors if encountered.
622
623 4. For the same reason, conditional expressions that use a backrefer-
624 ence as the condition or test for a specific group recursion are not
625 supported.
626
627 5. Because many paths through the tree may be active, the \K escape
628 sequence, which resets the start of the match when encountered (but may
629 be on some paths and not on others), is not supported. It causes an
630 error if encountered.
631
632 6. Callouts are supported, but the value of the capture_top field is
633 always 1, and the value of the capture_last field is always -1.
634
635 7. The \C escape sequence, which (in the standard algorithm) matches a
636 single byte, even in UTF-8 mode, is not supported because the alterna-
637 tive algorithm moves through the subject string one character at a
638 time, for all active paths through the tree.
639
640 8. Except for (*FAIL), the backtracking control verbs such as (*PRUNE)
641 are not supported. (*FAIL) is supported, and behaves like a failing
642 negative assertion.
643
644
645 ADVANTAGES OF THE ALTERNATIVE ALGORITHM
646
647 Using the alternative matching algorithm provides the following advan-
648 tages:
649
650 1. All possible matches (at a single point in the subject) are automat-
651 ically found, and in particular, the longest match is found. To find
652 more than one match using the standard algorithm, you have to do kludgy
653 things with callouts.
654
655 2. Because the alternative algorithm scans the subject string just
656 once, and never needs to backtrack, it is possible to pass very long
657 subject strings to the matching function in several pieces, checking
658 for partial matching each time. Although it is possible to do multi-
659 segment matching using the standard algorithm (pcre_exec()), by retain-
660 ing partially matched substrings, it is more complicated. The pcrepar-
661 tial documentation gives details of partial matching and discusses
662 multi-segment matching.
663
664
665 DISADVANTAGES OF THE ALTERNATIVE ALGORITHM
666
667 The alternative algorithm suffers from a number of disadvantages:
668
669 1. It is substantially slower than the standard algorithm. This is
670 partly because it has to search for all possible matches, but is also
671 because it is less susceptible to optimization.
672
673 2. Capturing parentheses and back references are not supported.
674
675 3. Although atomic groups are supported, their use does not provide the
676 performance advantage that it does for the standard algorithm.
677
678
679 AUTHOR
680
681 Philip Hazel
682 University Computing Service
683 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
684
685
686 REVISION
687
688 Last updated: 17 November 2010
689 Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
690 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
691
692
693 PCREAPI(3) PCREAPI(3)
694
695
696 NAME
697 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
698
699
700 PCRE NATIVE API BASIC FUNCTIONS
701
702 #include <pcre.h>
703
704 pcre *pcre_compile(const char *pattern, int options,
705 const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
706 const unsigned char *tableptr);
707
708 pcre *pcre_compile2(const char *pattern, int options,
709 int *errorcodeptr,
710 const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
711 const unsigned char *tableptr);
712
713 pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *code, int options,
714 const char **errptr);
715
716 void pcre_free_study(pcre_extra *extra);
717
718 int pcre_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
719 const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
720 int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize);
721
722
723 PCRE NATIVE API AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS
724
725 pcre_jit_stack *pcre_jit_stack_alloc(int startsize, int maxsize);
726
727 void pcre_jit_stack_free(pcre_jit_stack *stack);
728
729 void pcre_assign_jit_stack(pcre_extra *extra,
730 pcre_jit_callback callback, void *data);
731
732 int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
733 const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
734 int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize,
735 int *workspace, int wscount);
736
737 int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *code,
738 const char *subject, int *ovector,
739 int stringcount, const char *stringname,
740 char *buffer, int buffersize);
741
742 int pcre_copy_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
743 int stringcount, int stringnumber, char *buffer,
744 int buffersize);
745
746 int pcre_get_named_substring(const pcre *code,
747 const char *subject, int *ovector,
748 int stringcount, const char *stringname,
749 const char **stringptr);
750
751 int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *code,
752 const char *name);
753
754 int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *code,
755 const char *name, char **first, char **last);
756
757 int pcre_get_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
758 int stringcount, int stringnumber,
759 const char **stringptr);
760
761 int pcre_get_substring_list(const char *subject,
762 int *ovector, int stringcount, const char ***listptr);
763
764 void pcre_free_substring(const char *stringptr);
765
766 void pcre_free_substring_list(const char **stringptr);
767
768 const unsigned char *pcre_maketables(void);
769
770 int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
771 int what, void *where);
772
773 int pcre_info(const pcre *code, int *optptr, int *firstcharptr);
774
775 int pcre_refcount(pcre *code, int adjust);
776
777 int pcre_config(int what, void *where);
778
779 char *pcre_version(void);
780
781
782 PCRE NATIVE API INDIRECTED FUNCTIONS
783
784 void *(*pcre_malloc)(size_t);
785
786 void (*pcre_free)(void *);
787
788 void *(*pcre_stack_malloc)(size_t);
789
790 void (*pcre_stack_free)(void *);
791
792 int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);
793
794
795 PCRE API OVERVIEW
796
797 PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There
798 are also some wrapper functions that correspond to the POSIX regular
799 expression API, but they do not give access to all the functionality.
800 They are described in the pcreposix documentation. Both of these APIs
801 define a set of C function calls. A C++ wrapper is also distributed
802 with PCRE. It is documented in the pcrecpp page.
803
804 The native API C function prototypes are defined in the header file
805 pcre.h, and on Unix systems the library itself is called libpcre. It
806 can normally be accessed by adding -lpcre to the command for linking an
807 application that uses PCRE. The header file defines the macros
808 PCRE_MAJOR and PCRE_MINOR to contain the major and minor release num-
809 bers for the library. Applications can use these to include support
810 for different releases of PCRE.
811
812 In a Windows environment, if you want to statically link an application
813 program against a non-dll pcre.a file, you must define PCRE_STATIC
814 before including pcre.h or pcrecpp.h, because otherwise the pcre_mal-
815 loc() and pcre_free() exported functions will be declared
816 __declspec(dllimport), with unwanted results.
817
818 The functions pcre_compile(), pcre_compile2(), pcre_study(), and
819 pcre_exec() are used for compiling and matching regular expressions in
820 a Perl-compatible manner. A sample program that demonstrates the sim-
821 plest way of using them is provided in the file called pcredemo.c in
822 the PCRE source distribution. A listing of this program is given in the
823 pcredemo documentation, and the pcresample documentation describes how
824 to compile and run it.
825
826 Just-in-time compiler support is an optional feature of PCRE that can
827 be built in appropriate hardware environments. It greatly speeds up the
828 matching performance of many patterns. Simple programs can easily
829 request that it be used if available, by setting an option that is
830 ignored when it is not relevant. More complicated programs might need
831 to make use of the functions pcre_jit_stack_alloc(),
832 pcre_jit_stack_free(), and pcre_assign_jit_stack() in order to control
833 the JIT code's memory usage. These functions are discussed in the
834 pcrejit documentation.
835
836 A second matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), which is not Perl-compati-
837 ble, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the match-
838 ing. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given
839 point in the subject), and scans the subject just once (unless there
840 are lookbehind assertions). However, this algorithm does not return
841 captured substrings. A description of the two matching algorithms and
842 their advantages and disadvantages is given in the pcrematching docu-
843 mentation.
844
845 In addition to the main compiling and matching functions, there are
846 convenience functions for extracting captured substrings from a subject
847 string that is matched by pcre_exec(). They are:
848
849 pcre_copy_substring()
850 pcre_copy_named_substring()
851 pcre_get_substring()
852 pcre_get_named_substring()
853 pcre_get_substring_list()
854 pcre_get_stringnumber()
855 pcre_get_stringtable_entries()
856
857 pcre_free_substring() and pcre_free_substring_list() are also provided,
858 to free the memory used for extracted strings.
859
860 The function pcre_maketables() is used to build a set of character
861 tables in the current locale for passing to pcre_compile(),
862 pcre_exec(), or pcre_dfa_exec(). This is an optional facility that is
863 provided for specialist use. Most commonly, no special tables are
864 passed, in which case internal tables that are generated when PCRE is
865 built are used.
866
867 The function pcre_fullinfo() is used to find out information about a
868 compiled pattern; pcre_info() is an obsolete version that returns only
869 some of the available information, but is retained for backwards com-
870 patibility. The function pcre_version() returns a pointer to a string
871 containing the version of PCRE and its date of release.
872
873 The function pcre_refcount() maintains a reference count in a data
874 block containing a compiled pattern. This is provided for the benefit
875 of object-oriented applications.
876
877 The global variables pcre_malloc and pcre_free initially contain the
878 entry points of the standard malloc() and free() functions, respec-
879 tively. PCRE calls the memory management functions via these variables,
880 so a calling program can replace them if it wishes to intercept the
881 calls. This should be done before calling any PCRE functions.
882
883 The global variables pcre_stack_malloc and pcre_stack_free are also
884 indirections to memory management functions. These special functions
885 are used only when PCRE is compiled to use the heap for remembering
886 data, instead of recursive function calls, when running the pcre_exec()
887 function. See the pcrebuild documentation for details of how to do
888 this. It is a non-standard way of building PCRE, for use in environ-
889 ments that have limited stacks. Because of the greater use of memory
890 management, it runs more slowly. Separate functions are provided so
891 that special-purpose external code can be used for this case. When
892 used, these functions are always called in a stack-like manner (last
893 obtained, first freed), and always for memory blocks of the same size.
894 There is a discussion about PCRE's stack usage in the pcrestack docu-
895 mentation.
896
897 The global variable pcre_callout initially contains NULL. It can be set
898 by the caller to a "callout" function, which PCRE will then call at
899 specified points during a matching operation. Details are given in the
900 pcrecallout documentation.
901
902
903 NEWLINES
904
905 PCRE supports five different conventions for indicating line breaks in
906 strings: a single CR (carriage return) character, a single LF (line-
907 feed) character, the two-character sequence CRLF, any of the three pre-
908 ceding, or any Unicode newline sequence. The Unicode newline sequences
909 are the three just mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical
910 tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line
911 separator, U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029).
912
913 Each of the first three conventions is used by at least one operating
914 system as its standard newline sequence. When PCRE is built, a default
915 can be specified. The default default is LF, which is the Unix stan-
916 dard. When PCRE is run, the default can be overridden, either when a
917 pattern is compiled, or when it is matched.
918
919 At compile time, the newline convention can be specified by the options
920 argument of pcre_compile(), or it can be specified by special text at
921 the start of the pattern itself; this overrides any other settings. See
922 the pcrepattern page for details of the special character sequences.
923
924 In the PCRE documentation the word "newline" is used to mean "the char-
925 acter or pair of characters that indicate a line break". The choice of
926 newline convention affects the handling of the dot, circumflex, and
927 dollar metacharacters, the handling of #-comments in /x mode, and, when
928 CRLF is a recognized line ending sequence, the match position advance-
929 ment for a non-anchored pattern. There is more detail about this in the
930 section on pcre_exec() options below.
931
932 The choice of newline convention does not affect the interpretation of
933 the \n or \r escape sequences, nor does it affect what \R matches,
934 which is controlled in a similar way, but by separate options.
935
936
937 MULTITHREADING
938
939 The PCRE functions can be used in multi-threading applications, with
940 the proviso that the memory management functions pointed to by
941 pcre_malloc, pcre_free, pcre_stack_malloc, and pcre_stack_free, and the
942 callout function pointed to by pcre_callout, are shared by all threads.
943
944 The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during match-
945 ing, so the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads
946 at once.
947
948 If the just-in-time optimization feature is being used, it needs sepa-
949 rate memory stack areas for each thread. See the pcrejit documentation
950 for more details.
951
952
953 SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE
954
955 The compiled form of a regular expression can be saved and re-used at a
956 later time, possibly by a different program, and even on a host other
957 than the one on which it was compiled. Details are given in the
958 pcreprecompile documentation. However, compiling a regular expression
959 with one version of PCRE for use with a different version is not guar-
960 anteed to work and may cause crashes.
961
962
963 CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS
964
965 int pcre_config(int what, void *where);
966
967 The function pcre_config() makes it possible for a PCRE client to dis-
968 cover which optional features have been compiled into the PCRE library.
969 The pcrebuild documentation has more details about these optional fea-
970 tures.
971
972 The first argument for pcre_config() is an integer, specifying which
973 information is required; the second argument is a pointer to a variable
974 into which the information is placed. The following information is
975 available:
976
977 PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8
978
979 The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is avail-
980 able; otherwise it is set to zero.
981
982 PCRE_CONFIG_UNICODE_PROPERTIES
983
984 The output is an integer that is set to one if support for Unicode
985 character properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
986
987 PCRE_CONFIG_JIT
988
989 The output is an integer that is set to one if support for just-in-time
990 compiling is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
991
992 PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE
993
994 The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character
995 sequence that is recognized as meaning "newline". The four values that
996 are supported are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for ANYCRLF,
997 and -1 for ANY. Though they are derived from ASCII, the same values
998 are returned in EBCDIC environments. The default should normally corre-
999 spond to the standard sequence for your operating system.
1000
1001 PCRE_CONFIG_BSR
1002
1003 The output is an integer whose value indicates what character sequences
1004 the \R escape sequence matches by default. A value of 0 means that \R
1005 matches any Unicode line ending sequence; a value of 1 means that \R
1006 matches only CR, LF, or CRLF. The default can be overridden when a pat-
1007 tern is compiled or matched.
1008
1009 PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE
1010
1011 The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for
1012 internal linkage in compiled regular expressions. The value is 2, 3, or
1013 4. Larger values allow larger regular expressions to be compiled, at
1014 the expense of slower matching. The default value of 2 is sufficient
1015 for all but the most massive patterns, since it allows the compiled
1016 pattern to be up to 64K in size.
1017
1018 PCRE_CONFIG_POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD
1019
1020 The output is an integer that contains the threshold above which the
1021 POSIX interface uses malloc() for output vectors. Further details are
1022 given in the pcreposix documentation.
1023
1024 PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT
1025
1026 The output is a long integer that gives the default limit for the num-
1027 ber of internal matching function calls in a pcre_exec() execution.
1028 Further details are given with pcre_exec() below.
1029
1030 PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION
1031
1032 The output is a long integer that gives the default limit for the depth
1033 of recursion when calling the internal matching function in a
1034 pcre_exec() execution. Further details are given with pcre_exec()
1035 below.
1036
1037 PCRE_CONFIG_STACKRECURSE
1038
1039 The output is an integer that is set to one if internal recursion when
1040 running pcre_exec() is implemented by recursive function calls that use
1041 the stack to remember their state. This is the usual way that PCRE is
1042 compiled. The output is zero if PCRE was compiled to use blocks of data
1043 on the heap instead of recursive function calls. In this case,
1044 pcre_stack_malloc and pcre_stack_free are called to manage memory
1045 blocks on the heap, thus avoiding the use of the stack.
1046
1047
1048 COMPILING A PATTERN
1049
1050 pcre *pcre_compile(const char *pattern, int options,
1051 const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
1052 const unsigned char *tableptr);
1053
1054 pcre *pcre_compile2(const char *pattern, int options,
1055 int *errorcodeptr,
1056 const char **errptr, int *erroffset,
1057 const unsigned char *tableptr);
1058
1059 Either of the functions pcre_compile() or pcre_compile2() can be called
1060 to compile a pattern into an internal form. The only difference between
1061 the two interfaces is that pcre_compile2() has an additional argument,
1062 errorcodeptr, via which a numerical error code can be returned. To
1063 avoid too much repetition, we refer just to pcre_compile() below, but
1064 the information applies equally to pcre_compile2().
1065
1066 The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and is passed in
1067 the pattern argument. A pointer to a single block of memory that is
1068 obtained via pcre_malloc is returned. This contains the compiled code
1069 and related data. The pcre type is defined for the returned block; this
1070 is a typedef for a structure whose contents are not externally defined.
1071 It is up to the caller to free the memory (via pcre_free) when it is no
1072 longer required.
1073
1074 Although the compiled code of a PCRE regex is relocatable, that is, it
1075 does not depend on memory location, the complete pcre data block is not
1076 fully relocatable, because it may contain a copy of the tableptr argu-
1077 ment, which is an address (see below).
1078
1079 The options argument contains various bit settings that affect the com-
1080 pilation. It should be zero if no options are required. The available
1081 options are described below. Some of them (in particular, those that
1082 are compatible with Perl, but some others as well) can also be set and
1083 unset from within the pattern (see the detailed description in the
1084 pcrepattern documentation). For those options that can be different in
1085 different parts of the pattern, the contents of the options argument
1086 specifies their settings at the start of compilation and execution. The
1087 PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_BSR_xxx, PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, and
1088 PCRE_NO_START_OPT options can be set at the time of matching as well as
1089 at compile time.
1090
1091 If errptr is NULL, pcre_compile() returns NULL immediately. Otherwise,
1092 if compilation of a pattern fails, pcre_compile() returns NULL, and
1093 sets the variable pointed to by errptr to point to a textual error mes-
1094 sage. This is a static string that is part of the library. You must not
1095 try to free it. Normally, the offset from the start of the pattern to
1096 the byte that was being processed when the error was discovered is
1097 placed in the variable pointed to by erroffset, which must not be NULL
1098 (if it is, an immediate error is given). However, for an invalid UTF-8
1099 string, the offset is that of the first byte of the failing character.
1100 Also, some errors are not detected until checks are carried out when
1101 the whole pattern has been scanned; in these cases the offset passed
1102 back is the length of the pattern.
1103
1104 Note that the offset is in bytes, not characters, even in UTF-8 mode.
1105 It may sometimes point into the middle of a UTF-8 character.
1106
1107 If pcre_compile2() is used instead of pcre_compile(), and the error-
1108 codeptr argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is returned
1109 via this argument in the event of an error. This is in addition to the
1110 textual error message. Error codes and messages are listed below.
1111
1112 If the final argument, tableptr, is NULL, PCRE uses a default set of
1113 character tables that are built when PCRE is compiled, using the
1114 default C locale. Otherwise, tableptr must be an address that is the
1115 result of a call to pcre_maketables(). This value is stored with the
1116 compiled pattern, and used again by pcre_exec(), unless another table
1117 pointer is passed to it. For more discussion, see the section on locale
1118 support below.
1119
1120 This code fragment shows a typical straightforward call to pcre_com-
1121 pile():
1122
1123 pcre *re;
1124 const char *error;
1125 int erroffset;
1126 re = pcre_compile(
1127 "^A.*Z", /* the pattern */
1128 0, /* default options */
1129 &error, /* for error message */
1130 &erroffset, /* for error offset */
1131 NULL); /* use default character tables */
1132
1133 The following names for option bits are defined in the pcre.h header
1134 file:
1135
1136 PCRE_ANCHORED
1137
1138 If this bit is set, the pattern is forced to be "anchored", that is, it
1139 is constrained to match only at the first matching point in the string
1140 that is being searched (the "subject string"). This effect can also be
1141 achieved by appropriate constructs in the pattern itself, which is the
1142 only way to do it in Perl.
1143
1144 PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
1145
1146 If this bit is set, pcre_compile() automatically inserts callout items,
1147 all with number 255, before each pattern item. For discussion of the
1148 callout facility, see the pcrecallout documentation.
1149
1150 PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
1151 PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
1152
1153 These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \R escape
1154 sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF,
1155 or to match any Unicode newline sequence. The default is specified when
1156 PCRE is built. It can be overridden from within the pattern, or by set-
1157 ting an option when a compiled pattern is matched.
1158
1159 PCRE_CASELESS
1160
1161 If this bit is set, letters in the pattern match both upper and lower
1162 case letters. It is equivalent to Perl's /i option, and it can be
1163 changed within a pattern by a (?i) option setting. In UTF-8 mode, PCRE
1164 always understands the concept of case for characters whose values are
1165 less than 128, so caseless matching is always possible. For characters
1166 with higher values, the concept of case is supported if PCRE is com-
1167 piled with Unicode property support, but not otherwise. If you want to
1168 use caseless matching for characters 128 and above, you must ensure
1169 that PCRE is compiled with Unicode property support as well as with
1170 UTF-8 support.
1171
1172 PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
1173
1174 If this bit is set, a dollar metacharacter in the pattern matches only
1175 at the end of the subject string. Without this option, a dollar also
1176 matches immediately before a newline at the end of the string (but not
1177 before any other newlines). The PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option is ignored
1178 if PCRE_MULTILINE is set. There is no equivalent to this option in
1179 Perl, and no way to set it within a pattern.
1180
1181 PCRE_DOTALL
1182
1183 If this bit is set, a dot metacharacter in the pattern matches a char-
1184 acter of any value, including one that indicates a newline. However, it
1185 only ever matches one character, even if newlines are coded as CRLF.
1186 Without this option, a dot does not match when the current position is
1187 at a newline. This option is equivalent to Perl's /s option, and it can
1188 be changed within a pattern by a (?s) option setting. A negative class
1189 such as [^a] always matches newline characters, independent of the set-
1190 ting of this option.
1191
1192 PCRE_DUPNAMES
1193
1194 If this bit is set, names used to identify capturing subpatterns need
1195 not be unique. This can be helpful for certain types of pattern when it
1196 is known that only one instance of the named subpattern can ever be
1197 matched. There are more details of named subpatterns below; see also
1198 the pcrepattern documentation.
1199
1200 PCRE_EXTENDED
1201
1202 If this bit is set, whitespace data characters in the pattern are
1203 totally ignored except when escaped or inside a character class. White-
1204 space does not include the VT character (code 11). In addition, charac-
1205 ters between an unescaped # outside a character class and the next new-
1206 line, inclusive, are also ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x
1207 option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a (?x) option set-
1208 ting.
1209
1210 Which characters are interpreted as newlines is controlled by the
1211 options passed to pcre_compile() or by a special sequence at the start
1212 of the pattern, as described in the section entitled "Newline conven-
1213 tions" in the pcrepattern documentation. Note that the end of this type
1214 of comment is a literal newline sequence in the pattern; escape
1215 sequences that happen to represent a newline do not count.
1216
1217 This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated
1218 patterns. Note, however, that this applies only to data characters.
1219 Whitespace characters may never appear within special character
1220 sequences in a pattern, for example within the sequence (?( that intro-
1221 duces a conditional subpattern.
1222
1223 PCRE_EXTRA
1224
1225 This option was invented in order to turn on additional functionality
1226 of PCRE that is incompatible with Perl, but it is currently of very
1227 little use. When set, any backslash in a pattern that is followed by a
1228 letter that has no special meaning causes an error, thus reserving
1229 these combinations for future expansion. By default, as in Perl, a
1230 backslash followed by a letter with no special meaning is treated as a
1231 literal. (Perl can, however, be persuaded to give an error for this, by
1232 running it with the -w option.) There are at present no other features
1233 controlled by this option. It can also be set by a (?X) option setting
1234 within a pattern.
1235
1236 PCRE_FIRSTLINE
1237
1238 If this option is set, an unanchored pattern is required to match
1239 before or at the first newline in the subject string, though the
1240 matched text may continue over the newline.
1241
1242 PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
1243
1244 If this option is set, PCRE's behaviour is changed in some ways so that
1245 it is compatible with JavaScript rather than Perl. The changes are as
1246 follows:
1247
1248 (1) A lone closing square bracket in a pattern causes a compile-time
1249 error, because this is illegal in JavaScript (by default it is treated
1250 as a data character). Thus, the pattern AB]CD becomes illegal when this
1251 option is set.
1252
1253 (2) At run time, a back reference to an unset subpattern group matches
1254 an empty string (by default this causes the current matching alterna-
1255 tive to fail). A pattern such as (\1)(a) succeeds when this option is
1256 set (assuming it can find an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by
1257 default, for Perl compatibility.
1258
1259 PCRE_MULTILINE
1260
1261 By default, PCRE treats the subject string as consisting of a single
1262 line of characters (even if it actually contains newlines). The "start
1263 of line" metacharacter (^) matches only at the start of the string,
1264 while the "end of line" metacharacter ($) matches only at the end of
1265 the string, or before a terminating newline (unless PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
1266 is set). This is the same as Perl.
1267
1268 When PCRE_MULTILINE it is set, the "start of line" and "end of line"
1269 constructs match immediately following or immediately before internal
1270 newlines in the subject string, respectively, as well as at the very
1271 start and end. This is equivalent to Perl's /m option, and it can be
1272 changed within a pattern by a (?m) option setting. If there are no new-
1273 lines in a subject string, or no occurrences of ^ or $ in a pattern,
1274 setting PCRE_MULTILINE has no effect.
1275
1276 PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
1277 PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
1278 PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
1279 PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
1280 PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
1281
1282 These options override the default newline definition that was chosen
1283 when PCRE was built. Setting the first or the second specifies that a
1284 newline is indicated by a single character (CR or LF, respectively).
1285 Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF specifies that a newline is indicated by the
1286 two-character CRLF sequence. Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF specifies
1287 that any of the three preceding sequences should be recognized. Setting
1288 PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY specifies that any Unicode newline sequence should be
1289 recognized. The Unicode newline sequences are the three just mentioned,
1290 plus the single characters VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed,
1291 U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line separator, U+2028), and PS
1292 (paragraph separator, U+2029). The last two are recognized only in
1293 UTF-8 mode.
1294
1295 The newline setting in the options word uses three bits that are
1296 treated as a number, giving eight possibilities. Currently only six are
1297 used (default plus the five values above). This means that if you set
1298 more than one newline option, the combination may or may not be sensi-
1299 ble. For example, PCRE_NEWLINE_CR with PCRE_NEWLINE_LF is equivalent to
1300 PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, but other combinations may yield unused numbers and
1301 cause an error.
1302
1303 The only time that a line break in a pattern is specially recognized
1304 when compiling is when PCRE_EXTENDED is set. CR and LF are whitespace
1305 characters, and so are ignored in this mode. Also, an unescaped # out-
1306 side a character class indicates a comment that lasts until after the
1307 next line break sequence. In other circumstances, line break sequences
1308 in patterns are treated as literal data.
1309
1310 The newline option that is set at compile time becomes the default that
1311 is used for pcre_exec() and pcre_dfa_exec(), but it can be overridden.
1312
1313 PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
1314
1315 If this option is set, it disables the use of numbered capturing paren-
1316 theses in the pattern. Any opening parenthesis that is not followed by
1317 ? behaves as if it were followed by ?: but named parentheses can still
1318 be used for capturing (and they acquire numbers in the usual way).
1319 There is no equivalent of this option in Perl.
1320
1321 NO_START_OPTIMIZE
1322
1323 This is an option that acts at matching time; that is, it is really an
1324 option for pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). If it is set at compile
1325 time, it is remembered with the compiled pattern and assumed at match-
1326 ing time. For details see the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
1327 below.
1328
1329 PCRE_UCP
1330
1331 This option changes the way PCRE processes \B, \b, \D, \d, \S, \s, \W,
1332 \w, and some of the POSIX character classes. By default, only ASCII
1333 characters are recognized, but if PCRE_UCP is set, Unicode properties
1334 are used instead to classify characters. More details are given in the
1335 section on generic character types in the pcrepattern page. If you set
1336 PCRE_UCP, matching one of the items it affects takes much longer. The
1337 option is available only if PCRE has been compiled with Unicode prop-
1338 erty support.
1339
1340 PCRE_UNGREEDY
1341
1342 This option inverts the "greediness" of the quantifiers so that they
1343 are not greedy by default, but become greedy if followed by "?". It is
1344 not compatible with Perl. It can also be set by a (?U) option setting
1345 within the pattern.
1346
1347 PCRE_UTF8
1348
1349 This option causes PCRE to regard both the pattern and the subject as
1350 strings of UTF-8 characters instead of single-byte character strings.
1351 However, it is available only when PCRE is built to include UTF-8 sup-
1352 port. If not, the use of this option provokes an error. Details of how
1353 this option changes the behaviour of PCRE are given in the pcreunicode
1354 page.
1355
1356 PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
1357
1358 When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8 string is
1359 automatically checked. There is a discussion about the validity of
1360 UTF-8 strings in the main pcre page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of
1361 bytes is found, pcre_compile() returns an error. If you already know
1362 that your pattern is valid, and you want to skip this check for perfor-
1363 mance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option. When it is
1364 set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a pattern is
1365 undefined. It may cause your program to crash. Note that this option
1366 can also be passed to pcre_exec() and pcre_dfa_exec(), to suppress the
1367 UTF-8 validity checking of subject strings.
1368
1369
1370 COMPILATION ERROR CODES
1371
1372 The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by
1373 pcre_compile2(), along with the error messages that may be returned by
1374 both compiling functions. As PCRE has developed, some error codes have
1375 fallen out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been re-used.
1376
1377 0 no error
1378 1 \ at end of pattern
1379 2 \c at end of pattern
1380 3 unrecognized character follows \
1381 4 numbers out of order in {} quantifier
1382 5 number too big in {} quantifier
1383 6 missing terminating ] for character class
1384 7 invalid escape sequence in character class
1385 8 range out of order in character class
1386 9 nothing to repeat
1387 10 [this code is not in use]
1388 11 internal error: unexpected repeat
1389 12 unrecognized character after (? or (?-
1390 13 POSIX named classes are supported only within a class
1391 14 missing )
1392 15 reference to non-existent subpattern
1393 16 erroffset passed as NULL
1394 17 unknown option bit(s) set
1395 18 missing ) after comment
1396 19 [this code is not in use]
1397 20 regular expression is too large
1398 21 failed to get memory
1399 22 unmatched parentheses
1400 23 internal error: code overflow
1401 24 unrecognized character after (?<
1402 25 lookbehind assertion is not fixed length
1403 26 malformed number or name after (?(
1404 27 conditional group contains more than two branches
1405 28 assertion expected after (?(
1406 29 (?R or (?[+-]digits must be followed by )
1407 30 unknown POSIX class name
1408 31 POSIX collating elements are not supported
1409 32 this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UTF8 support
1410 33 [this code is not in use]
1411 34 character value in \x{...} sequence is too large
1412 35 invalid condition (?(0)
1413 36 \C not allowed in lookbehind assertion
1414 37 PCRE does not support \L, \l, \N{name}, \U, or \u
1415 38 number after (?C is > 255
1416 39 closing ) for (?C expected
1417 40 recursive call could loop indefinitely
1418 41 unrecognized character after (?P
1419 42 syntax error in subpattern name (missing terminator)
1420 43 two named subpatterns have the same name
1421 44 invalid UTF-8 string
1422 45 support for \P, \p, and \X has not been compiled
1423 46 malformed \P or \p sequence
1424 47 unknown property name after \P or \p
1425 48 subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)
1426 49 too many named subpatterns (maximum 10000)
1427 50 [this code is not in use]
1428 51 octal value is greater than \377 (not in UTF-8 mode)
1429 52 internal error: overran compiling workspace
1430 53 internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern
1431 not found
1432 54 DEFINE group contains more than one branch
1433 55 repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed
1434 56 inconsistent NEWLINE options
1435 57 \g is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted
1436 name/number or by a plain number
1437 58 a numbered reference must not be zero
1438 59 an argument is not allowed for (*ACCEPT), (*FAIL), or (*COMMIT)
1439 60 (*VERB) not recognized
1440 61 number is too big
1441 62 subpattern name expected
1442 63 digit expected after (?+
1443 64 ] is an invalid data character in JavaScript compatibility mode
1444 65 different names for subpatterns of the same number are
1445 not allowed
1446 66 (*MARK) must have an argument
1447 67 this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UCP support
1448 68 \c must be followed by an ASCII character
1449 69 \k is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted name
1450
1451 The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different
1452 values may be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.
1453
1454
1455 STUDYING A PATTERN
1456
1457 pcre_extra *pcre_study(const pcre *code, int options
1458 const char **errptr);
1459
1460 If a compiled pattern is going to be used several times, it is worth
1461 spending more time analyzing it in order to speed up the time taken for
1462 matching. The function pcre_study() takes a pointer to a compiled pat-
1463 tern as its first argument. If studying the pattern produces additional
1464 information that will help speed up matching, pcre_study() returns a
1465 pointer to a pcre_extra block, in which the study_data field points to
1466 the results of the study.
1467
1468 The returned value from pcre_study() can be passed directly to
1469 pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). However, a pcre_extra block also con-
1470 tains other fields that can be set by the caller before the block is
1471 passed; these are described below in the section on matching a pattern.
1472
1473 If studying the pattern does not produce any useful information,
1474 pcre_study() returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the calling program
1475 wants to pass any of the other fields to pcre_exec() or
1476 pcre_dfa_exec(), it must set up its own pcre_extra block.
1477
1478 The second argument of pcre_study() contains option bits. There is only
1479 one option: PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE. If this is set, and the just-in-
1480 time compiler is available, the pattern is further compiled into
1481 machine code that executes much faster than the pcre_exec() matching
1482 function. If the just-in-time compiler is not available, this option is
1483 ignored. All other bits in the options argument must be zero.
1484
1485 JIT compilation is a heavyweight optimization. It can take some time
1486 for patterns to be analyzed, and for one-off matches and simple pat-
1487 terns the benefit of faster execution might be offset by a much slower
1488 study time. Not all patterns can be optimized by the JIT compiler. For
1489 those that cannot be handled, matching automatically falls back to the
1490 pcre_exec() interpreter. For more details, see the pcrejit documenta-
1491 tion.
1492
1493 The third argument for pcre_study() is a pointer for an error message.
1494 If studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it
1495 points to is set to NULL. Otherwise it is set to point to a textual
1496 error message. This is a static string that is part of the library. You
1497 must not try to free it. You should test the error pointer for NULL
1498 after calling pcre_study(), to be sure that it has run successfully.
1499
1500 When you are finished with a pattern, you can free the memory used for
1501 the study data by calling pcre_free_study(). This function was added to
1502 the API for release 8.20. For earlier versions, the memory could be
1503 freed with pcre_free(), just like the pattern itself. This will still
1504 work in cases where PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE is not used, but it is
1505 advisable to change to the new function when convenient.
1506
1507 This is a typical way in which pcre_study() is used (except that in a
1508 real application there should be tests for errors):
1509
1510 int rc;
1511 pcre *re;
1512 pcre_extra *sd;
1513 re = pcre_compile("pattern", 0, &error, &erroroffset, NULL);
1514 sd = pcre_study(
1515 re, /* result of pcre_compile() */
1516 0, /* no options */
1517 &error); /* set to NULL or points to a message */
1518 rc = pcre_exec( /* see below for details of pcre_exec() options */
1519 re, sd, "subject", 7, 0, 0, ovector, 30);
1520 ...
1521 pcre_free_study(sd);
1522 pcre_free(re);
1523
1524 Studying a pattern does two things: first, a lower bound for the length
1525 of subject string that is needed to match the pattern is computed. This
1526 does not mean that there are any strings of that length that match, but
1527 it does guarantee that no shorter strings match. The value is used by
1528 pcre_exec() and pcre_dfa_exec() to avoid wasting time by trying to
1529 match strings that are shorter than the lower bound. You can find out
1530 the value in a calling program via the pcre_fullinfo() function.
1531
1532 Studying a pattern is also useful for non-anchored patterns that do not
1533 have a single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting
1534 bytes is created. This speeds up finding a position in the subject at
1535 which to start matching.
1536
1537 These two optimizations apply to both pcre_exec() and pcre_dfa_exec().
1538 However, they are not used by pcre_exec() if pcre_study() is called
1539 with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, and just-in-time compiling is
1540 successful. The optimizations can be disabled by setting the
1541 PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling pcre_exec() or
1542 pcre_dfa_exec(). You might want to do this if your pattern contains
1543 callouts or (*MARK) (which cannot be handled by the JIT compiler), and
1544 you want to make use of these facilities in cases where matching fails.
1545 See the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE below.
1546
1547
1548 LOCALE SUPPORT
1549
1550 PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are
1551 letters, digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed
1552 by character value. When running in UTF-8 mode, this applies only to
1553 characters with codes less than 128. By default, higher-valued codes
1554 never match escapes such as \w or \d, but they can be tested with \p if
1555 PCRE is built with Unicode character property support. Alternatively,
1556 the PCRE_UCP option can be set at compile time; this causes \w and
1557 friends to use Unicode property support instead of built-in tables. The
1558 use of locales with Unicode is discouraged. If you are handling charac-
1559 ters with codes greater than 128, you should either use UTF-8 and Uni-
1560 code, or use locales, but not try to mix the two.
1561
1562 PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used when the final
1563 argument of pcre_compile() is NULL. These are sufficient for many
1564 applications. Normally, the internal tables recognize only ASCII char-
1565 acters. However, when PCRE is built, it is possible to cause the inter-
1566 nal tables to be rebuilt in the default "C" locale of the local system,
1567 which may cause them to be different.
1568
1569 The internal tables can always be overridden by tables supplied by the
1570 application that calls PCRE. These may be created in a different locale
1571 from the default. As more and more applications change to using Uni-
1572 code, the need for this locale support is expected to die away.
1573
1574 External tables are built by calling the pcre_maketables() function,
1575 which has no arguments, in the relevant locale. The result can then be
1576 passed to pcre_compile() or pcre_exec() as often as necessary. For
1577 example, to build and use tables that are appropriate for the French
1578 locale (where accented characters with values greater than 128 are
1579 treated as letters), the following code could be used:
1580
1581 setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "fr_FR");
1582 tables = pcre_maketables();
1583 re = pcre_compile(..., tables);
1584
1585 The locale name "fr_FR" is used on Linux and other Unix-like systems;
1586 if you are using Windows, the name for the French locale is "french".
1587
1588 When pcre_maketables() runs, the tables are built in memory that is
1589 obtained via pcre_malloc. It is the caller's responsibility to ensure
1590 that the memory containing the tables remains available for as long as
1591 it is needed.
1592
1593 The pointer that is passed to pcre_compile() is saved with the compiled
1594 pattern, and the same tables are used via this pointer by pcre_study()
1595 and normally also by pcre_exec(). Thus, by default, for any single pat-
1596 tern, compilation, studying and matching all happen in the same locale,
1597 but different patterns can be compiled in different locales.
1598
1599 It is possible to pass a table pointer or NULL (indicating the use of
1600 the internal tables) to pcre_exec(). Although not intended for this
1601 purpose, this facility could be used to match a pattern in a different
1602 locale from the one in which it was compiled. Passing table pointers at
1603 run time is discussed below in the section on matching a pattern.
1604
1605
1606 INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN
1607
1608 int pcre_fullinfo(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
1609 int what, void *where);
1610
1611 The pcre_fullinfo() function returns information about a compiled pat-
1612 tern. It replaces the obsolete pcre_info() function, which is neverthe-
1613 less retained for backwards compability (and is documented below).
1614
1615 The first argument for pcre_fullinfo() is a pointer to the compiled
1616 pattern. The second argument is the result of pcre_study(), or NULL if
1617 the pattern was not studied. The third argument specifies which piece
1618 of information is required, and the fourth argument is a pointer to a
1619 variable to receive the data. The yield of the function is zero for
1620 success, or one of the following negative numbers:
1621
1622 PCRE_ERROR_NULL the argument code was NULL
1623 the argument where was NULL
1624 PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC the "magic number" was not found
1625 PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION the value of what was invalid
1626
1627 The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled pattern as
1628 an simple check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. Here is a
1629 typical call of pcre_fullinfo(), to obtain the length of the compiled
1630 pattern:
1631
1632 int rc;
1633 size_t length;
1634 rc = pcre_fullinfo(
1635 re, /* result of pcre_compile() */
1636 sd, /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */
1637 PCRE_INFO_SIZE, /* what is required */
1638 &length); /* where to put the data */
1639
1640 The possible values for the third argument are defined in pcre.h, and
1641 are as follows:
1642
1643 PCRE_INFO_BACKREFMAX
1644
1645 Return the number of the highest back reference in the pattern. The
1646 fourth argument should point to an int variable. Zero is returned if
1647 there are no back references.
1648
1649 PCRE_INFO_CAPTURECOUNT
1650
1651 Return the number of capturing subpatterns in the pattern. The fourth
1652 argument should point to an int variable.
1653
1654 PCRE_INFO_DEFAULT_TABLES
1655
1656 Return a pointer to the internal default character tables within PCRE.
1657 The fourth argument should point to an unsigned char * variable. This
1658 information call is provided for internal use by the pcre_study() func-
1659 tion. External callers can cause PCRE to use its internal tables by
1660 passing a NULL table pointer.
1661
1662 PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE
1663
1664 Return information about the first byte of any matched string, for a
1665 non-anchored pattern. The fourth argument should point to an int vari-
1666 able. (This option used to be called PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR; the old name
1667 is still recognized for backwards compatibility.)
1668
1669 If there is a fixed first byte, for example, from a pattern such as
1670 (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. Otherwise, if either
1671
1672 (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every
1673 branch starts with "^", or
1674
1675 (b) every branch of the pattern starts with ".*" and PCRE_DOTALL is not
1676 set (if it were set, the pattern would be anchored),
1677
1678 -1 is returned, indicating that the pattern matches only at the start
1679 of a subject string or after any newline within the string. Otherwise
1680 -2 is returned. For anchored patterns, -2 is returned.
1681
1682 PCRE_INFO_FIRSTTABLE
1683
1684 If the pattern was studied, and this resulted in the construction of a
1685 256-bit table indicating a fixed set of bytes for the first byte in any
1686 matching string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is
1687 returned. The fourth argument should point to an unsigned char * vari-
1688 able.
1689
1690 PCRE_INFO_HASCRORLF
1691
1692 Return 1 if the pattern contains any explicit matches for CR or LF
1693 characters, otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an int
1694 variable. An explicit match is either a literal CR or LF character, or
1695 \r or \n.
1696
1697 PCRE_INFO_JCHANGED
1698
1699 Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option setting is used in the pattern,
1700 otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an int variable. (?J)
1701 and (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.
1702
1703 PCRE_INFO_JIT
1704
1705 Return 1 if the pattern was studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE
1706 option, and just-in-time compiling was successful. The fourth argument
1707 should point to an int variable. A return value of 0 means that JIT
1708 support is not available in this version of PCRE, or that the pattern
1709 was not studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, or that the JIT
1710 compiler could not handle this particular pattern. See the pcrejit doc-
1711 umentation for details of what can and cannot be handled.
1712
1713 PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL
1714
1715 Return the value of the rightmost literal byte that must exist in any
1716 matched string, other than at its start, if such a byte has been
1717 recorded. The fourth argument should point to an int variable. If there
1718 is no such byte, -1 is returned. For anchored patterns, a last literal
1719 byte is recorded only if it follows something of variable length. For
1720 example, for the pattern /^a\d+z\d+/ the returned value is "z", but for
1721 /^a\dz\d/ the returned value is -1.
1722
1723 PCRE_INFO_MINLENGTH
1724
1725 If the pattern was studied and a minimum length for matching subject
1726 strings was computed, its value is returned. Otherwise the returned
1727 value is -1. The value is a number of characters, not bytes (this may
1728 be relevant in UTF-8 mode). The fourth argument should point to an int
1729 variable. A non-negative value is a lower bound to the length of any
1730 matching string. There may not be any strings of that length that do
1731 actually match, but every string that does match is at least that long.
1732
1733 PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT
1734 PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE
1735 PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE
1736
1737 PCRE supports the use of named as well as numbered capturing parenthe-
1738 ses. The names are just an additional way of identifying the parenthe-
1739 ses, which still acquire numbers. Several convenience functions such as
1740 pcre_get_named_substring() are provided for extracting captured sub-
1741 strings by name. It is also possible to extract the data directly, by
1742 first converting the name to a number in order to access the correct
1743 pointers in the output vector (described with pcre_exec() below). To do
1744 the conversion, you need to use the name-to-number map, which is
1745 described by these three values.
1746
1747 The map consists of a number of fixed-size entries. PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT
1748 gives the number of entries, and PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE gives the size
1749 of each entry; both of these return an int value. The entry size
1750 depends on the length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE returns
1751 a pointer to the first entry of the table (a pointer to char). The
1752 first two bytes of each entry are the number of the capturing parenthe-
1753 sis, most significant byte first. The rest of the entry is the corre-
1754 sponding name, zero terminated.
1755
1756 The names are in alphabetical order. Duplicate names may appear if (?|
1757 is used to create multiple groups with the same number, as described in
1758 the section on duplicate subpattern numbers in the pcrepattern page.
1759 Duplicate names for subpatterns with different numbers are permitted
1760 only if PCRE_DUPNAMES is set. In all cases of duplicate names, they
1761 appear in the table in the order in which they were found in the pat-
1762 tern. In the absence of (?| this is the order of increasing number;
1763 when (?| is used this is not necessarily the case because later subpat-
1764 terns may have lower numbers.
1765
1766 As a simple example of the name/number table, consider the following
1767 pattern (assume PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including new-
1768 lines - is ignored):
1769
1770 (?<date> (?<year>(\d\d)?\d\d) -
1771 (?<month>\d\d) - (?<day>\d\d) )
1772
1773 There are four named subpatterns, so the table has four entries, and
1774 each entry in the table is eight bytes long. The table is as follows,
1775 with non-printing bytes shows in hexadecimal, and undefined bytes shown
1776 as ??:
1777
1778 00 01 d a t e 00 ??
1779 00 05 d a y 00 ?? ??
1780 00 04 m o n t h 00
1781 00 02 y e a r 00 ??
1782
1783 When writing code to extract data from named subpatterns using the
1784 name-to-number map, remember that the length of the entries is likely
1785 to be different for each compiled pattern.
1786
1787 PCRE_INFO_OKPARTIAL
1788
1789 Return 1 if the pattern can be used for partial matching with
1790 pcre_exec(), otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an int
1791 variable. From release 8.00, this always returns 1, because the
1792 restrictions that previously applied to partial matching have been
1793 lifted. The pcrepartial documentation gives details of partial match-
1794 ing.
1795
1796 PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS
1797
1798 Return a copy of the options with which the pattern was compiled. The
1799 fourth argument should point to an unsigned long int variable. These
1800 option bits are those specified in the call to pcre_compile(), modified
1801 by any top-level option settings at the start of the pattern itself. In
1802 other words, they are the options that will be in force when matching
1803 starts. For example, if the pattern /(?im)abc(?-i)d/ is compiled with
1804 the PCRE_EXTENDED option, the result is PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
1805 and PCRE_EXTENDED.
1806
1807 A pattern is automatically anchored by PCRE if all of its top-level
1808 alternatives begin with one of the following:
1809
1810 ^ unless PCRE_MULTILINE is set
1811 \A always
1812 \G always
1813 .* if PCRE_DOTALL is set and there are no back
1814 references to the subpattern in which .* appears
1815
1816 For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit is set in the options returned
1817 by pcre_fullinfo().
1818
1819 PCRE_INFO_SIZE
1820
1821 Return the size of the compiled pattern, that is, the value that was
1822 passed as the argument to pcre_malloc() when PCRE was getting memory in
1823 which to place the compiled data. The fourth argument should point to a
1824 size_t variable.
1825
1826 PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE
1827
1828 Return the size of the data block pointed to by the study_data field in
1829 a pcre_extra block. If pcre_extra is NULL, or there is no study data,
1830 zero is returned. The fourth argument should point to a size_t vari-
1831 able. The study_data field is set by pcre_study() to record informa-
1832 tion that will speed up matching (see the section entitled "Studying a
1833 pattern" above). The format of the study_data block is private, but its
1834 length is made available via this option so that it can be saved and
1835 restored (see the pcreprecompile documentation for details).
1836
1837
1838 OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION
1839
1840 int pcre_info(const pcre *code, int *optptr, int *firstcharptr);
1841
1842 The pcre_info() function is now obsolete because its interface is too
1843 restrictive to return all the available data about a compiled pattern.
1844 New programs should use pcre_fullinfo() instead. The yield of
1845 pcre_info() is the number of capturing subpatterns, or one of the fol-
1846 lowing negative numbers:
1847
1848 PCRE_ERROR_NULL the argument code was NULL
1849 PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC the "magic number" was not found
1850
1851 If the optptr argument is not NULL, a copy of the options with which
1852 the pattern was compiled is placed in the integer it points to (see
1853 PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS above).
1854
1855 If the pattern is not anchored and the firstcharptr argument is not
1856 NULL, it is used to pass back information about the first character of
1857 any matched string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above).
1858
1859
1860 REFERENCE COUNTS
1861
1862 int pcre_refcount(pcre *code, int adjust);
1863
1864 The pcre_refcount() function is used to maintain a reference count in
1865 the data block that contains a compiled pattern. It is provided for the
1866 benefit of applications that operate in an object-oriented manner,
1867 where different parts of the application may be using the same compiled
1868 pattern, but you want to free the block when they are all done.
1869
1870 When a pattern is compiled, the reference count field is initialized to
1871 zero. It is changed only by calling this function, whose action is to
1872 add the adjust value (which may be positive or negative) to it. The
1873 yield of the function is the new value. However, the value of the count
1874 is constrained to lie between 0 and 65535, inclusive. If the new value
1875 is outside these limits, it is forced to the appropriate limit value.
1876
1877 Except when it is zero, the reference count is not correctly preserved
1878 if a pattern is compiled on one host and then transferred to a host
1879 whose byte-order is different. (This seems a highly unlikely scenario.)
1880
1881
1882 MATCHING A PATTERN: THE TRADITIONAL FUNCTION
1883
1884 int pcre_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
1885 const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
1886 int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize);
1887
1888 The function pcre_exec() is called to match a subject string against a
1889 compiled pattern, which is passed in the code argument. If the pattern
1890 was studied, the result of the study should be passed in the extra
1891 argument. You can call pcre_exec() with the same code and extra argu-
1892 ments as many times as you like, in order to match different subject
1893 strings with the same pattern.
1894
1895 This function is the main matching facility of the library, and it
1896 operates in a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is also an
1897 alternative matching function, which is described below in the section
1898 about the pcre_dfa_exec() function.
1899
1900 In most applications, the pattern will have been compiled (and option-
1901 ally studied) in the same process that calls pcre_exec(). However, it
1902 is possible to save compiled patterns and study data, and then use them
1903 later in different processes, possibly even on different hosts. For a
1904 discussion about this, see the pcreprecompile documentation.
1905
1906 Here is an example of a simple call to pcre_exec():
1907
1908 int rc;
1909 int ovector[30];
1910 rc = pcre_exec(
1911 re, /* result of pcre_compile() */
1912 NULL, /* we didn't study the pattern */
1913 "some string", /* the subject string */
1914 11, /* the length of the subject string */
1915 0, /* start at offset 0 in the subject */
1916 0, /* default options */
1917 ovector, /* vector of integers for substring information */
1918 30); /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
1919
1920 Extra data for pcre_exec()
1921
1922 If the extra argument is not NULL, it must point to a pcre_extra data
1923 block. The pcre_study() function returns such a block (when it doesn't
1924 return NULL), but you can also create one for yourself, and pass addi-
1925 tional information in it. The pcre_extra block contains the following
1926 fields (not necessarily in this order):
1927
1928 unsigned long int flags;
1929 void *study_data;
1930 void *executable_jit;
1931 unsigned long int match_limit;
1932 unsigned long int match_limit_recursion;
1933 void *callout_data;
1934 const unsigned char *tables;
1935 unsigned char **mark;
1936
1937 The flags field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields
1938 are set. The flag bits are:
1939
1940 PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA
1941 PCRE_EXTRA_EXECUTABLE_JIT
1942 PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT
1943 PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION
1944 PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA
1945 PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES
1946 PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
1947
1948 Other flag bits should be set to zero. The study_data field and some-
1949 times the executable_jit field are set in the pcre_extra block that is
1950 returned by pcre_study(), together with the appropriate flag bits. You
1951 should not set these yourself, but you may add to the block by setting
1952 the other fields and their corresponding flag bits.
1953
1954 The match_limit field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up
1955 a vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to
1956 match, but which have a very large number of possibilities in their
1957 search trees. The classic example is a pattern that uses nested unlim-
1958 ited repeats.
1959
1960 Internally, pcre_exec() uses a function called match(), which it calls
1961 repeatedly (sometimes recursively). The limit set by match_limit is
1962 imposed on the number of times this function is called during a match,
1963 which has the effect of limiting the amount of backtracking that can
1964 take place. For patterns that are not anchored, the count restarts from
1965 zero for each position in the subject string.
1966
1967 When pcre_exec() is called with a pattern that was successfully studied
1968 with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the way that the matching is
1969 executed is entirely different. However, there is still the possibility
1970 of runaway matching that goes on for a very long time, and so the
1971 match_limit value is also used in this case (but in a different way) to
1972 limit how long the matching can continue.
1973
1974 The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the
1975 default default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme
1976 cases. You can override the default by suppling pcre_exec() with a
1977 pcre_extra block in which match_limit is set, and
1978 PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT is set in the flags field. If the limit is
1979 exceeded, pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT.
1980
1981 The match_limit_recursion field is similar to match_limit, but instead
1982 of limiting the total number of times that match() is called, it limits
1983 the depth of recursion. The recursion depth is a smaller number than
1984 the total number of calls, because not all calls to match() are recur-
1985 sive. This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than match_limit.
1986
1987 Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of machine stack that
1988 can be used, or, when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap
1989 instead of the stack, the amount of heap memory that can be used. This
1990 limit is not relevant, and is ignored, if the pattern was successfully
1991 studied with PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE.
1992
1993 The default value for match_limit_recursion can be set when PCRE is
1994 built; the default default is the same value as the default for
1995 match_limit. You can override the default by suppling pcre_exec() with
1996 a pcre_extra block in which match_limit_recursion is set, and
1997 PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION is set in the flags field. If the
1998 limit is exceeded, pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT.
1999
2000 The callout_data field is used in conjunction with the "callout" fea-
2001 ture, and is described in the pcrecallout documentation.
2002
2003 The tables field is used to pass a character tables pointer to
2004 pcre_exec(); this overrides the value that is stored with the compiled
2005 pattern. A non-NULL value is stored with the compiled pattern only if
2006 custom tables were supplied to pcre_compile() via its tableptr argu-
2007 ment. If NULL is passed to pcre_exec() using this mechanism, it forces
2008 PCRE's internal tables to be used. This facility is helpful when re-
2009 using patterns that have been saved after compiling with an external
2010 set of tables, because the external tables might be at a different
2011 address when pcre_exec() is called. See the pcreprecompile documenta-
2012 tion for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.
2013
2014 If PCRE_EXTRA_MARK is set in the flags field, the mark field must be
2015 set to point to a char * variable. If the pattern contains any back-
2016 tracking control verbs such as (*MARK:NAME), and the execution ends up
2017 with a name to pass back, a pointer to the name string (zero termi-
2018 nated) is placed in the variable pointed to by the mark field. The
2019 names are within the compiled pattern; if you wish to retain such a
2020 name you must copy it before freeing the memory of a compiled pattern.
2021 If there is no name to pass back, the variable pointed to by the mark
2022 field set to NULL. For details of the backtracking control verbs, see
2023 the section entitled "Backtracking control" in the pcrepattern documen-
2024 tation.
2025
2026 Option bits for pcre_exec()
2027
2028 The unused bits of the options argument for pcre_exec() must be zero.
2029 The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx,
2030 PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
2031 PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, and
2032 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD.
2033
2034 If the pattern was successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE
2035 option, the only supported options for JIT execution are
2036 PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, and
2037 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART. Note in particular that partial matching is not
2038 supported. If an unsupported option is used, JIT execution is disabled
2039 and the normal interpretive code in pcre_exec() is run.
2040
2041 PCRE_ANCHORED
2042
2043 The PCRE_ANCHORED option limits pcre_exec() to matching at the first
2044 matching position. If a pattern was compiled with PCRE_ANCHORED, or
2045 turned out to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made
2046 unachored at matching time.
2047
2048 PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
2049 PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
2050
2051 These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \R escape
2052 sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF,
2053 or to match any Unicode newline sequence. These options override the
2054 choice that was made or defaulted when the pattern was compiled.
2055
2056 PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
2057 PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
2058 PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
2059 PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
2060 PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
2061
2062 These options override the newline definition that was chosen or
2063 defaulted when the pattern was compiled. For details, see the descrip-
2064 tion of pcre_compile() above. During matching, the newline choice
2065 affects the behaviour of the dot, circumflex, and dollar metacharac-
2066 ters. It may also alter the way the match position is advanced after a
2067 match failure for an unanchored pattern.
2068
2069 When PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF, or PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY is
2070 set, and a match attempt for an unanchored pattern fails when the cur-
2071 rent position is at a CRLF sequence, and the pattern contains no
2072 explicit matches for CR or LF characters, the match position is
2073 advanced by two characters instead of one, in other words, to after the
2074 CRLF.
2075
2076 The above rule is a compromise that makes the most common cases work as
2077 expected. For example, if the pattern is .+A (and the PCRE_DOTALL
2078 option is not set), it does not match the string "\r\nA" because, after
2079 failing at the start, it skips both the CR and the LF before retrying.
2080 However, the pattern [\r\n]A does match that string, because it con-
2081 tains an explicit CR or LF reference, and so advances only by one char-
2082 acter after the first failure.
2083
2084 An explicit match for CR of LF is either a literal appearance of one of
2085 those characters, or one of the \r or \n escape sequences. Implicit
2086 matches such as [^X] do not count, nor does \s (which includes CR and
2087 LF in the characters that it matches).
2088
2089 Notwithstanding the above, anomalous effects may still occur when CRLF
2090 is a valid newline sequence and explicit \r or \n escapes appear in the
2091 pattern.
2092
2093 PCRE_NOTBOL
2094
2095 This option specifies that first character of the subject string is not
2096 the beginning of a line, so the circumflex metacharacter should not
2097 match before it. Setting this without PCRE_MULTILINE (at compile time)
2098 causes circumflex never to match. This option affects only the behav-
2099 iour of the circumflex metacharacter. It does not affect \A.
2100
2101 PCRE_NOTEOL
2102
2103 This option specifies that the end of the subject string is not the end
2104 of a line, so the dollar metacharacter should not match it nor (except
2105 in multiline mode) a newline immediately before it. Setting this with-
2106 out PCRE_MULTILINE (at compile time) causes dollar never to match. This
2107 option affects only the behaviour of the dollar metacharacter. It does
2108 not affect \Z or \z.
2109
2110 PCRE_NOTEMPTY
2111
2112 An empty string is not considered to be a valid match if this option is
2113 set. If there are alternatives in the pattern, they are tried. If all
2114 the alternatives match the empty string, the entire match fails. For
2115 example, if the pattern
2116
2117 a?b?
2118
2119 is applied to a string not beginning with "a" or "b", it matches an
2120 empty string at the start of the subject. With PCRE_NOTEMPTY set, this
2121 match is not valid, so PCRE searches further into the string for occur-
2122 rences of "a" or "b".
2123
2124 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART
2125
2126 This is like PCRE_NOTEMPTY, except that an empty string match that is
2127 not at the start of the subject is permitted. If the pattern is
2128 anchored, such a match can occur only if the pattern contains \K.
2129
2130 Perl has no direct equivalent of PCRE_NOTEMPTY or
2131 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART, but it does make a special case of a pattern
2132 match of the empty string within its split() function, and when using
2133 the /g modifier. It is possible to emulate Perl's behaviour after
2134 matching a null string by first trying the match again at the same off-
2135 set with PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and PCRE_ANCHORED, and then if that
2136 fails, by advancing the starting offset (see below) and trying an ordi-
2137 nary match again. There is some code that demonstrates how to do this
2138 in the pcredemo sample program. In the most general case, you have to
2139 check to see if the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline,
2140 and if so, and the current character is CR followed by LF, advance the
2141 starting offset by two characters instead of one.
2142
2143 PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
2144
2145 There are a number of optimizations that pcre_exec() uses at the start
2146 of a match, in order to speed up the process. For example, if it is
2147 known that an unanchored match must start with a specific character, it
2148 searches the subject for that character, and fails immediately if it
2149 cannot find it, without actually running the main matching function.
2150 This means that a special item such as (*COMMIT) at the start of a pat-
2151 tern is not considered until after a suitable starting point for the
2152 match has been found. When callouts or (*MARK) items are in use, these
2153 "start-up" optimizations can cause them to be skipped if the pattern is
2154 never actually used. The start-up optimizations are in effect a pre-
2155 scan of the subject that takes place before the pattern is run.
2156
2157 The PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option disables the start-up optimizations,
2158 possibly causing performance to suffer, but ensuring that in cases
2159 where the result is "no match", the callouts do occur, and that items
2160 such as (*COMMIT) and (*MARK) are considered at every possible starting
2161 position in the subject string. If PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE is set at
2162 compile time, it cannot be unset at matching time.
2163
2164 Setting PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE can change the outcome of a matching
2165 operation. Consider the pattern
2166
2167 (*COMMIT)ABC
2168
2169 When this is compiled, PCRE records the fact that a match must start
2170 with the character "A". Suppose the subject string is "DEFABC". The
2171 start-up optimization scans along the subject, finds "A" and runs the
2172 first match attempt from there. The (*COMMIT) item means that the pat-
2173 tern must match the current starting position, which in this case, it
2174 does. However, if the same match is run with PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
2175 set, the initial scan along the subject string does not happen. The
2176 first match attempt is run starting from "D" and when this fails,
2177 (*COMMIT) prevents any further matches being tried, so the overall
2178 result is "no match". If the pattern is studied, more start-up opti-
2179 mizations may be used. For example, a minimum length for the subject
2180 may be recorded. Consider the pattern
2181
2182 (*MARK:A)(X|Y)
2183
2184 The minimum length for a match is one character. If the subject is
2185 "ABC", there will be attempts to match "ABC", "BC", "C", and then
2186 finally an empty string. If the pattern is studied, the final attempt
2187 does not take place, because PCRE knows that the subject is too short,
2188 and so the (*MARK) is never encountered. In this case, studying the
2189 pattern does not affect the overall match result, which is still "no
2190 match", but it does affect the auxiliary information that is returned.
2191
2192 PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
2193
2194 When PCRE_UTF8 is set at compile time, the validity of the subject as a
2195 UTF-8 string is automatically checked when pcre_exec() is subsequently
2196 called. The value of startoffset is also checked to ensure that it
2197 points to the start of a UTF-8 character. There is a discussion about
2198 the validity of UTF-8 strings in the section on UTF-8 support in the
2199 main pcre page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found,
2200 pcre_exec() returns the error PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or, if PCRE_PAR-
2201 TIAL_HARD is set and the problem is a truncated UTF-8 character at the
2202 end of the subject, PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8. In both cases, information
2203 about the precise nature of the error may also be returned (see the
2204 descriptions of these errors in the section entitled Error return val-
2205 ues from pcre_exec() below). If startoffset contains a value that does
2206 not point to the start of a UTF-8 character (or to the end of the sub-
2207 ject), PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET is returned.
2208
2209 If you already know that your subject is valid, and you want to skip
2210 these checks for performance reasons, you can set the
2211 PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option when calling pcre_exec(). You might want to
2212 do this for the second and subsequent calls to pcre_exec() if you are
2213 making repeated calls to find all the matches in a single subject
2214 string. However, you should be sure that the value of startoffset
2215 points to the start of a UTF-8 character (or the end of the subject).
2216 When PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8
2217 string as a subject or an invalid value of startoffset is undefined.
2218 Your program may crash.
2219
2220 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
2221 PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT
2222
2223 These options turn on the partial matching feature. For backwards com-
2224 patibility, PCRE_PARTIAL is a synonym for PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. A partial
2225 match occurs if the end of the subject string is reached successfully,
2226 but there are not enough subject characters to complete the match. If
2227 this happens when PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT (but not PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD) is set,
2228 matching continues by testing any remaining alternatives. Only if no
2229 complete match can be found is PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL returned instead of
2230 PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH. In other words, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT says that the
2231 caller is prepared to handle a partial match, but only if no complete
2232 match can be found.
2233
2234 If PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, it overrides PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. In this
2235 case, if a partial match is found, pcre_exec() immediately returns
2236 PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL, without considering any other alternatives. In
2237 other words, when PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, a partial match is consid-
2238 ered to be more important that an alternative complete match.
2239
2240 In both cases, the portion of the string that was inspected when the
2241 partial match was found is set as the first matching string. There is a
2242 more detailed discussion of partial and multi-segment matching, with
2243 examples, in the pcrepartial documentation.
2244
2245 The string to be matched by pcre_exec()
2246
2247 The subject string is passed to pcre_exec() as a pointer in subject, a
2248 length (in bytes) in length, and a starting byte offset in startoffset.
2249 If this is negative or greater than the length of the subject,
2250 pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET. When the starting offset is
2251 zero, the search for a match starts at the beginning of the subject,
2252 and this is by far the most common case. In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset
2253 must point to the start of a UTF-8 character (or the end of the sub-
2254 ject). Unlike the pattern string, the subject may contain binary zero
2255 bytes.
2256
2257 A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match
2258 in the same subject by calling pcre_exec() again after a previous suc-
2259 cess. Setting startoffset differs from just passing over a shortened
2260 string and setting PCRE_NOTBOL in the case of a pattern that begins
2261 with any kind of lookbehind. For example, consider the pattern
2262
2263 \Biss\B
2264
2265 which finds occurrences of "iss" in the middle of words. (\B matches
2266 only if the current position in the subject is not a word boundary.)
2267 When applied to the string "Mississipi" the first call to pcre_exec()
2268 finds the first occurrence. If pcre_exec() is called again with just
2269 the remainder of the subject, namely "issipi", it does not match,
2270 because \B is always false at the start of the subject, which is deemed
2271 to be a word boundary. However, if pcre_exec() is passed the entire
2272 string again, but with startoffset set to 4, it finds the second occur-
2273 rence of "iss" because it is able to look behind the starting point to
2274 discover that it is preceded by a letter.
2275
2276 Finding all the matches in a subject is tricky when the pattern can
2277 match an empty string. It is possible to emulate Perl's /g behaviour by
2278 first trying the match again at the same offset, with the
2279 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and PCRE_ANCHORED options, and then if that
2280 fails, advancing the starting offset and trying an ordinary match
2281 again. There is some code that demonstrates how to do this in the pcre-
2282 demo sample program. In the most general case, you have to check to see
2283 if the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline, and if so, and
2284 the current character is CR followed by LF, advance the starting offset
2285 by two characters instead of one.
2286
2287 If a non-zero starting offset is passed when the pattern is anchored,
2288 one attempt to match at the given offset is made. This can only succeed
2289 if the pattern does not require the match to be at the start of the
2290 subject.
2291
2292 How pcre_exec() returns captured substrings
2293
2294 In general, a pattern matches a certain portion of the subject, and in
2295 addition, further substrings from the subject may be picked out by
2296 parts of the pattern. Following the usage in Jeffrey Friedl's book,
2297 this is called "capturing" in what follows, and the phrase "capturing
2298 subpattern" is used for a fragment of a pattern that picks out a sub-
2299 string. PCRE supports several other kinds of parenthesized subpattern
2300 that do not cause substrings to be captured.
2301
2302 Captured substrings are returned to the caller via a vector of integers
2303 whose address is passed in ovector. The number of elements in the vec-
2304 tor is passed in ovecsize, which must be a non-negative number. Note:
2305 this argument is NOT the size of ovector in bytes.
2306
2307 The first two-thirds of the vector is used to pass back captured sub-
2308 strings, each substring using a pair of integers. The remaining third
2309 of the vector is used as workspace by pcre_exec() while matching cap-
2310 turing subpatterns, and is not available for passing back information.
2311 The number passed in ovecsize should always be a multiple of three. If
2312 it is not, it is rounded down.
2313
2314 When a match is successful, information about captured substrings is
2315 returned in pairs of integers, starting at the beginning of ovector,
2316 and continuing up to two-thirds of its length at the most. The first
2317 element of each pair is set to the byte offset of the first character
2318 in a substring, and the second is set to the byte offset of the first
2319 character after the end of a substring. Note: these values are always
2320 byte offsets, even in UTF-8 mode. They are not character counts.
2321
2322 The first pair of integers, ovector[0] and ovector[1], identify the
2323 portion of the subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next
2324 pair is used for the first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value
2325 returned by pcre_exec() is one more than the highest numbered pair that
2326 has been set. For example, if two substrings have been captured, the
2327 returned value is 3. If there are no capturing subpatterns, the return
2328 value from a successful match is 1, indicating that just the first pair
2329 of offsets has been set.
2330
2331 If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion
2332 of the string that it matched that is returned.
2333
2334 If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets,
2335 it is used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the
2336 function returns a value of zero. If neither the actual string matched
2337 not any captured substrings are of interest, pcre_exec() may be called
2338 with ovector passed as NULL and ovecsize as zero. However, if the pat-
2339 tern contains back references and the ovector is not big enough to
2340 remember the related substrings, PCRE has to get additional memory for
2341 use during matching. Thus it is usually advisable to supply an ovector
2342 of reasonable size.
2343
2344 There are some cases where zero is returned (indicating vector over-
2345 flow) when in fact the vector is exactly the right size for the final
2346 match. For example, consider the pattern
2347
2348 (a)(?:(b)c|bd)
2349
2350 If a vector of 6 elements (allowing for only 1 captured substring) is
2351 given with subject string "abd", pcre_exec() will try to set the second
2352 captured string, thereby recording a vector overflow, before failing to
2353 match "c" and backing up to try the second alternative. The zero
2354 return, however, does correctly indicate that the maximum number of
2355 slots (namely 2) have been filled. In similar cases where there is tem-
2356 porary overflow, but the final number of used slots is actually less
2357 than the maximum, a non-zero value is returned.
2358
2359 The pcre_fullinfo() function can be used to find out how many capturing
2360 subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for
2361 ovector that will allow for n captured substrings, in addition to the
2362 offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (n+1)*3.
2363
2364 It is possible for capturing subpattern number n+1 to match some part
2365 of the subject when subpattern n has not been used at all. For example,
2366 if the string "abc" is matched against the pattern (a|(z))(bc) the
2367 return from the function is 4, and subpatterns 1 and 3 are matched, but
2368 2 is not. When this happens, both values in the offset pairs corre-
2369 sponding to unused subpatterns are set to -1.
2370
2371 Offset values that correspond to unused subpatterns at the end of the
2372 expression are also set to -1. For example, if the string "abc" is
2373 matched against the pattern (abc)(x(yz)?)? subpatterns 2 and 3 are not
2374 matched. The return from the function is 2, because the highest used
2375 capturing subpattern number is 1, and the offsets for for the second
2376 and third capturing subpatterns (assuming the vector is large enough,
2377 of course) are set to -1.
2378
2379 Note: Elements in the first two-thirds of ovector that do not corre-
2380 spond to capturing parentheses in the pattern are never changed. That
2381 is, if a pattern contains n capturing parentheses, no more than ovec-
2382 tor[0] to ovector[2n+1] are set by pcre_exec(). The other elements (in
2383 the first two-thirds) retain whatever values they previously had.
2384
2385 Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured
2386 substrings as separate strings. These are described below.
2387
2388 Error return values from pcre_exec()
2389
2390 If pcre_exec() fails, it returns a negative number. The following are
2391 defined in the header file:
2392
2393 PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH (-1)
2394
2395 The subject string did not match the pattern.
2396
2397 PCRE_ERROR_NULL (-2)
2398
2399 Either code or subject was passed as NULL, or ovector was NULL and
2400 ovecsize was not zero.
2401
2402 PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION (-3)
2403
2404 An unrecognized bit was set in the options argument.
2405
2406 PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC (-4)
2407
2408 PCRE stores a 4-byte "magic number" at the start of the compiled code,
2409 to catch the case when it is passed a junk pointer and to detect when a
2410 pattern that was compiled in an environment of one endianness is run in
2411 an environment with the other endianness. This is the error that PCRE
2412 gives when the magic number is not present.
2413
2414 PCRE_ERROR_UNKNOWN_OPCODE (-5)
2415
2416 While running the pattern match, an unknown item was encountered in the
2417 compiled pattern. This error could be caused by a bug in PCRE or by
2418 overwriting of the compiled pattern.
2419
2420 PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY (-6)
2421
2422 If a pattern contains back references, but the ovector that is passed
2423 to pcre_exec() is not big enough to remember the referenced substrings,
2424 PCRE gets a block of memory at the start of matching to use for this
2425 purpose. If the call via pcre_malloc() fails, this error is given. The
2426 memory is automatically freed at the end of matching.
2427
2428 This error is also given if pcre_stack_malloc() fails in pcre_exec().
2429 This can happen only when PCRE has been compiled with --disable-stack-
2430 for-recursion.
2431
2432 PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7)
2433
2434 This error is used by the pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(),
2435 and pcre_get_substring_list() functions (see below). It is never
2436 returned by pcre_exec().
2437
2438 PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT (-8)
2439
2440 The backtracking limit, as specified by the match_limit field in a
2441 pcre_extra structure (or defaulted) was reached. See the description
2442 above.
2443
2444 PCRE_ERROR_CALLOUT (-9)
2445
2446 This error is never generated by pcre_exec() itself. It is provided for
2447 use by callout functions that want to yield a distinctive error code.
2448 See the pcrecallout documentation for details.
2449
2450 PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 (-10)
2451
2452 A string that contains an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence was passed as a
2453 subject, and the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option was not set. If the size of
2454 the output vector (ovecsize) is at least 2, the byte offset to the
2455 start of the the invalid UTF-8 character is placed in the first ele-
2456 ment, and a reason code is placed in the second element. The reason
2457 codes are listed in the following section. For backward compatibility,
2458 if PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set and the problem is a truncated UTF-8 char-
2459 acter at the end of the subject (reason codes 1 to 5),
2460 PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8 is returned instead of PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8.
2461
2462 PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)
2463
2464 The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was checked and
2465 found to be valid (the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option was not set), but the
2466 value of startoffset did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 charac-
2467 ter or the end of the subject.
2468
2469 PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL (-12)
2470
2471 The subject string did not match, but it did match partially. See the
2472 pcrepartial documentation for details of partial matching.
2473
2474 PCRE_ERROR_BADPARTIAL (-13)
2475
2476 This code is no longer in use. It was formerly returned when the
2477 PCRE_PARTIAL option was used with a compiled pattern containing items
2478 that were not supported for partial matching. From release 8.00
2479 onwards, there are no restrictions on partial matching.
2480
2481 PCRE_ERROR_INTERNAL (-14)
2482
2483 An unexpected internal error has occurred. This error could be caused
2484 by a bug in PCRE or by overwriting of the compiled pattern.
2485
2486 PCRE_ERROR_BADCOUNT (-15)
2487
2488 This error is given if the value of the ovecsize argument is negative.
2489
2490 PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT (-21)
2491
2492 The internal recursion limit, as specified by the match_limit_recursion
2493 field in a pcre_extra structure (or defaulted) was reached. See the
2494 description above.
2495
2496 PCRE_ERROR_BADNEWLINE (-23)
2497
2498 An invalid combination of PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx options was given.
2499
2500 PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET (-24)
2501
2502 The value of startoffset was negative or greater than the length of the
2503 subject, that is, the value in length.
2504
2505 PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8 (-25)
2506
2507 This error is returned instead of PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 when the subject
2508 string ends with a truncated UTF-8 character and the PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
2509 option is set. Information about the failure is returned as for
2510 PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8. It is in fact sufficient to detect this case, but
2511 this special error code for PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD precedes the implementa-
2512 tion of returned information; it is retained for backwards compatibil-
2513 ity.
2514
2515 PCRE_ERROR_RECURSELOOP (-26)
2516
2517 This error is returned when pcre_exec() detects a recursion loop within
2518 the pattern. Specifically, it means that either the whole pattern or a
2519 subpattern has been called recursively for the second time at the same
2520 position in the subject string. Some simple patterns that might do this
2521 are detected and faulted at compile time, but more complicated cases,
2522 in particular mutual recursions between two different subpatterns, can-
2523 not be detected until run time.
2524
2525 PCRE_ERROR_JIT_STACKLIMIT (-27)
2526
2527 This error is returned when a pattern that was successfully studied
2528 using the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option is being matched, but the mem-
2529 ory available for the just-in-time processing stack is not large
2530 enough. See the pcrejit documentation for more details.
2531
2532 Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by pcre_exec().
2533
2534 Reason codes for invalid UTF-8 strings
2535
2536 When pcre_exec() returns either PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or PCRE_ERROR_SHORT-
2537 UTF8, and the size of the output vector (ovecsize) is at least 2, the
2538 offset of the start of the invalid UTF-8 character is placed in the
2539 first output vector element (ovector[0]) and a reason code is placed in
2540 the second element (ovector[1]). The reason codes are given names in
2541 the pcre.h header file:
2542
2543 PCRE_UTF8_ERR1
2544 PCRE_UTF8_ERR2
2545 PCRE_UTF8_ERR3
2546 PCRE_UTF8_ERR4
2547 PCRE_UTF8_ERR5
2548
2549 The string ends with a truncated UTF-8 character; the code specifies
2550 how many bytes are missing (1 to 5). Although RFC 3629 restricts UTF-8
2551 characters to be no longer than 4 bytes, the encoding scheme (origi-
2552 nally defined by RFC 2279) allows for up to 6 bytes, and this is
2553 checked first; hence the possibility of 4 or 5 missing bytes.
2554
2555 PCRE_UTF8_ERR6
2556 PCRE_UTF8_ERR7
2557 PCRE_UTF8_ERR8
2558 PCRE_UTF8_ERR9
2559 PCRE_UTF8_ERR10
2560
2561 The two most significant bits of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, or 6th byte of
2562 the character do not have the binary value 0b10 (that is, either the
2563 most significant bit is 0, or the next bit is 1).
2564
2565 PCRE_UTF8_ERR11
2566 PCRE_UTF8_ERR12
2567
2568 A character that is valid by the RFC 2279 rules is either 5 or 6 bytes
2569 long; these code points are excluded by RFC 3629.
2570
2571 PCRE_UTF8_ERR13
2572
2573 A 4-byte character has a value greater than 0x10fff; these code points
2574 are excluded by RFC 3629.
2575
2576 PCRE_UTF8_ERR14
2577
2578 A 3-byte character has a value in the range 0xd800 to 0xdfff; this
2579 range of code points are reserved by RFC 3629 for use with UTF-16, and
2580 so are excluded from UTF-8.
2581
2582 PCRE_UTF8_ERR15
2583 PCRE_UTF8_ERR16
2584 PCRE_UTF8_ERR17
2585 PCRE_UTF8_ERR18
2586 PCRE_UTF8_ERR19
2587
2588 A 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-byte character is "overlong", that is, it codes
2589 for a value that can be represented by fewer bytes, which is invalid.
2590 For example, the two bytes 0xc0, 0xae give the value 0x2e, whose cor-
2591 rect coding uses just one byte.
2592
2593 PCRE_UTF8_ERR20
2594
2595 The two most significant bits of the first byte of a character have the
2596 binary value 0b10 (that is, the most significant bit is 1 and the sec-
2597 ond is 0). Such a byte can only validly occur as the second or subse-
2598 quent byte of a multi-byte character.
2599
2600 PCRE_UTF8_ERR21
2601
2602 The first byte of a character has the value 0xfe or 0xff. These values
2603 can never occur in a valid UTF-8 string.
2604
2605
2606 EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER
2607
2608 int pcre_copy_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
2609 int stringcount, int stringnumber, char *buffer,
2610 int buffersize);
2611
2612 int pcre_get_substring(const char *subject, int *ovector,
2613 int stringcount, int stringnumber,
2614 const char **stringptr);
2615
2616 int pcre_get_substring_list(const char *subject,
2617 int *ovector, int stringcount, const char ***listptr);
2618
2619 Captured substrings can be accessed directly by using the offsets
2620 returned by pcre_exec() in ovector. For convenience, the functions
2621 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), and pcre_get_sub-
2622 string_list() are provided for extracting captured substrings as new,
2623 separate, zero-terminated strings. These functions identify substrings
2624 by number. The next section describes functions for extracting named
2625 substrings.
2626
2627 A substring that contains a binary zero is correctly extracted and has
2628 a further zero added on the end, but the result is not, of course, a C
2629 string. However, you can process such a string by referring to the
2630 length that is returned by pcre_copy_substring() and pcre_get_sub-
2631 string(). Unfortunately, the interface to pcre_get_substring_list() is
2632 not adequate for handling strings containing binary zeros, because the
2633 end of the final string is not independently indicated.
2634
2635 The first three arguments are the same for all three of these func-
2636 tions: subject is the subject string that has just been successfully
2637 matched, ovector is a pointer to the vector of integer offsets that was
2638 passed to pcre_exec(), and stringcount is the number of substrings that
2639 were captured by the match, including the substring that matched the
2640 entire regular expression. This is the value returned by pcre_exec() if
2641 it is greater than zero. If pcre_exec() returned zero, indicating that
2642 it ran out of space in ovector, the value passed as stringcount should
2643 be the number of elements in the vector divided by three.
2644
2645 The functions pcre_copy_substring() and pcre_get_substring() extract a
2646 single substring, whose number is given as stringnumber. A value of
2647 zero extracts the substring that matched the entire pattern, whereas
2648 higher values extract the captured substrings. For pcre_copy_sub-
2649 string(), the string is placed in buffer, whose length is given by
2650 buffersize, while for pcre_get_substring() a new block of memory is
2651 obtained via pcre_malloc, and its address is returned via stringptr.
2652 The yield of the function is the length of the string, not including
2653 the terminating zero, or one of these error codes:
2654
2655 PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY (-6)
2656
2657 The buffer was too small for pcre_copy_substring(), or the attempt to
2658 get memory failed for pcre_get_substring().
2659
2660 PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7)
2661
2662 There is no substring whose number is stringnumber.
2663
2664 The pcre_get_substring_list() function extracts all available sub-
2665 strings and builds a list of pointers to them. All this is done in a
2666 single block of memory that is obtained via pcre_malloc. The address of
2667 the memory block is returned via listptr, which is also the start of
2668 the list of string pointers. The end of the list is marked by a NULL
2669 pointer. The yield of the function is zero if all went well, or the
2670 error code
2671
2672 PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY (-6)
2673
2674 if the attempt to get the memory block failed.
2675
2676 When any of these functions encounter a substring that is unset, which
2677 can happen when capturing subpattern number n+1 matches some part of
2678 the subject, but subpattern n has not been used at all, they return an
2679 empty string. This can be distinguished from a genuine zero-length sub-
2680 string by inspecting the appropriate offset in ovector, which is nega-
2681 tive for unset substrings.
2682
2683 The two convenience functions pcre_free_substring() and pcre_free_sub-
2684 string_list() can be used to free the memory returned by a previous
2685 call of pcre_get_substring() or pcre_get_substring_list(), respec-
2686 tively. They do nothing more than call the function pointed to by
2687 pcre_free, which of course could be called directly from a C program.
2688 However, PCRE is used in some situations where it is linked via a spe-
2689 cial interface to another programming language that cannot use
2690 pcre_free directly; it is for these cases that the functions are pro-
2691 vided.
2692
2693
2694 EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NAME
2695
2696 int pcre_get_stringnumber(const pcre *code,
2697 const char *name);
2698
2699 int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *code,
2700 const char *subject, int *ovector,
2701 int stringcount, const char *stringname,
2702 char *buffer, int buffersize);
2703
2704 int pcre_get_named_substring(const pcre *code,
2705 const char *subject, int *ovector,
2706 int stringcount, const char *stringname,
2707 const char **stringptr);
2708
2709 To extract a substring by name, you first have to find associated num-
2710 ber. For example, for this pattern
2711
2712 (a+)b(?<xxx>\d+)...
2713
2714 the number of the subpattern called "xxx" is 2. If the name is known to
2715 be unique (PCRE_DUPNAMES was not set), you can find the number from the
2716 name by calling pcre_get_stringnumber(). The first argument is the com-
2717 piled pattern, and the second is the name. The yield of the function is
2718 the subpattern number, or PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if there is no
2719 subpattern of that name.
2720
2721 Given the number, you can extract the substring directly, or use one of
2722 the functions described in the previous section. For convenience, there
2723 are also two functions that do the whole job.
2724
2725 Most of the arguments of pcre_copy_named_substring() and
2726 pcre_get_named_substring() are the same as those for the similarly
2727 named functions that extract by number. As these are described in the
2728 previous section, they are not re-described here. There are just two
2729 differences:
2730
2731 First, instead of a substring number, a substring name is given. Sec-
2732 ond, there is an extra argument, given at the start, which is a pointer
2733 to the compiled pattern. This is needed in order to gain access to the
2734 name-to-number translation table.
2735
2736 These functions call pcre_get_stringnumber(), and if it succeeds, they
2737 then call pcre_copy_substring() or pcre_get_substring(), as appropri-
2738 ate. NOTE: If PCRE_DUPNAMES is set and there are duplicate names, the
2739 behaviour may not be what you want (see the next section).
2740
2741 Warning: If the pattern uses the (?| feature to set up multiple subpat-
2742 terns with the same number, as described in the section on duplicate
2743 subpattern numbers in the pcrepattern page, you cannot use names to
2744 distinguish the different subpatterns, because names are not included
2745 in the compiled code. The matching process uses only numbers. For this
2746 reason, the use of different names for subpatterns of the same number
2747 causes an error at compile time.
2748
2749
2750 DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES
2751
2752 int pcre_get_stringtable_entries(const pcre *code,
2753 const char *name, char **first, char **last);
2754
2755 When a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_DUPNAMES option, names for
2756 subpatterns are not required to be unique. (Duplicate names are always
2757 allowed for subpatterns with the same number, created by using the (?|
2758 feature. Indeed, if such subpatterns are named, they are required to
2759 use the same names.)
2760
2761 Normally, patterns with duplicate names are such that in any one match,
2762 only one of the named subpatterns participates. An example is shown in
2763 the pcrepattern documentation.
2764
2765 When duplicates are present, pcre_copy_named_substring() and
2766 pcre_get_named_substring() return the first substring corresponding to
2767 the given name that is set. If none are set, PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING
2768 (-7) is returned; no data is returned. The pcre_get_stringnumber()
2769 function returns one of the numbers that are associated with the name,
2770 but it is not defined which it is.
2771
2772 If you want to get full details of all captured substrings for a given
2773 name, you must use the pcre_get_stringtable_entries() function. The
2774 first argument is the compiled pattern, and the second is the name. The
2775 third and fourth are pointers to variables which are updated by the
2776 function. After it has run, they point to the first and last entries in
2777 the name-to-number table for the given name. The function itself
2778 returns the length of each entry, or PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if
2779 there are none. The format of the table is described above in the sec-
2780 tion entitled Information about a pattern above. Given all the rele-
2781 vant entries for the name, you can extract each of their numbers, and
2782 hence the captured data, if any.
2783
2784
2785 FINDING ALL POSSIBLE MATCHES
2786
2787 The traditional matching function uses a similar algorithm to Perl,
2788 which stops when it finds the first match, starting at a given point in
2789 the subject. If you want to find all possible matches, or the longest
2790 possible match, consider using the alternative matching function (see
2791 below) instead. If you cannot use the alternative function, but still
2792 need to find all possible matches, you can kludge it up by making use
2793 of the callout facility, which is described in the pcrecallout documen-
2794 tation.
2795
2796 What you have to do is to insert a callout right at the end of the pat-
2797 tern. When your callout function is called, extract and save the cur-
2798 rent matched substring. Then return 1, which forces pcre_exec() to
2799 backtrack and try other alternatives. Ultimately, when it runs out of
2800 matches, pcre_exec() will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.
2801
2802
2803 MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION
2804
2805 int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *code, const pcre_extra *extra,
2806 const char *subject, int length, int startoffset,
2807 int options, int *ovector, int ovecsize,
2808 int *workspace, int wscount);
2809
2810 The function pcre_dfa_exec() is called to match a subject string
2811 against a compiled pattern, using a matching algorithm that scans the
2812 subject string just once, and does not backtrack. This has different
2813 characteristics to the normal algorithm, and is not compatible with
2814 Perl. Some of the features of PCRE patterns are not supported. Never-
2815 theless, there are times when this kind of matching can be useful. For
2816 a discussion of the two matching algorithms, and a list of features
2817 that pcre_dfa_exec() does not support, see the pcrematching documenta-
2818 tion.
2819
2820 The arguments for the pcre_dfa_exec() function are the same as for
2821 pcre_exec(), plus two extras. The ovector argument is used in a differ-
2822 ent way, and this is described below. The other common arguments are
2823 used in the same way as for pcre_exec(), so their description is not
2824 repeated here.
2825
2826 The two additional arguments provide workspace for the function. The
2827 workspace vector should contain at least 20 elements. It is used for
2828 keeping track of multiple paths through the pattern tree. More
2829 workspace will be needed for patterns and subjects where there are a
2830 lot of potential matches.
2831
2832 Here is an example of a simple call to pcre_dfa_exec():
2833
2834 int rc;
2835 int ovector[10];
2836 int wspace[20];
2837 rc = pcre_dfa_exec(
2838 re, /* result of pcre_compile() */
2839 NULL, /* we didn't study the pattern */
2840 "some string", /* the subject string */
2841 11, /* the length of the subject string */
2842 0, /* start at offset 0 in the subject */
2843 0, /* default options */
2844 ovector, /* vector of integers for substring information */
2845 10, /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
2846 wspace, /* working space vector */
2847 20); /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
2848
2849 Option bits for pcre_dfa_exec()
2850
2851 The unused bits of the options argument for pcre_dfa_exec() must be
2852 zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEW-
2853 LINE_xxx, PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY,
2854 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF,
2855 PCRE_BSR_UNICODE, PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD, PCRE_PAR-
2856 TIAL_SOFT, PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST, and PCRE_DFA_RESTART. All but the last
2857 four of these are exactly the same as for pcre_exec(), so their
2858 description is not repeated here.
2859
2860 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
2861 PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT
2862
2863 These have the same general effect as they do for pcre_exec(), but the
2864 details are slightly different. When PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set for
2865 pcre_dfa_exec(), it returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end of the sub-
2866 ject is reached and there is still at least one matching possibility
2867 that requires additional characters. This happens even if some complete
2868 matches have also been found. When PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT is set, the return
2869 code PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH is converted into PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end
2870 of the subject is reached, there have been no complete matches, but
2871 there is still at least one matching possibility. The portion of the
2872 string that was inspected when the longest partial match was found is
2873 set as the first matching string in both cases. There is a more
2874 detailed discussion of partial and multi-segment matching, with exam-
2875 ples, in the pcrepartial documentation.
2876
2877 PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST
2878
2879 Setting the PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST option causes the matching algorithm to
2880 stop as soon as it has found one match. Because of the way the alterna-
2881 tive algorithm works, this is necessarily the shortest possible match
2882 at the first possible matching point in the subject string.
2883
2884 PCRE_DFA_RESTART
2885
2886 When pcre_dfa_exec() returns a partial match, it is possible to call it
2887 again, with additional subject characters, and have it continue with
2888 the same match. The PCRE_DFA_RESTART option requests this action; when
2889 it is set, the workspace and wscount options must reference the same
2890 vector as before because data about the match so far is left in them
2891 after a partial match. There is more discussion of this facility in the
2892 pcrepartial documentation.
2893
2894 Successful returns from pcre_dfa_exec()
2895
2896 When pcre_dfa_exec() succeeds, it may have matched more than one sub-
2897 string in the subject. Note, however, that all the matches from one run
2898 of the function start at the same point in the subject. The shorter
2899 matches are all initial substrings of the longer matches. For example,
2900 if the pattern
2901
2902 <.*>
2903
2904 is matched against the string
2905
2906 This is <something> <something else> <something further> no more
2907
2908 the three matched strings are
2909
2910 <something>
2911 <something> <something else>
2912 <something> <something else> <something further>
2913
2914 On success, the yield of the function is a number greater than zero,
2915 which is the number of matched substrings. The substrings themselves
2916 are returned in ovector. Each string uses two elements; the first is
2917 the offset to the start, and the second is the offset to the end. In
2918 fact, all the strings have the same start offset. (Space could have
2919 been saved by giving this only once, but it was decided to retain some
2920 compatibility with the way pcre_exec() returns data, even though the
2921 meaning of the strings is different.)
2922
2923 The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the long-
2924 est matching string is given first. If there were too many matches to
2925 fit into ovector, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is
2926 filled with the longest matches. Unlike pcre_exec(), pcre_dfa_exec()
2927 can use the entire ovector for returning matched strings.
2928
2929 Error returns from pcre_dfa_exec()
2930
2931 The pcre_dfa_exec() function returns a negative number when it fails.
2932 Many of the errors are the same as for pcre_exec(), and these are
2933 described above. There are in addition the following errors that are
2934 specific to pcre_dfa_exec():
2935
2936 PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UITEM (-16)
2937
2938 This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() encounters an item in the pat-
2939 tern that it does not support, for instance, the use of \C or a back
2940 reference.
2941
2942 PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UCOND (-17)
2943
2944 This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() encounters a condition item
2945 that uses a back reference for the condition, or a test for recursion
2946 in a specific group. These are not supported.
2947
2948 PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UMLIMIT (-18)
2949
2950 This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() is called with an extra block
2951 that contains a setting of the match_limit or match_limit_recursion
2952 fields. This is not supported (these fields are meaningless for DFA
2953 matching).
2954
2955 PCRE_ERROR_DFA_WSSIZE (-19)
2956
2957 This return is given if pcre_dfa_exec() runs out of space in the
2958 workspace vector.
2959
2960 PCRE_ERROR_DFA_RECURSE (-20)
2961
2962 When a recursive subpattern is processed, the matching function calls
2963 itself recursively, using private vectors for ovector and workspace.
2964 This error is given if the output vector is not large enough. This
2965 should be extremely rare, as a vector of size 1000 is used.
2966
2967
2968 SEE ALSO
2969
2970 pcrebuild(3), pcrecallout(3), pcrecpp(3)(3), pcrematching(3), pcrepar-
2971 tial(3), pcreposix(3), pcreprecompile(3), pcresample(3), pcrestack(3).
2972
2973
2974 AUTHOR
2975
2976 Philip Hazel
2977 University Computing Service
2978 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
2979
2980
2981 REVISION
2982
2983 Last updated: 23 September 2011
2984 Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
2985 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2986
2987
2988 PCRECALLOUT(3) PCRECALLOUT(3)
2989
2990
2991 NAME
2992 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
2993
2994
2995 PCRE CALLOUTS
2996
2997 int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);
2998
2999 PCRE provides a feature called "callout", which is a means of temporar-
3000 ily passing control to the caller of PCRE in the middle of pattern
3001 matching. The caller of PCRE provides an external function by putting
3002 its entry point in the global variable pcre_callout. By default, this
3003 variable contains NULL, which disables all calling out.
3004
3005 Within a regular expression, (?C) indicates the points at which the
3006 external function is to be called. Different callout points can be
3007 identified by putting a number less than 256 after the letter C. The
3008 default value is zero. For example, this pattern has two callout
3009 points:
3010
3011 (?C1)abc(?C2)def
3012
3013 If the PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT option bit is set when pcre_compile() or
3014 pcre_compile2() is called, PCRE automatically inserts callouts, all
3015 with number 255, before each item in the pattern. For example, if
3016 PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT is used with the pattern
3017
3018 A(\d{2}|--)
3019
3020 it is processed as if it were
3021
3022 (?C255)A(?C255)((?C255)\d{2}(?C255)|(?C255)-(?C255)-(?C255))(?C255)
3023
3024 Notice that there is a callout before and after each parenthesis and
3025 alternation bar. Automatic callouts can be used for tracking the
3026 progress of pattern matching. The pcretest command has an option that
3027 sets automatic callouts; when it is used, the output indicates how the
3028 pattern is matched. This is useful information when you are trying to
3029 optimize the performance of a particular pattern.
3030
3031 The use of callouts in a pattern makes it ineligible for optimization
3032 by the just-in-time compiler. Studying such a pattern with the
3033 PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option always fails.
3034
3035
3036 MISSING CALLOUTS
3037
3038 You should be aware that, because of optimizations in the way PCRE
3039 matches patterns by default, callouts sometimes do not happen. For
3040 example, if the pattern is
3041
3042 ab(?C4)cd
3043
3044 PCRE knows that any matching string must contain the letter "d". If the
3045 subject string is "abyz", the lack of "d" means that matching doesn't
3046 ever start, and the callout is never reached. However, with "abyd",
3047 though the result is still no match, the callout is obeyed.
3048
3049 If the pattern is studied, PCRE knows the minimum length of a matching
3050 string, and will immediately give a "no match" return without actually
3051 running a match if the subject is not long enough, or, for unanchored
3052 patterns, if it has been scanned far enough.
3053
3054 You can disable these optimizations by passing the PCRE_NO_START_OPTI-
3055 MIZE option to pcre_compile(), pcre_exec(), or pcre_dfa_exec(), or by
3056 starting the pattern with (*NO_START_OPT). This slows down the matching
3057 process, but does ensure that callouts such as the example above are
3058 obeyed.
3059
3060
3061 THE CALLOUT INTERFACE
3062
3063 During matching, when PCRE reaches a callout point, the external func-
3064 tion defined by pcre_callout is called (if it is set). This applies to
3065 both the pcre_exec() and the pcre_dfa_exec() matching functions. The
3066 only argument to the callout function is a pointer to a pcre_callout
3067 block. This structure contains the following fields:
3068
3069 int version;
3070 int callout_number;
3071 int *offset_vector;
3072 const char *subject;
3073 int subject_length;
3074 int start_match;
3075 int current_position;
3076 int capture_top;
3077 int capture_last;
3078 void *callout_data;
3079 int pattern_position;
3080 int next_item_length;
3081 const unsigned char *mark;
3082
3083 The version field is an integer containing the version number of the
3084 block format. The initial version was 0; the current version is 2. The
3085 version number will change again in future if additional fields are
3086 added, but the intention is never to remove any of the existing fields.
3087
3088 The callout_number field contains the number of the callout, as com-
3089 piled into the pattern (that is, the number after ?C for manual call-
3090 outs, and 255 for automatically generated callouts).
3091
3092 The offset_vector field is a pointer to the vector of offsets that was
3093 passed by the caller to pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). When
3094 pcre_exec() is used, the contents can be inspected in order to extract
3095 substrings that have been matched so far, in the same way as for
3096 extracting substrings after a match has completed. For pcre_dfa_exec()
3097 this field is not useful.
3098
3099 The subject and subject_length fields contain copies of the values that
3100 were passed to pcre_exec().
3101
3102 The start_match field normally contains the offset within the subject
3103 at which the current match attempt started. However, if the escape
3104 sequence \K has been encountered, this value is changed to reflect the
3105 modified starting point. If the pattern is not anchored, the callout
3106 function may be called several times from the same point in the pattern
3107 for different starting points in the subject.
3108
3109 The current_position field contains the offset within the subject of
3110 the current match pointer.
3111
3112 When the pcre_exec() function is used, the capture_top field contains
3113 one more than the number of the highest numbered captured substring so
3114 far. If no substrings have been captured, the value of capture_top is
3115 one. This is always the case when pcre_dfa_exec() is used, because it
3116 does not support captured substrings.
3117
3118 The capture_last field contains the number of the most recently cap-
3119 tured substring. If no substrings have been captured, its value is -1.
3120 This is always the case when pcre_dfa_exec() is used.
3121
3122 The callout_data field contains a value that is passed to pcre_exec()
3123 or pcre_dfa_exec() specifically so that it can be passed back in call-
3124 outs. It is passed in the pcre_callout field of the pcre_extra data
3125 structure. If no such data was passed, the value of callout_data in a
3126 pcre_callout block is NULL. There is a description of the pcre_extra
3127 structure in the pcreapi documentation.
3128
3129 The pattern_position field is present from version 1 of the pcre_call-
3130 out structure. It contains the offset to the next item to be matched in
3131 the pattern string.
3132
3133 The next_item_length field is present from version 1 of the pcre_call-
3134 out structure. It contains the length of the next item to be matched in
3135 the pattern string. When the callout immediately precedes an alterna-
3136 tion bar, a closing parenthesis, or the end of the pattern, the length
3137 is zero. When the callout precedes an opening parenthesis, the length
3138 is that of the entire subpattern.
3139
3140 The pattern_position and next_item_length fields are intended to help
3141 in distinguishing between different automatic callouts, which all have
3142 the same callout number. However, they are set for all callouts.
3143
3144 The mark field is present from version 2 of the pcre_callout structure.
3145 In callouts from pcre_exec() it contains a pointer to the zero-termi-
3146 nated name of the most recently passed (*MARK) item in the match, or
3147 NULL if there are no (*MARK)s in the current matching path. In callouts
3148 from pcre_dfa_exec() this field always contains NULL.
3149
3150
3151 RETURN VALUES
3152
3153 The external callout function returns an integer to PCRE. If the value
3154 is zero, matching proceeds as normal. If the value is greater than
3155 zero, matching fails at the current point, but the testing of other
3156 matching possibilities goes ahead, just as if a lookahead assertion had
3157 failed. If the value is less than zero, the match is abandoned, and
3158 pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() returns the negative value.
3159
3160 Negative values should normally be chosen from the set of
3161 PCRE_ERROR_xxx values. In particular, PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH forces a stan-
3162 dard "no match" failure. The error number PCRE_ERROR_CALLOUT is
3163 reserved for use by callout functions; it will never be used by PCRE
3164 itself.
3165
3166
3167 AUTHOR
3168
3169 Philip Hazel
3170 University Computing Service
3171 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
3172
3173
3174 REVISION
3175
3176 Last updated: 26 August 2011
3177 Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
3178 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3179
3180
3181 PCRECOMPAT(3) PCRECOMPAT(3)
3182
3183
3184 NAME
3185 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
3186
3187
3188 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PCRE AND PERL
3189
3190 This document describes the differences in the ways that PCRE and Perl
3191 handle regular expressions. The differences described here are with
3192 respect to Perl versions 5.10 and above.
3193
3194 1. PCRE has only a subset of Perl's UTF-8 and Unicode support. Details
3195 of what it does have are given in the pcreunicode page.
3196
3197 2. PCRE allows repeat quantifiers only on parenthesized assertions, but
3198 they do not mean what you might think. For example, (?!a){3} does not
3199 assert that the next three characters are not "a". It just asserts that
3200 the next character is not "a" three times (in principle: PCRE optimizes
3201 this to run the assertion just once). Perl allows repeat quantifiers on
3202 other assertions such as \b, but these do not seem to have any use.
3203
3204 3. Capturing subpatterns that occur inside negative lookahead asser-
3205 tions are counted, but their entries in the offsets vector are never
3206 set. Perl sets its numerical variables from any such patterns that are
3207 matched before the assertion fails to match something (thereby succeed-
3208 ing), but only if the negative lookahead assertion contains just one
3209 branch.
3210
3211 4. Though binary zero characters are supported in the subject string,
3212 they are not allowed in a pattern string because it is passed as a nor-
3213 mal C string, terminated by zero. The escape sequence \0 can be used in
3214 the pattern to represent a binary zero.
3215
3216 5. The following Perl escape sequences are not supported: \l, \u, \L,
3217 \U, and \N when followed by a character name or Unicode value. (\N on
3218 its own, matching a non-newline character, is supported.) In fact these
3219 are implemented by Perl's general string-handling and are not part of
3220 its pattern matching engine. If any of these are encountered by PCRE,
3221 an error is generated.
3222
3223 6. The Perl escape sequences \p, \P, and \X are supported only if PCRE
3224 is built with Unicode character property support. The properties that
3225 can be tested with \p and \P are limited to the general category prop-
3226 erties such as Lu and Nd, script names such as Greek or Han, and the
3227 derived properties Any and L&. PCRE does support the Cs (surrogate)
3228 property, which Perl does not; the Perl documentation says "Because
3229 Perl hides the need for the user to understand the internal representa-
3230 tion of Unicode characters, there is no need to implement the somewhat
3231 messy concept of surrogates."
3232
3233 7. PCRE implements a simpler version of \X than Perl, which changed to
3234 make \X match what Unicode calls an "extended grapheme cluster". This
3235 is more complicated than an extended Unicode sequence, which is what
3236 PCRE matches.
3237
3238 8. PCRE does support the \Q...\E escape for quoting substrings. Charac-
3239 ters in between are treated as literals. This is slightly different
3240 from Perl in that $ and @ are also handled as literals inside the
3241 quotes. In Perl, they cause variable interpolation (but of course PCRE
3242 does not have variables). Note the following examples:
3243
3244 Pattern PCRE matches Perl matches
3245
3246 \Qabc$xyz\E abc$xyz abc followed by the
3247 contents of $xyz
3248 \Qabc\$xyz\E abc\$xyz abc\$xyz
3249 \Qabc\E\$\Qxyz\E abc$xyz abc$xyz
3250
3251 The \Q...\E sequence is recognized both inside and outside character
3252 classes.
3253
3254 9. Fairly obviously, PCRE does not support the (?{code}) and (??{code})
3255 constructions. However, there is support for recursive patterns. This
3256 is not available in Perl 5.8, but it is in Perl 5.10. Also, the PCRE
3257 "callout" feature allows an external function to be called during pat-
3258 tern matching. See the pcrecallout documentation for details.
3259
3260 10. Subpatterns that are called recursively or as "subroutines" are
3261 always treated as atomic groups in PCRE. This is like Python, but
3262 unlike Perl. There is a discussion of an example that explains this in
3263 more detail in the section on recursion differences from Perl in the
3264 pcrepattern page.
3265
3266 11. There are some differences that are concerned with the settings of
3267 captured strings when part of a pattern is repeated. For example,
3268 matching "aba" against the pattern /^(a(b)?)+$/ in Perl leaves $2
3269 unset, but in PCRE it is set to "b".
3270
3271 12. PCRE's handling of duplicate subpattern numbers and duplicate sub-
3272 pattern names is not as general as Perl's. This is a consequence of the
3273 fact the PCRE works internally just with numbers, using an external ta-
3274 ble to translate between numbers and names. In particular, a pattern
3275 such as (?|(?<a>A)|(?<b)B), where the two capturing parentheses have
3276 the same number but different names, is not supported, and causes an
3277 error at compile time. If it were allowed, it would not be possible to
3278 distinguish which parentheses matched, because both names map to cap-
3279 turing subpattern number 1. To avoid this confusing situation, an error
3280 is given at compile time.
3281
3282 13. Perl recognizes comments in some places that PCRE does not, for
3283 example, between the ( and ? at the start of a subpattern. If the /x
3284 modifier is set, Perl allows whitespace between ( and ? but PCRE never
3285 does, even if the PCRE_EXTENDED option is set.
3286
3287 14. PCRE provides some extensions to the Perl regular expression facil-
3288 ities. Perl 5.10 includes new features that are not in earlier ver-
3289 sions of Perl, some of which (such as named parentheses) have been in
3290 PCRE for some time. This list is with respect to Perl 5.10:
3291
3292 (a) Although lookbehind assertions in PCRE must match fixed length
3293 strings, each alternative branch of a lookbehind assertion can match a
3294 different length of string. Perl requires them all to have the same
3295 length.
3296
3297 (b) If PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY is set and PCRE_MULTILINE is not set, the $
3298 meta-character matches only at the very end of the string.
3299
3300 (c) If PCRE_EXTRA is set, a backslash followed by a letter with no spe-
3301 cial meaning is faulted. Otherwise, like Perl, the backslash is quietly
3302 ignored. (Perl can be made to issue a warning.)
3303
3304 (d) If PCRE_UNGREEDY is set, the greediness of the repetition quanti-
3305 fiers is inverted, that is, by default they are not greedy, but if fol-
3306 lowed by a question mark they are.
3307
3308 (e) PCRE_ANCHORED can be used at matching time to force a pattern to be
3309 tried only at the first matching position in the subject string.
3310
3311 (f) The PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
3312 and PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE options for pcre_exec() have no Perl equiva-
3313 lents.
3314
3315 (g) The \R escape sequence can be restricted to match only CR, LF, or
3316 CRLF by the PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF option.
3317
3318 (h) The callout facility is PCRE-specific.
3319
3320 (i) The partial matching facility is PCRE-specific.
3321
3322 (j) Patterns compiled by PCRE can be saved and re-used at a later time,
3323 even on different hosts that have the other endianness.
3324
3325 (k) The alternative matching function (pcre_dfa_exec()) matches in a
3326 different way and is not Perl-compatible.
3327
3328 (l) PCRE recognizes some special sequences such as (*CR) at the start
3329 of a pattern that set overall options that cannot be changed within the
3330 pattern.
3331
3332
3333 AUTHOR
3334
3335 Philip Hazel
3336 University Computing Service
3337 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
3338
3339
3340 REVISION
3341
3342 Last updated: 24 August 2011
3343 Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
3344 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3345
3346
3347 PCREPATTERN(3) PCREPATTERN(3)
3348
3349
3350 NAME
3351 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
3352
3353
3354 PCRE REGULAR EXPRESSION DETAILS
3355
3356 The syntax and semantics of the regular expressions that are supported
3357 by PCRE are described in detail below. There is a quick-reference syn-
3358 tax summary in the pcresyntax page. PCRE tries to match Perl syntax and
3359 semantics as closely as it can. PCRE also supports some alternative
3360 regular expression syntax (which does not conflict with the Perl syn-
3361 tax) in order to provide some compatibility with regular expressions in
3362 Python, .NET, and Oniguruma.
3363
3364 Perl's regular expressions are described in its own documentation, and
3365 regular expressions in general are covered in a number of books, some
3366 of which have copious examples. Jeffrey Friedl's "Mastering Regular
3367 Expressions", published by O'Reilly, covers regular expressions in
3368 great detail. This description of PCRE's regular expressions is
3369 intended as reference material.
3370
3371 The original operation of PCRE was on strings of one-byte characters.
3372 However, there is now also support for UTF-8 character strings. To use
3373 this, PCRE must be built to include UTF-8 support, and you must call
3374 pcre_compile() or pcre_compile2() with the PCRE_UTF8 option. There is
3375 also a special sequence that can be given at the start of a pattern:
3376
3377 (*UTF8)
3378
3379 Starting a pattern with this sequence is equivalent to setting the
3380 PCRE_UTF8 option. This feature is not Perl-compatible. How setting
3381 UTF-8 mode affects pattern matching is mentioned in several places
3382 below. There is also a summary of UTF-8 features in the pcreunicode
3383 page.
3384
3385 Another special sequence that may appear at the start of a pattern or
3386 in combination with (*UTF8) is:
3387
3388 (*UCP)
3389
3390 This has the same effect as setting the PCRE_UCP option: it causes
3391 sequences such as \d and \w to use Unicode properties to determine
3392 character types, instead of recognizing only characters with codes less
3393 than 128 via a lookup table.
3394
3395 If a pattern starts with (*NO_START_OPT), it has the same effect as
3396 setting the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option either at compile or matching
3397 time. There are also some more of these special sequences that are con-
3398 cerned with the handling of newlines; they are described below.
3399
3400 The remainder of this document discusses the patterns that are sup-
3401 ported by PCRE when its main matching function, pcre_exec(), is used.
3402 From release 6.0, PCRE offers a second matching function,
3403 pcre_dfa_exec(), which matches using a different algorithm that is not
3404 Perl-compatible. Some of the features discussed below are not available
3405 when pcre_dfa_exec() is used. The advantages and disadvantages of the
3406 alternative function, and how it differs from the normal function, are
3407 discussed in the pcrematching page.
3408
3409
3410 NEWLINE CONVENTIONS
3411
3412 PCRE supports five different conventions for indicating line breaks in
3413 strings: a single CR (carriage return) character, a single LF (line-
3414 feed) character, the two-character sequence CRLF, any of the three pre-
3415 ceding, or any Unicode newline sequence. The pcreapi page has further
3416 discussion about newlines, and shows how to set the newline convention
3417 in the options arguments for the compiling and matching functions.
3418
3419 It is also possible to specify a newline convention by starting a pat-
3420 tern string with one of the following five sequences:
3421
3422 (*CR) carriage return
3423 (*LF) linefeed
3424 (*CRLF) carriage return, followed by linefeed
3425 (*ANYCRLF) any of the three above
3426 (*ANY) all Unicode newline sequences
3427
3428 These override the default and the options given to pcre_compile() or
3429 pcre_compile2(). For example, on a Unix system where LF is the default
3430 newline sequence, the pattern
3431
3432 (*CR)a.b
3433
3434 changes the convention to CR. That pattern matches "a\nb" because LF is
3435 no longer a newline. Note that these special settings, which are not
3436 Perl-compatible, are recognized only at the very start of a pattern,
3437 and that they must be in upper case. If more than one of them is
3438 present, the last one is used.
3439
3440 The newline convention affects the interpretation of the dot metachar-
3441 acter when PCRE_DOTALL is not set, and also the behaviour of \N. How-
3442 ever, it does not affect what the \R escape sequence matches. By
3443 default, this is any Unicode newline sequence, for Perl compatibility.
3444 However, this can be changed; see the description of \R in the section
3445 entitled "Newline sequences" below. A change of \R setting can be com-
3446 bined with a change of newline convention.
3447
3448
3449 CHARACTERS AND METACHARACTERS
3450
3451 A regular expression is a pattern that is matched against a subject
3452 string from left to right. Most characters stand for themselves in a
3453 pattern, and match the corresponding characters in the subject. As a
3454 trivial example, the pattern
3455
3456 The quick brown fox
3457
3458 matches a portion of a subject string that is identical to itself. When
3459 caseless matching is specified (the PCRE_CASELESS option), letters are
3460 matched independently of case. In UTF-8 mode, PCRE always understands
3461 the concept of case for characters whose values are less than 128, so
3462 caseless matching is always possible. For characters with higher val-
3463 ues, the concept of case is supported if PCRE is compiled with Unicode
3464 property support, but not otherwise. If you want to use caseless
3465 matching for characters 128 and above, you must ensure that PCRE is
3466 compiled with Unicode property support as well as with UTF-8 support.
3467
3468 The power of regular expressions comes from the ability to include
3469 alternatives and repetitions in the pattern. These are encoded in the
3470 pattern by the use of metacharacters, which do not stand for themselves
3471 but instead are interpreted in some special way.
3472
3473 There are two different sets of metacharacters: those that are recog-
3474 nized anywhere in the pattern except within square brackets, and those
3475 that are recognized within square brackets. Outside square brackets,
3476 the metacharacters are as follows:
3477
3478 \ general escape character with several uses
3479 ^ assert start of string (or line, in multiline mode)
3480 $ assert end of string (or line, in multiline mode)
3481 . match any character except newline (by default)
3482 [ start character class definition
3483 | start of alternative branch
3484 ( start subpattern
3485 ) end subpattern
3486 ? extends the meaning of (
3487 also 0 or 1 quantifier
3488 also quantifier minimizer
3489 * 0 or more quantifier
3490 + 1 or more quantifier
3491 also "possessive quantifier"
3492 { start min/max quantifier
3493
3494 Part of a pattern that is in square brackets is called a "character
3495 class". In a character class the only metacharacters are:
3496
3497 \ general escape character
3498 ^ negate the class, but only if the first character
3499 - indicates character range
3500 [ POSIX character class (only if followed by POSIX
3501 syntax)
3502 ] terminates the character class
3503
3504 The following sections describe the use of each of the metacharacters.
3505
3506
3507 BACKSLASH
3508
3509 The backslash character has several uses. Firstly, if it is followed by
3510 a character that is not a number or a letter, it takes away any special
3511 meaning that character may have. This use of backslash as an escape
3512 character applies both inside and outside character classes.
3513
3514 For example, if you want to match a * character, you write \* in the
3515 pattern. This escaping action applies whether or not the following
3516 character would otherwise be interpreted as a metacharacter, so it is
3517 always safe to precede a non-alphanumeric with backslash to specify
3518 that it stands for itself. In particular, if you want to match a back-
3519 slash, you write \\.
3520
3521 In UTF-8 mode, only ASCII numbers and letters have any special meaning
3522 after a backslash. All other characters (in particular, those whose
3523 codepoints are greater than 127) are treated as literals.
3524
3525 If a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_EXTENDED option, whitespace in
3526 the pattern (other than in a character class) and characters between a
3527 # outside a character class and the next newline are ignored. An escap-
3528 ing backslash can be used to include a whitespace or # character as
3529 part of the pattern.
3530
3531 If you want to remove the special meaning from a sequence of charac-
3532 ters, you can do so by putting them between \Q and \E. This is differ-
3533 ent from Perl in that $ and @ are handled as literals in \Q...\E
3534 sequences in PCRE, whereas in Perl, $ and @ cause variable interpola-
3535 tion. Note the following examples:
3536
3537 Pattern PCRE matches Perl matches
3538
3539 \Qabc$xyz\E abc$xyz abc followed by the
3540 contents of $xyz
3541 \Qabc\$xyz\E abc\$xyz abc\$xyz
3542 \Qabc\E\$\Qxyz\E abc$xyz abc$xyz
3543
3544 The \Q...\E sequence is recognized both inside and outside character
3545 classes. An isolated \E that is not preceded by \Q is ignored. If \Q
3546 is not followed by \E later in the pattern, the literal interpretation
3547 continues to the end of the pattern (that is, \E is assumed at the
3548 end). If the isolated \Q is inside a character class, this causes an
3549 error, because the character class is not terminated.
3550
3551 Non-printing characters
3552
3553 A second use of backslash provides a way of encoding non-printing char-
3554 acters in patterns in a visible manner. There is no restriction on the
3555 appearance of non-printing characters, apart from the binary zero that
3556 terminates a pattern, but when a pattern is being prepared by text
3557 editing, it is often easier to use one of the following escape
3558 sequences than the binary character it represents:
3559
3560 \a alarm, that is, the BEL character (hex 07)
3561 \cx "control-x", where x is any ASCII character
3562 \e escape (hex 1B)
3563 \f formfeed (hex 0C)
3564 \n linefeed (hex 0A)
3565 \r carriage return (hex 0D)
3566 \t tab (hex 09)
3567 \ddd character with octal code ddd, or back reference
3568 \xhh character with hex code hh
3569 \x{hhh..} character with hex code hhh..
3570
3571 The precise effect of \cx is as follows: if x is a lower case letter,
3572 it is converted to upper case. Then bit 6 of the character (hex 40) is
3573 inverted. Thus \cz becomes hex 1A (z is 7A), but \c{ becomes hex 3B ({
3574 is 7B), while \c; becomes hex 7B (; is 3B). If the byte following \c
3575 has a value greater than 127, a compile-time error occurs. This locks
3576 out non-ASCII characters in both byte mode and UTF-8 mode. (When PCRE
3577 is compiled in EBCDIC mode, all byte values are valid. A lower case
3578 letter is converted to upper case, and then the 0xc0 bits are flipped.)
3579
3580 After \x, from zero to two hexadecimal digits are read (letters can be
3581 in upper or lower case). Any number of hexadecimal digits may appear
3582 between \x{ and }, but the value of the character code must be less
3583 than 256 in non-UTF-8 mode, and less than 2**31 in UTF-8 mode. That is,
3584 the maximum value in hexadecimal is 7FFFFFFF. Note that this is bigger
3585 than the largest Unicode code point, which is 10FFFF.
3586
3587 If characters other than hexadecimal digits appear between \x{ and },
3588 or if there is no terminating }, this form of escape is not recognized.
3589 Instead, the initial \x will be interpreted as a basic hexadecimal
3590 escape, with no following digits, giving a character whose value is
3591 zero.
3592
3593 Characters whose value is less than 256 can be defined by either of the
3594 two syntaxes for \x. There is no difference in the way they are han-
3595 dled. For example, \xdc is exactly the same as \x{dc}.
3596
3597 After \0 up to two further octal digits are read. If there are fewer
3598 than two digits, just those that are present are used. Thus the
3599 sequence \0\x\07 specifies two binary zeros followed by a BEL character
3600 (code value 7). Make sure you supply two digits after the initial zero
3601 if the pattern character that follows is itself an octal digit.
3602
3603 The handling of a backslash followed by a digit other than 0 is compli-
3604 cated. Outside a character class, PCRE reads it and any following dig-
3605 its as a decimal number. If the number is less than 10, or if there
3606 have been at least that many previous capturing left parentheses in the
3607 expression, the entire sequence is taken as a back reference. A
3608 description of how this works is given later, following the discussion
3609 of parenthesized subpatterns.
3610
3611 Inside a character class, or if the decimal number is greater than 9
3612 and there have not been that many capturing subpatterns, PCRE re-reads
3613 up to three octal digits following the backslash, and uses them to gen-
3614 erate a data character. Any subsequent digits stand for themselves. In
3615 non-UTF-8 mode, the value of a character specified in octal must be
3616 less than \400. In UTF-8 mode, values up to \777 are permitted. For
3617 example:
3618
3619 \040 is another way of writing a space
3620 \40 is the same, provided there are fewer than 40
3621 previous capturing subpatterns
3622 \7 is always a back reference
3623 \11 might be a back reference, or another way of
3624 writing a tab
3625 \011 is always a tab
3626 \0113 is a tab followed by the character "3"
3627 \113 might be a back reference, otherwise the
3628 character with octal code 113
3629 \377 might be a back reference, otherwise
3630 the byte consisting entirely of 1 bits
3631 \81 is either a back reference, or a binary zero
3632 followed by the two characters "8" and "1"
3633
3634 Note that octal values of 100 or greater must not be introduced by a
3635 leading zero, because no more than three octal digits are ever read.
3636
3637 All the sequences that define a single character value can be used both
3638 inside and outside character classes. In addition, inside a character
3639 class, the sequence \b is interpreted as the backspace character (hex
3640 08). The sequences \B, \N, \R, and \X are not special inside a charac-
3641 ter class. Like any other unrecognized escape sequences, they are
3642 treated as the literal characters "B", "N", "R", and "X" by default,
3643 but cause an error if the PCRE_EXTRA option is set. Outside a character
3644 class, these sequences have different meanings.
3645
3646 Absolute and relative back references
3647
3648 The sequence \g followed by an unsigned or a negative number, option-
3649 ally enclosed in braces, is an absolute or relative back reference. A
3650 named back reference can be coded as \g{name}. Back references are dis-
3651 cussed later, following the discussion of parenthesized subpatterns.
3652
3653 Absolute and relative subroutine calls
3654
3655 For compatibility with Oniguruma, the non-Perl syntax \g followed by a
3656 name or a number enclosed either in angle brackets or single quotes, is
3657 an alternative syntax for referencing a subpattern as a "subroutine".
3658 Details are discussed later. Note that \g{...} (Perl syntax) and
3659 \g<...> (Oniguruma syntax) are not synonymous. The former is a back
3660 reference; the latter is a subroutine call.
3661
3662 Generic character types
3663
3664 Another use of backslash is for specifying generic character types:
3665
3666 \d any decimal digit
3667 \D any character that is not a decimal digit
3668 \h any horizontal whitespace character
3669 \H any character that is not a horizontal whitespace character
3670 \s any whitespace character
3671 \S any character that is not a whitespace character
3672 \v any vertical whitespace character
3673 \V any character that is not a vertical whitespace character
3674 \w any "word" character
3675 \W any "non-word" character
3676
3677 There is also the single sequence \N, which matches a non-newline char-
3678 acter. This is the same as the "." metacharacter when PCRE_DOTALL is
3679 not set.
3680
3681 Each pair of lower and upper case escape sequences partitions the com-
3682 plete set of characters into two disjoint sets. Any given character
3683 matches one, and only one, of each pair. The sequences can appear both
3684 inside and outside character classes. They each match one character of
3685 the appropriate type. If the current matching point is at the end of
3686 the subject string, all of them fail, because there is no character to
3687 match.
3688
3689 For compatibility with Perl, \s does not match the VT character (code
3690 11). This makes it different from the the POSIX "space" class. The \s
3691 characters are HT (9), LF (10), FF (12), CR (13), and space (32). If
3692 "use locale;" is included in a Perl script, \s may match the VT charac-
3693 ter. In PCRE, it never does.
3694
3695 A "word" character is an underscore or any character that is a letter
3696 or digit. By default, the definition of letters and digits is con-
3697 trolled by PCRE's low-valued character tables, and may vary if locale-
3698 specific matching is taking place (see "Locale support" in the pcreapi
3699 page). For example, in a French locale such as "fr_FR" in Unix-like
3700 systems, or "french" in Windows, some character codes greater than 128
3701 are used for accented letters, and these are then matched by \w. The
3702 use of locales with Unicode is discouraged.
3703
3704 By default, in UTF-8 mode, characters with values greater than 128
3705 never match \d, \s, or \w, and always match \D, \S, and \W. These
3706 sequences retain their original meanings from before UTF-8 support was
3707 available, mainly for efficiency reasons. However, if PCRE is compiled
3708 with Unicode property support, and the PCRE_UCP option is set, the be-
3709 haviour is changed so that Unicode properties are used to determine
3710 character types, as follows:
3711
3712 \d any character that \p{Nd} matches (decimal digit)
3713 \s any character that \p{Z} matches, plus HT, LF, FF, CR
3714 \w any character that \p{L} or \p{N} matches, plus underscore
3715
3716 The upper case escapes match the inverse sets of characters. Note that
3717 \d matches only decimal digits, whereas \w matches any Unicode digit,
3718 as well as any Unicode letter, and underscore. Note also that PCRE_UCP
3719 affects \b, and \B because they are defined in terms of \w and \W.
3720 Matching these sequences is noticeably slower when PCRE_UCP is set.
3721
3722 The sequences \h, \H, \v, and \V are features that were added to Perl
3723 at release 5.10. In contrast to the other sequences, which match only
3724 ASCII characters by default, these always match certain high-valued
3725 codepoints in UTF-8 mode, whether or not PCRE_UCP is set. The horizon-
3726 tal space characters are:
3727
3728 U+0009 Horizontal tab
3729 U+0020 Space
3730 U+00A0 Non-break space
3731 U+1680 Ogham space mark
3732 U+180E Mongolian vowel separator
3733 U+2000 En quad
3734 U+2001 Em quad
3735 U+2002 En space
3736 U+2003 Em space
3737 U+2004 Three-per-em space
3738 U+2005 Four-per-em space
3739 U+2006 Six-per-em space
3740 U+2007 Figure space
3741 U+2008 Punctuation space
3742 U+2009 Thin space
3743 U+200A Hair space
3744 U+202F Narrow no-break space
3745 U+205F Medium mathematical space
3746 U+3000 Ideographic space
3747
3748 The vertical space characters are:
3749
3750 U+000A Linefeed
3751 U+000B Vertical tab
3752 U+000C Formfeed
3753 U+000D Carriage return
3754 U+0085 Next line
3755 U+2028 Line separator
3756 U+2029 Paragraph separator
3757
3758 Newline sequences
3759
3760 Outside a character class, by default, the escape sequence \R matches
3761 any Unicode newline sequence. In non-UTF-8 mode \R is equivalent to the
3762 following:
3763
3764 (?>\r\n|\n|\x0b|\f|\r|\x85)
3765
3766 This is an example of an "atomic group", details of which are given
3767 below. This particular group matches either the two-character sequence
3768 CR followed by LF, or one of the single characters LF (linefeed,
3769 U+000A), VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), CR (carriage
3770 return, U+000D), or NEL (next line, U+0085). The two-character sequence
3771 is treated as a single unit that cannot be split.
3772
3773 In UTF-8 mode, two additional characters whose codepoints are greater
3774 than 255 are added: LS (line separator, U+2028) and PS (paragraph sepa-
3775 rator, U+2029). Unicode character property support is not needed for
3776 these characters to be recognized.
3777
3778 It is possible to restrict \R to match only CR, LF, or CRLF (instead of
3779 the complete set of Unicode line endings) by setting the option
3780 PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF either at compile time or when the pattern is matched.
3781 (BSR is an abbrevation for "backslash R".) This can be made the default
3782 when PCRE is built; if this is the case, the other behaviour can be
3783 requested via the PCRE_BSR_UNICODE option. It is also possible to
3784 specify these settings by starting a pattern string with one of the
3785 following sequences:
3786
3787 (*BSR_ANYCRLF) CR, LF, or CRLF only
3788 (*BSR_UNICODE) any Unicode newline sequence
3789
3790 These override the default and the options given to pcre_compile() or
3791 pcre_compile2(), but they can be overridden by options given to
3792 pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). Note that these special settings, which
3793 are not Perl-compatible, are recognized only at the very start of a
3794 pattern, and that they must be in upper case. If more than one of them
3795 is present, the last one is used. They can be combined with a change of
3796 newline convention; for example, a pattern can start with:
3797
3798 (*ANY)(*BSR_ANYCRLF)
3799
3800 They can also be combined with the (*UTF8) or (*UCP) special sequences.
3801 Inside a character class, \R is treated as an unrecognized escape
3802 sequence, and so matches the letter "R" by default, but causes an error
3803 if PCRE_EXTRA is set.
3804
3805 Unicode character properties
3806
3807 When PCRE is built with Unicode character property support, three addi-
3808 tional escape sequences that match characters with specific properties
3809 are available. When not in UTF-8 mode, these sequences are of course
3810 limited to testing characters whose codepoints are less than 256, but
3811 they do work in this mode. The extra escape sequences are:
3812
3813 \p{xx} a character with the xx property
3814 \P{xx} a character without the xx property
3815 \X an extended Unicode sequence
3816
3817 The property names represented by xx above are limited to the Unicode
3818 script names, the general category properties, "Any", which matches any
3819 character (including newline), and some special PCRE properties
3820 (described in the next section). Other Perl properties such as "InMu-
3821 sicalSymbols" are not currently supported by PCRE. Note that \P{Any}
3822 does not match any characters, so always causes a match failure.
3823
3824 Sets of Unicode characters are defined as belonging to certain scripts.
3825 A character from one of these sets can be matched using a script name.
3826 For example:
3827
3828 \p{Greek}
3829 \P{Han}
3830
3831 Those that are not part of an identified script are lumped together as
3832 "Common". The current list of scripts is:
3833
3834 Arabic, Armenian, Avestan, Balinese, Bamum, Bengali, Bopomofo, Braille,
3835 Buginese, Buhid, Canadian_Aboriginal, Carian, Cham, Cherokee, Common,
3836 Coptic, Cuneiform, Cypriot, Cyrillic, Deseret, Devanagari, Egyp-
3837 tian_Hieroglyphs, Ethiopic, Georgian, Glagolitic, Gothic, Greek,
3838 Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Han, Hangul, Hanunoo, Hebrew, Hiragana, Impe-
3839 rial_Aramaic, Inherited, Inscriptional_Pahlavi, Inscriptional_Parthian,
3840 Javanese, Kaithi, Kannada, Katakana, Kayah_Li, Kharoshthi, Khmer, Lao,
3841 Latin, Lepcha, Limbu, Linear_B, Lisu, Lycian, Lydian, Malayalam,
3842 Meetei_Mayek, Mongolian, Myanmar, New_Tai_Lue, Nko, Ogham, Old_Italic,
3843 Old_Persian, Old_South_Arabian, Old_Turkic, Ol_Chiki, Oriya, Osmanya,
3844 Phags_Pa, Phoenician, Rejang, Runic, Samaritan, Saurashtra, Shavian,
3845 Sinhala, Sundanese, Syloti_Nagri, Syriac, Tagalog, Tagbanwa, Tai_Le,
3846 Tai_Tham, Tai_Viet, Tamil, Telugu, Thaana, Thai, Tibetan, Tifinagh,
3847 Ugaritic, Vai, Yi.
3848
3849 Each character has exactly one Unicode general category property, spec-
3850 ified by a two-letter abbreviation. For compatibility with Perl, nega-
3851 tion can be specified by including a circumflex between the opening
3852 brace and the property name. For example, \p{^Lu} is the same as
3853 \P{Lu}.
3854
3855 If only one letter is specified with \p or \P, it includes all the gen-
3856 eral category properties that start with that letter. In this case, in
3857 the absence of negation, the curly brackets in the escape sequence are
3858 optional; these two examples have the same effect:
3859
3860 \p{L}
3861 \pL
3862
3863 The following general category property codes are supported:
3864
3865 C Other
3866 Cc Control
3867 Cf Format
3868 Cn Unassigned
3869 Co Private use
3870 Cs Surrogate
3871
3872 L Letter
3873 Ll Lower case letter
3874 Lm Modifier letter
3875 Lo Other letter
3876 Lt Title case letter
3877 Lu Upper case letter
3878
3879 M Mark
3880 Mc Spacing mark
3881 Me Enclosing mark
3882 Mn Non-spacing mark
3883
3884 N Number
3885 Nd Decimal number
3886 Nl Letter number
3887 No Other number
3888
3889 P Punctuation
3890 Pc Connector punctuation
3891 Pd Dash punctuation
3892 Pe Close punctuation
3893 Pf Final punctuation
3894 Pi Initial punctuation
3895 Po Other punctuation
3896 Ps Open punctuation
3897
3898 S Symbol
3899 Sc Currency symbol
3900 Sk Modifier symbol
3901 Sm Mathematical symbol
3902 So Other symbol
3903
3904 Z Separator
3905 Zl Line separator
3906 Zp Paragraph separator
3907 Zs Space separator
3908
3909 The special property L& is also supported: it matches a character that
3910 has the Lu, Ll, or Lt property, in other words, a letter that is not
3911 classified as a modifier or "other".
3912
3913 The Cs (Surrogate) property applies only to characters in the range
3914 U+D800 to U+DFFF. Such characters are not valid in UTF-8 strings (see
3915 RFC 3629) and so cannot be tested by PCRE, unless UTF-8 validity check-
3916 ing has been turned off (see the discussion of PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK in
3917 the pcreapi page). Perl does not support the Cs property.
3918
3919 The long synonyms for property names that Perl supports (such as
3920 \p{Letter}) are not supported by PCRE, nor is it permitted to prefix
3921 any of these properties with "Is".
3922
3923 No character that is in the Unicode table has the Cn (unassigned) prop-
3924 erty. Instead, this property is assumed for any code point that is not
3925 in the Unicode table.
3926
3927 Specifying caseless matching does not affect these escape sequences.
3928 For example, \p{Lu} always matches only upper case letters.
3929
3930 The \X escape matches any number of Unicode characters that form an
3931 extended Unicode sequence. \X is equivalent to
3932
3933 (?>\PM\pM*)
3934
3935 That is, it matches a character without the "mark" property, followed
3936 by zero or more characters with the "mark" property, and treats the
3937 sequence as an atomic group (see below). Characters with the "mark"
3938 property are typically accents that affect the preceding character.
3939 None of them have codepoints less than 256, so in non-UTF-8 mode \X
3940 matches any one character.
3941
3942 Note that recent versions of Perl have changed \X to match what Unicode
3943 calls an "extended grapheme cluster", which has a more complicated def-
3944 inition.
3945
3946 Matching characters by Unicode property is not fast, because PCRE has
3947 to search a structure that contains data for over fifteen thousand
3948 characters. That is why the traditional escape sequences such as \d and
3949 \w do not use Unicode properties in PCRE by default, though you can
3950 make them do so by setting the PCRE_UCP option for pcre_compile() or by
3951 starting the pattern with (*UCP).
3952
3953 PCRE's additional properties
3954
3955 As well as the standard Unicode properties described in the previous
3956 section, PCRE supports four more that make it possible to convert tra-
3957 ditional escape sequences such as \w and \s and POSIX character classes
3958 to use Unicode properties. PCRE uses these non-standard, non-Perl prop-
3959 erties internally when PCRE_UCP is set. They are:
3960
3961 Xan Any alphanumeric character
3962 Xps Any POSIX space character
3963 Xsp Any Perl space character
3964 Xwd Any Perl "word" character
3965
3966 Xan matches characters that have either the L (letter) or the N (num-
3967 ber) property. Xps matches the characters tab, linefeed, vertical tab,
3968 formfeed, or carriage return, and any other character that has the Z
3969 (separator) property. Xsp is the same as Xps, except that vertical tab
3970 is excluded. Xwd matches the same characters as Xan, plus underscore.
3971
3972 Resetting the match start
3973
3974 The escape sequence \K causes any previously matched characters not to
3975 be included in the final matched sequence. For example, the pattern:
3976
3977 foo\Kbar
3978
3979 matches "foobar", but reports that it has matched "bar". This feature
3980 is similar to a lookbehind assertion (described below). However, in
3981 this case, the part of the subject before the real match does not have
3982 to be of fixed length, as lookbehind assertions do. The use of \K does
3983 not interfere with the setting of captured substrings. For example,
3984 when the pattern
3985
3986 (foo)\Kbar
3987
3988 matches "foobar", the first substring is still set to "foo".
3989
3990 Perl documents that the use of \K within assertions is "not well
3991 defined". In PCRE, \K is acted upon when it occurs inside positive
3992 assertions, but is ignored in negative assertions.
3993
3994 Simple assertions
3995
3996 The final use of backslash is for certain simple assertions. An asser-
3997 tion specifies a condition that has to be met at a particular point in
3998 a match, without consuming any characters from the subject string. The
3999 use of subpatterns for more complicated assertions is described below.
4000 The backslashed assertions are:
4001
4002 \b matches at a word boundary
4003 \B matches when not at a word boundary
4004 \A matches at the start of the subject
4005 \Z matches at the end of the subject
4006 also matches before a newline at the end of the subject
4007 \z matches only at the end of the subject
4008 \G matches at the first matching position in the subject
4009
4010 Inside a character class, \b has a different meaning; it matches the
4011 backspace character. If any other of these assertions appears in a
4012 character class, by default it matches the corresponding literal char-
4013 acter (for example, \B matches the letter B). However, if the
4014 PCRE_EXTRA option is set, an "invalid escape sequence" error is gener-
4015 ated instead.
4016
4017 A word boundary is a position in the subject string where the current
4018 character and the previous character do not both match \w or \W (i.e.
4019 one matches \w and the other matches \W), or the start or end of the
4020 string if the first or last character matches \w, respectively. In
4021 UTF-8 mode, the meanings of \w and \W can be changed by setting the
4022 PCRE_UCP option. When this is done, it also affects \b and \B. Neither
4023 PCRE nor Perl has a separate "start of word" or "end of word" metase-
4024 quence. However, whatever follows \b normally determines which it is.
4025 For example, the fragment \ba matches "a" at the start of a word.
4026
4027 The \A, \Z, and \z assertions differ from the traditional circumflex
4028 and dollar (described in the next section) in that they only ever match
4029 at the very start and end of the subject string, whatever options are
4030 set. Thus, they are independent of multiline mode. These three asser-
4031 tions are not affected by the PCRE_NOTBOL or PCRE_NOTEOL options, which
4032 affect only the behaviour of the circumflex and dollar metacharacters.
4033 However, if the startoffset argument of pcre_exec() is non-zero, indi-
4034 cating that matching is to start at a point other than the beginning of
4035 the subject, \A can never match. The difference between \Z and \z is
4036 that \Z matches before a newline at the end of the string as well as at
4037 the very end, whereas \z matches only at the end.
4038
4039 The \G assertion is true only when the current matching position is at
4040 the start point of the match, as specified by the startoffset argument
4041 of pcre_exec(). It differs from \A when the value of startoffset is
4042 non-zero. By calling pcre_exec() multiple times with appropriate argu-
4043 ments, you can mimic Perl's /g option, and it is in this kind of imple-
4044 mentation where \G can be useful.
4045
4046 Note, however, that PCRE's interpretation of \G, as the start of the
4047 current match, is subtly different from Perl's, which defines it as the
4048 end of the previous match. In Perl, these can be different when the
4049 previously matched string was empty. Because PCRE does just one match
4050 at a time, it cannot reproduce this behaviour.
4051
4052 If all the alternatives of a pattern begin with \G, the expression is
4053 anchored to the starting match position, and the "anchored" flag is set
4054 in the compiled regular expression.
4055
4056
4057 CIRCUMFLEX AND DOLLAR
4058
4059 Outside a character class, in the default matching mode, the circumflex
4060 character is an assertion that is true only if the current matching
4061 point is at the start of the subject string. If the startoffset argu-
4062 ment of pcre_exec() is non-zero, circumflex can never match if the
4063 PCRE_MULTILINE option is unset. Inside a character class, circumflex
4064 has an entirely different meaning (see below).
4065
4066 Circumflex need not be the first character of the pattern if a number
4067 of alternatives are involved, but it should be the first thing in each
4068 alternative in which it appears if the pattern is ever to match that
4069 branch. If all possible alternatives start with a circumflex, that is,
4070 if the pattern is constrained to match only at the start of the sub-
4071 ject, it is said to be an "anchored" pattern. (There are also other
4072 constructs that can cause a pattern to be anchored.)
4073
4074 A dollar character is an assertion that is true only if the current
4075 matching point is at the end of the subject string, or immediately
4076 before a newline at the end of the string (by default). Dollar need not
4077 be the last character of the pattern if a number of alternatives are
4078 involved, but it should be the last item in any branch in which it
4079 appears. Dollar has no special meaning in a character class.
4080
4081 The meaning of dollar can be changed so that it matches only at the
4082 very end of the string, by setting the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option at
4083 compile time. This does not affect the \Z assertion.
4084
4085 The meanings of the circumflex and dollar characters are changed if the
4086 PCRE_MULTILINE option is set. When this is the case, a circumflex
4087 matches immediately after internal newlines as well as at the start of
4088 the subject string. It does not match after a newline that ends the
4089 string. A dollar matches before any newlines in the string, as well as
4090 at the very end, when PCRE_MULTILINE is set. When newline is specified
4091 as the two-character sequence CRLF, isolated CR and LF characters do
4092 not indicate newlines.
4093
4094 For example, the pattern /^abc$/ matches the subject string "def\nabc"
4095 (where \n represents a newline) in multiline mode, but not otherwise.
4096 Consequently, patterns that are anchored in single line mode because
4097 all branches start with ^ are not anchored in multiline mode, and a
4098 match for circumflex is possible when the startoffset argument of
4099 pcre_exec() is non-zero. The PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option is ignored if
4100 PCRE_MULTILINE is set.
4101
4102 Note that the sequences \A, \Z, and \z can be used to match the start
4103 and end of the subject in both modes, and if all branches of a pattern
4104 start with \A it is always anchored, whether or not PCRE_MULTILINE is
4105 set.
4106
4107
4108 FULL STOP (PERIOD, DOT) AND \N
4109
4110 Outside a character class, a dot in the pattern matches any one charac-
4111 ter in the subject string except (by default) a character that signi-
4112 fies the end of a line. In UTF-8 mode, the matched character may be
4113 more than one byte long.
4114
4115 When a line ending is defined as a single character, dot never matches
4116 that character; when the two-character sequence CRLF is used, dot does
4117 not match CR if it is immediately followed by LF, but otherwise it
4118 matches all characters (including isolated CRs and LFs). When any Uni-
4119 code line endings are being recognized, dot does not match CR or LF or
4120 any of the other line ending characters.
4121
4122 The behaviour of dot with regard to newlines can be changed. If the
4123 PCRE_DOTALL option is set, a dot matches any one character, without
4124 exception. If the two-character sequence CRLF is present in the subject
4125 string, it takes two dots to match it.
4126
4127 The handling of dot is entirely independent of the handling of circum-
4128 flex and dollar, the only relationship being that they both involve
4129 newlines. Dot has no special meaning in a character class.
4130
4131 The escape sequence \N behaves like a dot, except that it is not
4132 affected by the PCRE_DOTALL option. In other words, it matches any
4133 character except one that signifies the end of a line.
4134
4135
4136 MATCHING A SINGLE BYTE
4137
4138 Outside a character class, the escape sequence \C matches any one byte,
4139 both in and out of UTF-8 mode. Unlike a dot, it always matches any
4140 line-ending characters. The feature is provided in Perl in order to
4141 match individual bytes in UTF-8 mode. Because it breaks up UTF-8 char-
4142 acters into individual bytes, the rest of the string may start with a
4143 malformed UTF-8 character. For this reason, the \C escape sequence is
4144 best avoided.
4145
4146 PCRE does not allow \C to appear in lookbehind assertions (described
4147 below), because in UTF-8 mode this would make it impossible to calcu-
4148 late the length of the lookbehind.
4149
4150
4151 SQUARE BRACKETS AND CHARACTER CLASSES
4152
4153 An opening square bracket introduces a character class, terminated by a
4154 closing square bracket. A closing square bracket on its own is not spe-
4155 cial by default. However, if the PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT option is set,
4156 a lone closing square bracket causes a compile-time error. If a closing
4157 square bracket is required as a member of the class, it should be the
4158 first data character in the class (after an initial circumflex, if
4159 present) or escaped with a backslash.
4160
4161 A character class matches a single character in the subject. In UTF-8
4162 mode, the character may be more than one byte long. A matched character
4163 must be in the set of characters defined by the class, unless the first
4164 character in the class definition is a circumflex, in which case the
4165 subject character must not be in the set defined by the class. If a
4166 circumflex is actually required as a member of the class, ensure it is
4167 not the first character, or escape it with a backslash.
4168
4169 For example, the character class [aeiou] matches any lower case vowel,
4170 while [^aeiou] matches any character that is not a lower case vowel.
4171 Note that a circumflex is just a convenient notation for specifying the
4172 characters that are in the class by enumerating those that are not. A
4173 class that starts with a circumflex is not an assertion; it still con-
4174 sumes a character from the subject string, and therefore it fails if
4175 the current pointer is at the end of the string.
4176
4177 In UTF-8 mode, characters with values greater than 255 can be included
4178 in a class as a literal string of bytes, or by using the \x{ escaping
4179 mechanism.
4180
4181 When caseless matching is set, any letters in a class represent both
4182 their upper case and lower case versions, so for example, a caseless
4183 [aeiou] matches "A" as well as "a", and a caseless [^aeiou] does not
4184 match "A", whereas a caseful version would. In UTF-8 mode, PCRE always
4185 understands the concept of case for characters whose values are less
4186 than 128, so caseless matching is always possible. For characters with
4187 higher values, the concept of case is supported if PCRE is compiled
4188 with Unicode property support, but not otherwise. If you want to use
4189 caseless matching in UTF8-mode for characters 128 and above, you must
4190 ensure that PCRE is compiled with Unicode property support as well as
4191 with UTF-8 support.
4192
4193 Characters that might indicate line breaks are never treated in any
4194 special way when matching character classes, whatever line-ending
4195 sequence is in use, and whatever setting of the PCRE_DOTALL and
4196 PCRE_MULTILINE options is used. A class such as [^a] always matches one
4197 of these characters.
4198
4199 The minus (hyphen) character can be used to specify a range of charac-
4200 ters in a character class. For example, [d-m] matches any letter
4201 between d and m, inclusive. If a minus character is required in a
4202 class, it must be escaped with a backslash or appear in a position
4203 where it cannot be interpreted as indicating a range, typically as the
4204 first or last character in the class.
4205
4206 It is not possible to have the literal character "]" as the end charac-
4207 ter of a range. A pattern such as [W-]46] is interpreted as a class of
4208 two characters ("W" and "-") followed by a literal string "46]", so it
4209 would match "W46]" or "-46]". However, if the "]" is escaped with a
4210 backslash it is interpreted as the end of range, so [W-\]46] is inter-
4211 preted as a class containing a range followed by two other characters.
4212 The octal or hexadecimal representation of "]" can also be used to end
4213 a range.
4214
4215 Ranges operate in the collating sequence of character values. They can
4216 also be used for characters specified numerically, for example
4217 [\000-\037]. In UTF-8 mode, ranges can include characters whose values
4218 are greater than 255, for example [\x{100}-\x{2ff}].
4219
4220 If a range that includes letters is used when caseless matching is set,
4221 it matches the letters in either case. For example, [W-c] is equivalent
4222 to [][\\^_`wxyzabc], matched caselessly, and in non-UTF-8 mode, if
4223 character tables for a French locale are in use, [\xc8-\xcb] matches
4224 accented E characters in both cases. In UTF-8 mode, PCRE supports the
4225 concept of case for characters with values greater than 128 only when
4226 it is compiled with Unicode property support.
4227
4228 The character escape sequences \d, \D, \h, \H, \p, \P, \s, \S, \v, \V,
4229 \w, and \W may appear in a character class, and add the characters that
4230 they match to the class. For example, [\dABCDEF] matches any hexadeci-
4231 mal digit. In UTF-8 mode, the PCRE_UCP option affects the meanings of
4232 \d, \s, \w and their upper case partners, just as it does when they
4233 appear outside a character class, as described in the section entitled
4234 "Generic character types" above. The escape sequence \b has a different
4235 meaning inside a character class; it matches the backspace character.
4236 The sequences \B, \N, \R, and \X are not special inside a character
4237 class. Like any other unrecognized escape sequences, they are treated
4238 as the literal characters "B", "N", "R", and "X" by default, but cause
4239 an error if the PCRE_EXTRA option is set.
4240
4241 A circumflex can conveniently be used with the upper case character
4242 types to specify a more restricted set of characters than the matching
4243 lower case type. For example, the class [^\W_] matches any letter or
4244 digit, but not underscore, whereas [\w] includes underscore. A positive
4245 character class should be read as "something OR something OR ..." and a
4246 negative class as "NOT something AND NOT something AND NOT ...".
4247
4248 The only metacharacters that are recognized in character classes are
4249 backslash, hyphen (only where it can be interpreted as specifying a
4250 range), circumflex (only at the start), opening square bracket (only
4251 when it can be interpreted as introducing a POSIX class name - see the
4252 next section), and the terminating closing square bracket. However,
4253 escaping other non-alphanumeric characters does no harm.
4254
4255
4256 POSIX CHARACTER CLASSES
4257
4258 Perl supports the POSIX notation for character classes. This uses names
4259 enclosed by [: and :] within the enclosing square brackets. PCRE also
4260 supports this notation. For example,
4261
4262 [01[:alpha:]%]
4263
4264 matches "0", "1", any alphabetic character, or "%". The supported class
4265 names are:
4266
4267 alnum letters and digits
4268 alpha letters
4269 ascii character codes 0 - 127
4270 blank space or tab only
4271 cntrl control characters
4272 digit decimal digits (same as \d)
4273 graph printing characters, excluding space
4274 lower lower case letters
4275 print printing characters, including space
4276 punct printing characters, excluding letters and digits and space
4277 space white space (not quite the same as \s)
4278 upper upper case letters
4279 word "word" characters (same as \w)
4280 xdigit hexadecimal digits
4281
4282 The "space" characters are HT (9), LF (10), VT (11), FF (12), CR (13),
4283 and space (32). Notice that this list includes the VT character (code
4284 11). This makes "space" different to \s, which does not include VT (for
4285 Perl compatibility).
4286
4287 The name "word" is a Perl extension, and "blank" is a GNU extension
4288 from Perl 5.8. Another Perl extension is negation, which is indicated
4289 by a ^ character after the colon. For example,
4290
4291 [12[:^digit:]]
4292
4293 matches "1", "2", or any non-digit. PCRE (and Perl) also recognize the
4294 POSIX syntax [.ch.] and [=ch=] where "ch" is a "collating element", but
4295 these are not supported, and an error is given if they are encountered.
4296
4297 By default, in UTF-8 mode, characters with values greater than 128 do
4298 not match any of the POSIX character classes. However, if the PCRE_UCP
4299 option is passed to pcre_compile(), some of the classes are changed so
4300 that Unicode character properties are used. This is achieved by replac-
4301 ing the POSIX classes by other sequences, as follows:
4302
4303 [:alnum:] becomes \p{Xan}
4304 [:alpha:] becomes \p{L}
4305 [:blank:] becomes \h
4306 [:digit:] becomes \p{Nd}
4307 [:lower:] becomes \p{Ll}
4308 [:space:] becomes \p{Xps}
4309 [:upper:] becomes \p{Lu}
4310 [:word:] becomes \p{Xwd}
4311
4312 Negated versions, such as [:^alpha:] use \P instead of \p. The other
4313 POSIX classes are unchanged, and match only characters with code points
4314 less than 128.
4315
4316
4317 VERTICAL BAR
4318
4319 Vertical bar characters are used to separate alternative patterns. For
4320 example, the pattern
4321
4322 gilbert|sullivan
4323
4324 matches either "gilbert" or "sullivan". Any number of alternatives may
4325 appear, and an empty alternative is permitted (matching the empty
4326 string). The matching process tries each alternative in turn, from left
4327 to right, and the first one that succeeds is used. If the alternatives
4328 are within a subpattern (defined below), "succeeds" means matching the
4329 rest of the main pattern as well as the alternative in the subpattern.
4330
4331
4332 INTERNAL OPTION SETTING
4333
4334 The settings of the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, and
4335 PCRE_EXTENDED options (which are Perl-compatible) can be changed from
4336 within the pattern by a sequence of Perl option letters enclosed
4337 between "(?" and ")". The option letters are
4338
4339 i for PCRE_CASELESS
4340 m for PCRE_MULTILINE
4341 s for PCRE_DOTALL
4342 x for PCRE_EXTENDED
4343
4344 For example, (?im) sets caseless, multiline matching. It is also possi-
4345 ble to unset these options by preceding the letter with a hyphen, and a
4346 combined setting and unsetting such as (?im-sx), which sets PCRE_CASE-
4347 LESS and PCRE_MULTILINE while unsetting PCRE_DOTALL and PCRE_EXTENDED,
4348 is also permitted. If a letter appears both before and after the
4349 hyphen, the option is unset.
4350
4351 The PCRE-specific options PCRE_DUPNAMES, PCRE_UNGREEDY, and PCRE_EXTRA
4352 can be changed in the same way as the Perl-compatible options by using
4353 the characters J, U and X respectively.
4354
4355 When one of these option changes occurs at top level (that is, not
4356 inside subpattern parentheses), the change applies to the remainder of
4357 the pattern that follows. If the change is placed right at the start of
4358 a pattern, PCRE extracts it into the global options (and it will there-
4359 fore show up in data extracted by the pcre_fullinfo() function).
4360
4361 An option change within a subpattern (see below for a description of
4362 subpatterns) affects only that part of the subpattern that follows it,
4363 so
4364
4365 (a(?i)b)c
4366
4367 matches abc and aBc and no other strings (assuming PCRE_CASELESS is not
4368 used). By this means, options can be made to have different settings
4369 in different parts of the pattern. Any changes made in one alternative
4370 do carry on into subsequent branches within the same subpattern. For
4371 example,
4372
4373 (a(?i)b|c)
4374
4375 matches "ab", "aB", "c", and "C", even though when matching "C" the
4376 first branch is abandoned before the option setting. This is because
4377 the effects of option settings happen at compile time. There would be
4378 some very weird behaviour otherwise.
4379
4380 Note: There are other PCRE-specific options that can be set by the
4381 application when the compile or match functions are called. In some
4382 cases the pattern can contain special leading sequences such as (*CRLF)
4383 to override what the application has set or what has been defaulted.
4384 Details are given in the section entitled "Newline sequences" above.
4385 There are also the (*UTF8) and (*UCP) leading sequences that can be
4386 used to set UTF-8 and Unicode property modes; they are equivalent to
4387 setting the PCRE_UTF8 and the PCRE_UCP options, respectively.
4388
4389
4390 SUBPATTERNS
4391
4392 Subpatterns are delimited by parentheses (round brackets), which can be
4393 nested. Turning part of a pattern into a subpattern does two things:
4394
4395 1. It localizes a set of alternatives. For example, the pattern
4396
4397 cat(aract|erpillar|)
4398
4399 matches "cataract", "caterpillar", or "cat". Without the parentheses,
4400 it would match "cataract", "erpillar" or an empty string.
4401
4402 2. It sets up the subpattern as a capturing subpattern. This means
4403 that, when the whole pattern matches, that portion of the subject
4404 string that matched the subpattern is passed back to the caller via the
4405 ovector argument of pcre_exec(). Opening parentheses are counted from
4406 left to right (starting from 1) to obtain numbers for the capturing
4407 subpatterns. For example, if the string "the red king" is matched
4408 against the pattern
4409
4410 the ((red|white) (king|queen))
4411
4412 the captured substrings are "red king", "red", and "king", and are num-
4413 bered 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
4414
4415 The fact that plain parentheses fulfil two functions is not always
4416 helpful. There are often times when a grouping subpattern is required
4417 without a capturing requirement. If an opening parenthesis is followed
4418 by a question mark and a colon, the subpattern does not do any captur-
4419 ing, and is not counted when computing the number of any subsequent
4420 capturing subpatterns. For example, if the string "the white queen" is
4421 matched against the pattern
4422
4423 the ((?:red|white) (king|queen))
4424
4425 the captured substrings are "white queen" and "queen", and are numbered
4426 1 and 2. The maximum number of capturing subpatterns is 65535.
4427
4428 As a convenient shorthand, if any option settings are required at the
4429 start of a non-capturing subpattern, the option letters may appear
4430 between the "?" and the ":". Thus the two patterns
4431
4432 (?i:saturday|sunday)
4433 (?:(?i)saturday|sunday)
4434
4435 match exactly the same set of strings. Because alternative branches are
4436 tried from left to right, and options are not reset until the end of
4437 the subpattern is reached, an option setting in one branch does affect
4438 subsequent branches, so the above patterns match "SUNDAY" as well as
4439 "Saturday".
4440
4441
4442 DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NUMBERS
4443
4444 Perl 5.10 introduced a feature whereby each alternative in a subpattern
4445 uses the same numbers for its capturing parentheses. Such a subpattern
4446 starts with (?| and is itself a non-capturing subpattern. For example,
4447 consider this pattern:
4448
4449 (?|(Sat)ur|(Sun))day
4450
4451 Because the two alternatives are inside a (?| group, both sets of cap-
4452 turing parentheses are numbered one. Thus, when the pattern matches,
4453 you can look at captured substring number one, whichever alternative
4454 matched. This construct is useful when you want to capture part, but
4455 not all, of one of a number of alternatives. Inside a (?| group, paren-
4456 theses are numbered as usual, but the number is reset at the start of
4457 each branch. The numbers of any capturing parentheses that follow the
4458 subpattern start after the highest number used in any branch. The fol-
4459 lowing example is taken from the Perl documentation. The numbers under-
4460 neath show in which buffer the captured content will be stored.
4461
4462 # before ---------------branch-reset----------- after
4463 / ( a ) (?| x ( y ) z | (p (q) r) | (t) u (v) ) ( z ) /x
4464 # 1 2 2 3 2 3 4
4465
4466 A back reference to a numbered subpattern uses the most recent value
4467 that is set for that number by any subpattern. The following pattern
4468 matches "abcabc" or "defdef":
4469
4470 /(?|(abc)|(def))\1/
4471
4472 In contrast, a recursive or "subroutine" call to a numbered subpattern
4473 always refers to the first one in the pattern with the given number.
4474 The following pattern matches "abcabc" or "defabc":
4475
4476 /(?|(abc)|(def))(?1)/
4477
4478 If a condition test for a subpattern's having matched refers to a non-
4479 unique number, the test is true if any of the subpatterns of that num-
4480 ber have matched.
4481
4482 An alternative approach to using this "branch reset" feature is to use
4483 duplicate named subpatterns, as described in the next section.
4484
4485
4486 NAMED SUBPATTERNS
4487
4488 Identifying capturing parentheses by number is simple, but it can be
4489 very hard to keep track of the numbers in complicated regular expres-
4490 sions. Furthermore, if an expression is modified, the numbers may
4491 change. To help with this difficulty, PCRE supports the naming of sub-
4492 patterns. This feature was not added to Perl until release 5.10. Python
4493 had the feature earlier, and PCRE introduced it at release 4.0, using
4494 the Python syntax. PCRE now supports both the Perl and the Python syn-
4495 tax. Perl allows identically numbered subpatterns to have different
4496 names, but PCRE does not.
4497
4498 In PCRE, a subpattern can be named in one of three ways: (?<name>...)
4499 or (?'name'...) as in Perl, or (?P<name>...) as in Python. References
4500 to capturing parentheses from other parts of the pattern, such as back
4501 references, recursion, and conditions, can be made by name as well as
4502 by number.
4503
4504 Names consist of up to 32 alphanumeric characters and underscores.
4505 Named capturing parentheses are still allocated numbers as well as
4506 names, exactly as if the names were not present. The PCRE API provides
4507 function calls for extracting the name-to-number translation table from
4508 a compiled pattern. There is also a convenience function for extracting
4509 a captured substring by name.
4510
4511 By default, a name must be unique within a pattern, but it is possible
4512 to relax this constraint by setting the PCRE_DUPNAMES option at compile
4513 time. (Duplicate names are also always permitted for subpatterns with
4514 the same number, set up as described in the previous section.) Dupli-
4515 cate names can be useful for patterns where only one instance of the
4516 named parentheses can match. Suppose you want to match the name of a
4517 weekday, either as a 3-letter abbreviation or as the full name, and in
4518 both cases you want to extract the abbreviation. This pattern (ignoring
4519 the line breaks) does the job:
4520
4521 (?<DN>Mon|Fri|Sun)(?:day)?|
4522 (?<DN>Tue)(?:sday)?|
4523 (?<DN>Wed)(?:nesday)?|
4524 (?<DN>Thu)(?:rsday)?|
4525 (?<DN>Sat)(?:urday)?
4526
4527 There are five capturing substrings, but only one is ever set after a
4528 match. (An alternative way of solving this problem is to use a "branch
4529 reset" subpattern, as described in the previous section.)
4530
4531 The convenience function for extracting the data by name returns the
4532 substring for the first (and in this example, the only) subpattern of
4533 that name that matched. This saves searching to find which numbered
4534 subpattern it was.
4535
4536 If you make a back reference to a non-unique named subpattern from
4537 elsewhere in the pattern, the one that corresponds to the first occur-
4538 rence of the name is used. In the absence of duplicate numbers (see the
4539 previous section) this is the one with the lowest number. If you use a
4540 named reference in a condition test (see the section about conditions
4541 below), either to check whether a subpattern has matched, or to check
4542 for recursion, all subpatterns with the same name are tested. If the
4543 condition is true for any one of them, the overall condition is true.
4544 This is the same behaviour as testing by number. For further details of
4545 the interfaces for handling named subpatterns, see the pcreapi documen-
4546 tation.
4547
4548 Warning: You cannot use different names to distinguish between two sub-
4549 patterns with the same number because PCRE uses only the numbers when
4550 matching. For this reason, an error is given at compile time if differ-
4551 ent names are given to subpatterns with the same number. However, you
4552 can give the same name to subpatterns with the same number, even when
4553 PCRE_DUPNAMES is not set.
4554
4555
4556 REPETITION
4557
4558 Repetition is specified by quantifiers, which can follow any of the
4559 following items:
4560
4561 a literal data character
4562 the dot metacharacter
4563 the \C escape sequence
4564 the \X escape sequence (in UTF-8 mode with Unicode properties)
4565 the \R escape sequence
4566 an escape such as \d or \pL that matches a single character
4567 a character class
4568 a back reference (see next section)
4569 a parenthesized subpattern (including assertions)
4570 a recursive or "subroutine" call to a subpattern
4571
4572 The general repetition quantifier specifies a minimum and maximum num-
4573 ber of permitted matches, by giving the two numbers in curly brackets
4574 (braces), separated by a comma. The numbers must be less than 65536,
4575 and the first must be less than or equal to the second. For example:
4576
4577 z{2,4}
4578
4579 matches "zz", "zzz", or "zzzz". A closing brace on its own is not a
4580 special character. If the second number is omitted, but the comma is
4581 present, there is no upper limit; if the second number and the comma
4582 are both omitted, the quantifier specifies an exact number of required
4583 matches. Thus
4584
4585 [aeiou]{3,}
4586
4587 matches at least 3 successive vowels, but may match many more, while
4588
4589 \d{8}
4590
4591 matches exactly 8 digits. An opening curly bracket that appears in a
4592 position where a quantifier is not allowed, or one that does not match
4593 the syntax of a quantifier, is taken as a literal character. For exam-
4594 ple, {,6} is not a quantifier, but a literal string of four characters.
4595
4596 In UTF-8 mode, quantifiers apply to UTF-8 characters rather than to
4597 individual bytes. Thus, for example, \x{100}{2} matches two UTF-8 char-
4598 acters, each of which is represented by a two-byte sequence. Similarly,
4599 when Unicode property support is available, \X{3} matches three Unicode
4600 extended sequences, each of which may be several bytes long (and they
4601 may be of different lengths).
4602
4603 The quantifier {0} is permitted, causing the expression to behave as if
4604 the previous item and the quantifier were not present. This may be use-
4605 ful for subpatterns that are referenced as subroutines from elsewhere
4606 in the pattern (but see also the section entitled "Defining subpatterns
4607 for use by reference only" below). Items other than subpatterns that
4608 have a {0} quantifier are omitted from the compiled pattern.
4609
4610 For convenience, the three most common quantifiers have single-charac-
4611 ter abbreviations:
4612
4613 * is equivalent to {0,}
4614 + is equivalent to {1,}
4615 ? is equivalent to {0,1}
4616
4617 It is possible to construct infinite loops by following a subpattern
4618 that can match no characters with a quantifier that has no upper limit,
4619 for example:
4620
4621 (a?)*
4622
4623 Earlier versions of Perl and PCRE used to give an error at compile time
4624 for such patterns. However, because there are cases where this can be
4625 useful, such patterns are now accepted, but if any repetition of the
4626 subpattern does in fact match no characters, the loop is forcibly bro-
4627 ken.
4628
4629 By default, the quantifiers are "greedy", that is, they match as much
4630 as possible (up to the maximum number of permitted times), without
4631 causing the rest of the pattern to fail. The classic example of where
4632 this gives problems is in trying to match comments in C programs. These
4633 appear between /* and */ and within the comment, individual * and /
4634 characters may appear. An attempt to match C comments by applying the
4635 pattern
4636
4637 /\*.*\*/
4638
4639 to the string
4640
4641 /* first comment */ not comment /* second comment */
4642
4643 fails, because it matches the entire string owing to the greediness of
4644 the .* item.
4645
4646 However, if a quantifier is followed by a question mark, it ceases to
4647 be greedy, and instead matches the minimum number of times possible, so
4648 the pattern
4649
4650 /\*.*?\*/
4651
4652 does the right thing with the C comments. The meaning of the various
4653 quantifiers is not otherwise changed, just the preferred number of
4654 matches. Do not confuse this use of question mark with its use as a
4655 quantifier in its own right. Because it has two uses, it can sometimes
4656 appear doubled, as in
4657
4658 \d??\d
4659
4660 which matches one digit by preference, but can match two if that is the
4661 only way the rest of the pattern matches.
4662
4663 If the PCRE_UNGREEDY option is set (an option that is not available in
4664 Perl), the quantifiers are not greedy by default, but individual ones
4665 can be made greedy by following them with a question mark. In other
4666 words, it inverts the default behaviour.
4667
4668 When a parenthesized subpattern is quantified with a minimum repeat
4669 count that is greater than 1 or with a limited maximum, more memory is
4670 required for the compiled pattern, in proportion to the size of the
4671 minimum or maximum.
4672
4673 If a pattern starts with .* or .{0,} and the PCRE_DOTALL option (equiv-
4674 alent to Perl's /s) is set, thus allowing the dot to match newlines,
4675 the pattern is implicitly anchored, because whatever follows will be
4676 tried against every character position in the subject string, so there
4677 is no point in retrying the overall match at any position after the
4678 first. PCRE normally treats such a pattern as though it were preceded
4679 by \A.
4680
4681 In cases where it is known that the subject string contains no new-
4682 lines, it is worth setting PCRE_DOTALL in order to obtain this opti-
4683 mization, or alternatively using ^ to indicate anchoring explicitly.
4684
4685 However, there is one situation where the optimization cannot be used.
4686 When .* is inside capturing parentheses that are the subject of a back
4687 reference elsewhere in the pattern, a match at the start may fail where
4688 a later one succeeds. Consider, for example:
4689
4690 (.*)abc\1
4691
4692 If the subject is "xyz123abc123" the match point is the fourth charac-
4693 ter. For this reason, such a pattern is not implicitly anchored.
4694
4695 When a capturing subpattern is repeated, the value captured is the sub-
4696 string that matched the final iteration. For example, after
4697
4698 (tweedle[dume]{3}\s*)+
4699
4700 has matched "tweedledum tweedledee" the value of the captured substring
4701 is "tweedledee". However, if there are nested capturing subpatterns,
4702 the corresponding captured values may have been set in previous itera-
4703 tions. For example, after
4704
4705 /(a|(b))+/
4706
4707 matches "aba" the value of the second captured substring is "b".
4708
4709
4710 ATOMIC GROUPING AND POSSESSIVE QUANTIFIERS
4711
4712 With both maximizing ("greedy") and minimizing ("ungreedy" or "lazy")
4713 repetition, failure of what follows normally causes the repeated item
4714 to be re-evaluated to see if a different number of repeats allows the
4715 rest of the pattern to match. Sometimes it is useful to prevent this,
4716 either to change the nature of the match, or to cause it fail earlier
4717 than it otherwise might, when the author of the pattern knows there is
4718 no point in carrying on.
4719
4720 Consider, for example, the pattern \d+foo when applied to the subject
4721 line
4722
4723 123456bar
4724
4725 After matching all 6 digits and then failing to match "foo", the normal
4726 action of the matcher is to try again with only 5 digits matching the
4727 \d+ item, and then with 4, and so on, before ultimately failing.
4728 "Atomic grouping" (a term taken from Jeffrey Friedl's book) provides
4729 the means for specifying that once a subpattern has matched, it is not
4730 to be re-evaluated in this way.
4731
4732 If we use atomic grouping for the previous example, the matcher gives
4733 up immediately on failing to match "foo" the first time. The notation
4734 is a kind of special parenthesis, starting with (?> as in this example:
4735
4736 (?>\d+)foo
4737
4738 This kind of parenthesis "locks up" the part of the pattern it con-
4739 tains once it has matched, and a failure further into the pattern is
4740 prevented from backtracking into it. Backtracking past it to previous
4741 items, however, works as normal.
4742
4743 An alternative description is that a subpattern of this type matches
4744 the string of characters that an identical standalone pattern would
4745 match, if anchored at the current point in the subject string.
4746
4747 Atomic grouping subpatterns are not capturing subpatterns. Simple cases
4748 such as the above example can be thought of as a maximizing repeat that
4749 must swallow everything it can. So, while both \d+ and \d+? are pre-
4750 pared to adjust the number of digits they match in order to make the
4751 rest of the pattern match, (?>\d+) can only match an entire sequence of
4752 digits.
4753
4754 Atomic groups in general can of course contain arbitrarily complicated
4755 subpatterns, and can be nested. However, when the subpattern for an
4756 atomic group is just a single repeated item, as in the example above, a
4757 simpler notation, called a "possessive quantifier" can be used. This
4758 consists of an additional + character following a quantifier. Using
4759 this notation, the previous example can be rewritten as
4760
4761 \d++foo
4762
4763 Note that a possessive quantifier can be used with an entire group, for
4764 example:
4765
4766 (abc|xyz){2,3}+
4767
4768 Possessive quantifiers are always greedy; the setting of the
4769 PCRE_UNGREEDY option is ignored. They are a convenient notation for the
4770 simpler forms of atomic group. However, there is no difference in the
4771 meaning of a possessive quantifier and the equivalent atomic group,
4772 though there may be a performance difference; possessive quantifiers
4773 should be slightly faster.
4774
4775 The possessive quantifier syntax is an extension to the Perl 5.8 syn-
4776 tax. Jeffrey Friedl originated the idea (and the name) in the first
4777 edition of his book. Mike McCloskey liked it, so implemented it when he
4778 built Sun's Java package, and PCRE copied it from there. It ultimately
4779 found its way into Perl at release 5.10.
4780
4781 PCRE has an optimization that automatically "possessifies" certain sim-
4782 ple pattern constructs. For example, the sequence A+B is treated as
4783 A++B because there is no point in backtracking into a sequence of A's
4784 when B must follow.
4785
4786 When a pattern contains an unlimited repeat inside a subpattern that
4787 can itself be repeated an unlimited number of times, the use of an
4788 atomic group is the only way to avoid some failing matches taking a
4789 very long time indeed. The pattern
4790
4791 (\D+|<\d+>)*[!?]
4792
4793 matches an unlimited number of substrings that either consist of non-
4794 digits, or digits enclosed in <>, followed by either ! or ?. When it
4795 matches, it runs quickly. However, if it is applied to
4796
4797 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
4798
4799 it takes a long time before reporting failure. This is because the
4800 string can be divided between the internal \D+ repeat and the external
4801 * repeat in a large number of ways, and all have to be tried. (The
4802 example uses [!?] rather than a single character at the end, because
4803 both PCRE and Perl have an optimization that allows for fast failure
4804 when a single character is used. They remember the last single charac-
4805 ter that is required for a match, and fail early if it is not present
4806 in the string.) If the pattern is changed so that it uses an atomic
4807 group, like this:
4808
4809 ((?>\D+)|<\d+>)*[!?]
4810
4811 sequences of non-digits cannot be broken, and failure happens quickly.
4812
4813
4814 BACK REFERENCES
4815
4816 Outside a character class, a backslash followed by a digit greater than
4817 0 (and possibly further digits) is a back reference to a capturing sub-
4818 pattern earlier (that is, to its left) in the pattern, provided there
4819 have been that many previous capturing left parentheses.
4820
4821 However, if the decimal number following the backslash is less than 10,
4822 it is always taken as a back reference, and causes an error only if
4823 there are not that many capturing left parentheses in the entire pat-
4824 tern. In other words, the parentheses that are referenced need not be
4825 to the left of the reference for numbers less than 10. A "forward back
4826 reference" of this type can make sense when a repetition is involved
4827 and the subpattern to the right has participated in an earlier itera-
4828 tion.
4829
4830 It is not possible to have a numerical "forward back reference" to a
4831 subpattern whose number is 10 or more using this syntax because a
4832 sequence such as \50 is interpreted as a character defined in octal.
4833 See the subsection entitled "Non-printing characters" above for further
4834 details of the handling of digits following a backslash. There is no
4835 such problem when named parentheses are used. A back reference to any
4836 subpattern is possible using named parentheses (see below).
4837
4838 Another way of avoiding the ambiguity inherent in the use of digits
4839 following a backslash is to use the \g escape sequence. This escape
4840 must be followed by an unsigned number or a negative number, optionally
4841 enclosed in braces. These examples are all identical:
4842
4843 (ring), \1
4844 (ring), \g1
4845 (ring), \g{1}
4846
4847 An unsigned number specifies an absolute reference without the ambigu-
4848 ity that is present in the older syntax. It is also useful when literal
4849 digits follow the reference. A negative number is a relative reference.
4850 Consider this example:
4851
4852 (abc(def)ghi)\g{-1}
4853
4854 The sequence \g{-1} is a reference to the most recently started captur-
4855 ing subpattern before \g, that is, is it equivalent to \2 in this exam-
4856 ple. Similarly, \g{-2} would be equivalent to \1. The use of relative
4857 references can be helpful in long patterns, and also in patterns that
4858 are created by joining together fragments that contain references
4859 within themselves.
4860
4861 A back reference matches whatever actually matched the capturing sub-
4862 pattern in the current subject string, rather than anything matching
4863 the subpattern itself (see "Subpatterns as subroutines" below for a way
4864 of doing that). So the pattern
4865
4866 (sens|respons)e and \1ibility
4867
4868 matches "sense and sensibility" and "response and responsibility", but
4869 not "sense and responsibility". If caseful matching is in force at the
4870 time of the back reference, the case of letters is relevant. For exam-
4871 ple,
4872
4873 ((?i)rah)\s+\1
4874
4875 matches "rah rah" and "RAH RAH", but not "RAH rah", even though the
4876 original capturing subpattern is matched caselessly.
4877
4878 There are several different ways of writing back references to named
4879 subpatterns. The .NET syntax \k{name} and the Perl syntax \k<name> or
4880 \k'name' are supported, as is the Python syntax (?P=name). Perl 5.10's
4881 unified back reference syntax, in which \g can be used for both numeric
4882 and named references, is also supported. We could rewrite the above
4883 example in any of the following ways:
4884
4885 (?<p1>(?i)rah)\s+\k<p1>
4886 (?'p1'(?i)rah)\s+\k{p1}
4887 (?P<p1>(?i)rah)\s+(?P=p1)
4888 (?<p1>(?i)rah)\s+\g{p1}
4889
4890 A subpattern that is referenced by name may appear in the pattern
4891 before or after the reference.
4892
4893 There may be more than one back reference to the same subpattern. If a
4894 subpattern has not actually been used in a particular match, any back
4895 references to it always fail by default. For example, the pattern
4896
4897 (a|(bc))\2
4898
4899 always fails if it starts to match "a" rather than "bc". However, if
4900 the PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT option is set at compile time, a back refer-
4901 ence to an unset value matches an empty string.
4902
4903 Because there may be many capturing parentheses in a pattern, all dig-
4904 its following a backslash are taken as part of a potential back refer-
4905 ence number. If the pattern continues with a digit character, some
4906 delimiter must be used to terminate the back reference. If the
4907 PCRE_EXTENDED option is set, this can be whitespace. Otherwise, the \g{
4908 syntax or an empty comment (see "Comments" below) can be used.
4909
4910 Recursive back references
4911
4912 A back reference that occurs inside the parentheses to which it refers
4913 fails when the subpattern is first used, so, for example, (a\1) never
4914 matches. However, such references can be useful inside repeated sub-
4915 patterns. For example, the pattern
4916
4917 (a|b\1)+
4918
4919 matches any number of "a"s and also "aba", "ababbaa" etc. At each iter-
4920 ation of the subpattern, the back reference matches the character
4921 string corresponding to the previous iteration. In order for this to
4922 work, the pattern must be such that the first iteration does not need
4923 to match the back reference. This can be done using alternation, as in
4924 the example above, or by a quantifier with a minimum of zero.
4925
4926 Back references of this type cause the group that they reference to be
4927 treated as an atomic group. Once the whole group has been matched, a
4928 subsequent matching failure cannot cause backtracking into the middle
4929 of the group.
4930
4931
4932 ASSERTIONS
4933
4934 An assertion is a test on the characters following or preceding the
4935 current matching point that does not actually consume any characters.
4936 The simple assertions coded as \b, \B, \A, \G, \Z, \z, ^ and $ are
4937 described above.
4938
4939 More complicated assertions are coded as subpatterns. There are two
4940 kinds: those that look ahead of the current position in the subject
4941 string, and those that look behind it. An assertion subpattern is
4942 matched in the normal way, except that it does not cause the current
4943 matching position to be changed.
4944
4945 Assertion subpatterns are not capturing subpatterns. If such an asser-
4946 tion contains capturing subpatterns within it, these are counted for
4947 the purposes of numbering the capturing subpatterns in the whole pat-
4948 tern. However, substring capturing is carried out only for positive
4949 assertions, because it does not make sense for negative assertions.
4950
4951 For compatibility with Perl, assertion subpatterns may be repeated;
4952 though it makes no sense to assert the same thing several times, the
4953 side effect of capturing parentheses may occasionally be useful. In
4954 practice, there only three cases:
4955
4956 (1) If the quantifier is {0}, the assertion is never obeyed during
4957 matching. However, it may contain internal capturing parenthesized
4958 groups that are called from elsewhere via the subroutine mechanism.
4959
4960 (2) If quantifier is {0,n} where n is greater than zero, it is treated
4961 as if it were {0,1}. At run time, the rest of the pattern match is
4962 tried with and without the assertion, the order depending on the greed-
4963 iness of the quantifier.
4964
4965 (3) If the minimum repetition is greater than zero, the quantifier is
4966 ignored. The assertion is obeyed just once when encountered during
4967 matching.
4968
4969 Lookahead assertions
4970
4971 Lookahead assertions start with (?= for positive assertions and (?! for
4972 negative assertions. For example,
4973
4974 \w+(?=;)
4975
4976 matches a word followed by a semicolon, but does not include the semi-
4977 colon in the match, and
4978
4979 foo(?!bar)
4980
4981 matches any occurrence of "foo" that is not followed by "bar". Note
4982 that the apparently similar pattern
4983
4984 (?!foo)bar
4985
4986 does not find an occurrence of "bar" that is preceded by something
4987 other than "foo"; it finds any occurrence of "bar" whatsoever, because
4988 the assertion (?!foo) is always true when the next three characters are
4989 "bar". A lookbehind assertion is needed to achieve the other effect.
4990
4991 If you want to force a matching failure at some point in a pattern, the
4992 most convenient way to do it is with (?!) because an empty string
4993 always matches, so an assertion that requires there not to be an empty
4994 string must always fail. The backtracking control verb (*FAIL) or (*F)
4995 is a synonym for (?!).
4996
4997 Lookbehind assertions
4998
4999 Lookbehind assertions start with (?<= for positive assertions and (?<!
5000 for negative assertions. For example,
5001
5002 (?<!foo)bar
5003
5004 does find an occurrence of "bar" that is not preceded by "foo". The
5005 contents of a lookbehind assertion are restricted such that all the
5006 strings it matches must have a fixed length. However, if there are sev-
5007 eral top-level alternatives, they do not all have to have the same
5008 fixed length. Thus
5009
5010 (?<=bullock|donkey)
5011
5012 is permitted, but
5013
5014 (?<!dogs?|cats?)
5015
5016 causes an error at compile time. Branches that match different length
5017 strings are permitted only at the top level of a lookbehind assertion.
5018 This is an extension compared with Perl, which requires all branches to
5019 match the same length of string. An assertion such as
5020
5021 (?<=ab(c|de))
5022
5023 is not permitted, because its single top-level branch can match two
5024 different lengths, but it is acceptable to PCRE if rewritten to use two
5025 top-level branches:
5026
5027 (?<=abc|abde)
5028
5029 In some cases, the escape sequence \K (see above) can be used instead
5030 of a lookbehind assertion to get round the fixed-length restriction.
5031
5032 The implementation of lookbehind assertions is, for each alternative,
5033 to temporarily move the current position back by the fixed length and
5034 then try to match. If there are insufficient characters before the cur-
5035 rent position, the assertion fails.
5036
5037 PCRE does not allow the \C escape (which matches a single byte in UTF-8
5038 mode) to appear in lookbehind assertions, because it makes it impossi-
5039 ble to calculate the length of the lookbehind. The \X and \R escapes,
5040 which can match different numbers of bytes, are also not permitted.
5041
5042 "Subroutine" calls (see below) such as (?2) or (?&X) are permitted in
5043 lookbehinds, as long as the subpattern matches a fixed-length string.
5044 Recursion, however, is not supported.
5045
5046 Possessive quantifiers can be used in conjunction with lookbehind
5047 assertions to specify efficient matching of fixed-length strings at the
5048 end of subject strings. Consider a simple pattern such as
5049
5050 abcd$
5051
5052 when applied to a long string that does not match. Because matching
5053 proceeds from left to right, PCRE will look for each "a" in the subject
5054 and then see if what follows matches the rest of the pattern. If the
5055 pattern is specified as
5056
5057 ^.*abcd$
5058
5059 the initial .* matches the entire string at first, but when this fails
5060 (because there is no following "a"), it backtracks to match all but the
5061 last character, then all but the last two characters, and so on. Once
5062 again the search for "a" covers the entire string, from right to left,
5063 so we are no better off. However, if the pattern is written as
5064
5065 ^.*+(?<=abcd)
5066
5067 there can be no backtracking for the .*+ item; it can match only the
5068 entire string. The subsequent lookbehind assertion does a single test
5069 on the last four characters. If it fails, the match fails immediately.
5070 For long strings, this approach makes a significant difference to the
5071 processing time.
5072
5073 Using multiple assertions
5074
5075 Several assertions (of any sort) may occur in succession. For example,
5076
5077 (?<=\d{3})(?<!999)foo
5078
5079 matches "foo" preceded by three digits that are not "999". Notice that
5080 each of the assertions is applied independently at the same point in
5081 the subject string. First there is a check that the previous three
5082 characters are all digits, and then there is a check that the same
5083 three characters are not "999". This pattern does not match "foo" pre-
5084 ceded by six characters, the first of which are digits and the last
5085 three of which are not "999". For example, it doesn't match "123abc-
5086 foo". A pattern to do that is
5087
5088 (?<=\d{3}...)(?<!999)foo
5089
5090 This time the first assertion looks at the preceding six characters,
5091 checking that the first three are digits, and then the second assertion
5092 checks that the preceding three characters are not "999".
5093
5094 Assertions can be nested in any combination. For example,
5095
5096 (?<=(?<!foo)bar)baz
5097
5098 matches an occurrence of "baz" that is preceded by "bar" which in turn
5099 is not preceded by "foo", while
5100
5101 (?<=\d{3}(?!999)...)foo
5102
5103 is another pattern that matches "foo" preceded by three digits and any
5104 three characters that are not "999".
5105
5106
5107 CONDITIONAL SUBPATTERNS
5108
5109 It is possible to cause the matching process to obey a subpattern con-
5110 ditionally or to choose between two alternative subpatterns, depending
5111 on the result of an assertion, or whether a specific capturing subpat-
5112 tern has already been matched. The two possible forms of conditional
5113 subpattern are:
5114
5115 (?(condition)yes-pattern)
5116 (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)
5117
5118 If the condition is satisfied, the yes-pattern is used; otherwise the
5119 no-pattern (if present) is used. If there are more than two alterna-
5120 tives in the subpattern, a compile-time error occurs. Each of the two
5121 alternatives may itself contain nested subpatterns of any form, includ-
5122 ing conditional subpatterns; the restriction to two alternatives
5123 applies only at the level of the condition. This pattern fragment is an
5124 example where the alternatives are complex:
5125
5126 (?(1) (A|B|C) | (D | (?(2)E|F) | E) )
5127
5128
5129 There are four kinds of condition: references to subpatterns, refer-
5130 ences to recursion, a pseudo-condition called DEFINE, and assertions.
5131
5132 Checking for a used subpattern by number
5133
5134 If the text between the parentheses consists of a sequence of digits,
5135 the condition is true if a capturing subpattern of that number has pre-
5136 viously matched. If there is more than one capturing subpattern with
5137 the same number (see the earlier section about duplicate subpattern
5138 numbers), the condition is true if any of them have matched. An alter-
5139 native notation is to precede the digits with a plus or minus sign. In
5140 this case, the subpattern number is relative rather than absolute. The
5141 most recently opened parentheses can be referenced by (?(-1), the next
5142 most recent by (?(-2), and so on. Inside loops it can also make sense
5143 to refer to subsequent groups. The next parentheses to be opened can be
5144 referenced as (?(+1), and so on. (The value zero in any of these forms
5145 is not used; it provokes a compile-time error.)
5146
5147 Consider the following pattern, which contains non-significant white
5148 space to make it more readable (assume the PCRE_EXTENDED option) and to
5149 divide it into three parts for ease of discussion:
5150
5151 ( \( )? [^()]+ (?(1) \) )
5152
5153 The first part matches an optional opening parenthesis, and if that
5154 character is present, sets it as the first captured substring. The sec-
5155 ond part matches one or more characters that are not parentheses. The
5156 third part is a conditional subpattern that tests whether or not the
5157 first set of parentheses matched. If they did, that is, if subject
5158 started with an opening parenthesis, the condition is true, and so the
5159 yes-pattern is executed and a closing parenthesis is required. Other-
5160 wise, since no-pattern is not present, the subpattern matches nothing.
5161 In other words, this pattern matches a sequence of non-parentheses,
5162 optionally enclosed in parentheses.
5163
5164 If you were embedding this pattern in a larger one, you could use a
5165 relative reference:
5166
5167 ...other stuff... ( \( )? [^()]+ (?(-1) \) ) ...
5168
5169 This makes the fragment independent of the parentheses in the larger
5170 pattern.
5171
5172 Checking for a used subpattern by name
5173
5174 Perl uses the syntax (?(<name>)...) or (?('name')...) to test for a
5175 used subpattern by name. For compatibility with earlier versions of
5176 PCRE, which had this facility before Perl, the syntax (?(name)...) is
5177 also recognized. However, there is a possible ambiguity with this syn-
5178 tax, because subpattern names may consist entirely of digits. PCRE
5179 looks first for a named subpattern; if it cannot find one and the name
5180 consists entirely of digits, PCRE looks for a subpattern of that num-
5181 ber, which must be greater than zero. Using subpattern names that con-
5182 sist entirely of digits is not recommended.
5183
5184 Rewriting the above example to use a named subpattern gives this:
5185
5186 (?<OPEN> \( )? [^()]+ (?(<OPEN>) \) )
5187
5188 If the name used in a condition of this kind is a duplicate, the test
5189 is applied to all subpatterns of the same name, and is true if any one
5190 of them has matched.
5191
5192 Checking for pattern recursion
5193
5194 If the condition is the string (R), and there is no subpattern with the
5195 name R, the condition is true if a recursive call to the whole pattern
5196 or any subpattern has been made. If digits or a name preceded by amper-
5197 sand follow the letter R, for example:
5198
5199 (?(R3)...) or (?(R&name)...)
5200
5201 the condition is true if the most recent recursion is into a subpattern
5202 whose number or name is given. This condition does not check the entire
5203 recursion stack. If the name used in a condition of this kind is a
5204 duplicate, the test is applied to all subpatterns of the same name, and
5205 is true if any one of them is the most recent recursion.
5206
5207 At "top level", all these recursion test conditions are false. The
5208 syntax for recursive patterns is described below.
5209
5210 Defining subpatterns for use by reference only
5211
5212 If the condition is the string (DEFINE), and there is no subpattern
5213 with the name DEFINE, the condition is always false. In this case,
5214 there may be only one alternative in the subpattern. It is always
5215 skipped if control reaches this point in the pattern; the idea of
5216 DEFINE is that it can be used to define "subroutines" that can be ref-
5217 erenced from elsewhere. (The use of "subroutines" is described below.)
5218 For example, a pattern to match an IPv4 address such as
5219 "192.168.23.245" could be written like this (ignore whitespace and line
5220 breaks):
5221
5222 (?(DEFINE) (?<byte> 2[0-4]\d | 25[0-5] | 1\d\d | [1-9]?\d) )
5223 \b (?&byte) (\.(?&byte)){3} \b
5224
5225 The first part of the pattern is a DEFINE group inside which a another
5226 group named "byte" is defined. This matches an individual component of
5227 an IPv4 address (a number less than 256). When matching takes place,
5228 this part of the pattern is skipped because DEFINE acts like a false
5229 condition. The rest of the pattern uses references to the named group
5230 to match the four dot-separated components of an IPv4 address, insist-
5231 ing on a word boundary at each end.
5232
5233 Assertion conditions
5234
5235 If the condition is not in any of the above formats, it must be an
5236 assertion. This may be a positive or negative lookahead or lookbehind
5237 assertion. Consider this pattern, again containing non-significant
5238 white space, and with the two alternatives on the second line:
5239
5240 (?(?=[^a-z]*[a-z])
5241 \d{2}-[a-z]{3}-\d{2} | \d{2}-\d{2}-\d{2} )
5242
5243 The condition is a positive lookahead assertion that matches an
5244 optional sequence of non-letters followed by a letter. In other words,
5245 it tests for the presence of at least one letter in the subject. If a
5246 letter is found, the subject is matched against the first alternative;
5247 otherwise it is matched against the second. This pattern matches
5248 strings in one of the two forms dd-aaa-dd or dd-dd-dd, where aaa are
5249 letters and dd are digits.
5250
5251
5252 COMMENTS
5253
5254 There are two ways of including comments in patterns that are processed
5255 by PCRE. In both cases, the start of the comment must not be in a char-
5256 acter class, nor in the middle of any other sequence of related charac-
5257 ters such as (?: or a subpattern name or number. The characters that
5258 make up a comment play no part in the pattern matching.
5259
5260 The sequence (?# marks the start of a comment that continues up to the
5261 next closing parenthesis. Nested parentheses are not permitted. If the
5262 PCRE_EXTENDED option is set, an unescaped # character also introduces a
5263 comment, which in this case continues to immediately after the next
5264 newline character or character sequence in the pattern. Which charac-
5265 ters are interpreted as newlines is controlled by the options passed to
5266 pcre_compile() or by a special sequence at the start of the pattern, as
5267 described in the section entitled "Newline conventions" above. Note
5268 that the end of this type of comment is a literal newline sequence in
5269 the pattern; escape sequences that happen to represent a newline do not
5270 count. For example, consider this pattern when PCRE_EXTENDED is set,
5271 and the default newline convention is in force:
5272
5273 abc #comment \n still comment
5274
5275 On encountering the # character, pcre_compile() skips along, looking
5276 for a newline in the pattern. The sequence \n is still literal at this
5277 stage, so it does not terminate the comment. Only an actual character
5278 with the code value 0x0a (the default newline) does so.
5279
5280
5281 RECURSIVE PATTERNS
5282
5283 Consider the problem of matching a string in parentheses, allowing for
5284 unlimited nested parentheses. Without the use of recursion, the best
5285 that can be done is to use a pattern that matches up to some fixed
5286 depth of nesting. It is not possible to handle an arbitrary nesting
5287 depth.
5288
5289 For some time, Perl has provided a facility that allows regular expres-
5290 sions to recurse (amongst other things). It does this by interpolating
5291 Perl code in the expression at run time, and the code can refer to the
5292 expression itself. A Perl pattern using code interpolation to solve the
5293 parentheses problem can be created like this:
5294
5295 $re = qr{\( (?: (?>[^()]+) | (?p{$re}) )* \)}x;
5296
5297 The (?p{...}) item interpolates Perl code at run time, and in this case
5298 refers recursively to the pattern in which it appears.
5299
5300 Obviously, PCRE cannot support the interpolation of Perl code. Instead,
5301 it supports special syntax for recursion of the entire pattern, and
5302 also for individual subpattern recursion. After its introduction in
5303 PCRE and Python, this kind of recursion was subsequently introduced
5304 into Perl at release 5.10.
5305
5306 A special item that consists of (? followed by a number greater than
5307 zero and a closing parenthesis is a recursive call of the subpattern of
5308 the given number, provided that it occurs inside that subpattern. (If
5309 not, it is a "subroutine" call, which is described in the next sec-
5310 tion.) The special item (?R) or (?0) is a recursive call of the entire
5311 regular expression.
5312
5313 This PCRE pattern solves the nested parentheses problem (assume the
5314 PCRE_EXTENDED option is set so that white space is ignored):
5315
5316 \( ( [^()]++ | (?R) )* \)
5317
5318 First it matches an opening parenthesis. Then it matches any number of
5319 substrings which can either be a sequence of non-parentheses, or a
5320 recursive match of the pattern itself (that is, a correctly parenthe-
5321 sized substring). Finally there is a closing parenthesis. Note the use
5322 of a possessive quantifier to avoid backtracking into sequences of non-
5323 parentheses.
5324
5325 If this were part of a larger pattern, you would not want to recurse
5326 the entire pattern, so instead you could use this:
5327
5328 ( \( ( [^()]++ | (?1) )* \) )
5329
5330 We have put the pattern into parentheses, and caused the recursion to
5331 refer to them instead of the whole pattern.
5332
5333 In a larger pattern, keeping track of parenthesis numbers can be
5334 tricky. This is made easier by the use of relative references. Instead
5335 of (?1) in the pattern above you can write (?-2) to refer to the second
5336 most recently opened parentheses preceding the recursion. In other
5337 words, a negative number counts capturing parentheses leftwards from
5338 the point at which it is encountered.
5339
5340 It is also possible to refer to subsequently opened parentheses, by
5341 writing references such as (?+2). However, these cannot be recursive
5342 because the reference is not inside the parentheses that are refer-
5343 enced. They are always "subroutine" calls, as described in the next
5344 section.
5345
5346 An alternative approach is to use named parentheses instead. The Perl
5347 syntax for this is (?&name); PCRE's earlier syntax (?P>name) is also
5348 supported. We could rewrite the above example as follows:
5349
5350 (?<pn> \( ( [^()]++ | (?&pn) )* \) )
5351
5352 If there is more than one subpattern with the same name, the earliest
5353 one is used.
5354
5355 This particular example pattern that we have been looking at contains
5356 nested unlimited repeats, and so the use of a possessive quantifier for
5357 matching strings of non-parentheses is important when applying the pat-
5358 tern to strings that do not match. For example, when this pattern is
5359 applied to
5360
5361 (aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa()
5362
5363 it yields "no match" quickly. However, if a possessive quantifier is
5364 not used, the match runs for a very long time indeed because there are
5365 so many different ways the + and * repeats can carve up the subject,
5366 and all have to be tested before failure can be reported.
5367
5368 At the end of a match, the values of capturing parentheses are those
5369 from the outermost level. If you want to obtain intermediate values, a
5370 callout function can be used (see below and the pcrecallout documenta-
5371 tion). If the pattern above is matched against
5372
5373 (ab(cd)ef)
5374
5375 the value for the inner capturing parentheses (numbered 2) is "ef",
5376 which is the last value taken on at the top level. If a capturing sub-
5377 pattern is not matched at the top level, its final value is unset, even
5378 if it is (temporarily) set at a deeper level.
5379
5380 If there are more than 15 capturing parentheses in a pattern, PCRE has
5381 to obtain extra memory to store data during a recursion, which it does
5382 by using pcre_malloc, freeing it via pcre_free afterwards. If no memory
5383 can be obtained, the match fails with the PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY error.
5384
5385 Do not confuse the (?R) item with the condition (R), which tests for
5386 recursion. Consider this pattern, which matches text in angle brack-
5387 ets, allowing for arbitrary nesting. Only digits are allowed in nested
5388 brackets (that is, when recursing), whereas any characters are permit-
5389 ted at the outer level.
5390
5391 < (?: (?(R) \d++ | [^<>]*+) | (?R)) * >
5392
5393 In this pattern, (?(R) is the start of a conditional subpattern, with
5394 two different alternatives for the recursive and non-recursive cases.
5395 The (?R) item is the actual recursive call.
5396
5397 Recursion difference from Perl
5398
5399 In PCRE (like Python, but unlike Perl), a recursive subpattern call is
5400 always treated as an atomic group. That is, once it has matched some of
5401 the subject string, it is never re-entered, even if it contains untried
5402 alternatives and there is a subsequent matching failure. This can be
5403 illustrated by the following pattern, which purports to match a palin-
5404 dromic string that contains an odd number of characters (for example,
5405 "a", "aba", "abcba", "abcdcba"):
5406
5407 ^(.|(.)(?1)\2)$
5408
5409 The idea is that it either matches a single character, or two identical
5410 characters surrounding a sub-palindrome. In Perl, this pattern works;
5411 in PCRE it does not if the pattern is longer than three characters.
5412 Consider the subject string "abcba":
5413
5414 At the top level, the first character is matched, but as it is not at
5415 the end of the string, the first alternative fails; the second alterna-
5416 tive is taken and the recursion kicks in. The recursive call to subpat-
5417 tern 1 successfully matches the next character ("b"). (Note that the
5418 beginning and end of line tests are not part of the recursion).
5419
5420 Back at the top level, the next character ("c") is compared with what
5421 subpattern 2 matched, which was "a". This fails. Because the recursion
5422 is treated as an atomic group, there are now no backtracking points,
5423 and so the entire match fails. (Perl is able, at this point, to re-
5424 enter the recursion and try the second alternative.) However, if the
5425 pattern is written with the alternatives in the other order, things are
5426 different:
5427
5428 ^((.)(?1)\2|.)$
5429
5430 This time, the recursing alternative is tried first, and continues to
5431 recurse until it runs out of characters, at which point the recursion
5432 fails. But this time we do have another alternative to try at the
5433 higher level. That is the big difference: in the previous case the
5434 remaining alternative is at a deeper recursion level, which PCRE cannot
5435 use.
5436
5437 To change the pattern so that it matches all palindromic strings, not
5438 just those with an odd number of characters, it is tempting to change
5439 the pattern to this:
5440
5441 ^((.)(?1)\2|.?)$
5442
5443 Again, this works in Perl, but not in PCRE, and for the same reason.
5444 When a deeper recursion has matched a single character, it cannot be
5445 entered again in order to match an empty string. The solution is to
5446 separate the two cases, and write out the odd and even cases as alter-
5447 natives at the higher level:
5448
5449 ^(?:((.)(?1)\2|)|((.)(?3)\4|.))
5450
5451 If you want to match typical palindromic phrases, the pattern has to
5452 ignore all non-word characters, which can be done like this:
5453
5454 ^\W*+(?:((.)\W*+(?1)\W*+\2|)|((.)\W*+(?3)\W*+\4|\W*+.\W*+))\W*+$
5455
5456 If run with the PCRE_CASELESS option, this pattern matches phrases such
5457 as "A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!" and it works well in both PCRE and
5458 Perl. Note the use of the possessive quantifier *+ to avoid backtrack-
5459 ing into sequences of non-word characters. Without this, PCRE takes a
5460 great deal longer (ten times or more) to match typical phrases, and
5461 Perl takes so long that you think it has gone into a loop.
5462
5463 WARNING: The palindrome-matching patterns above work only if the sub-
5464 ject string does not start with a palindrome that is shorter than the
5465 entire string. For example, although "abcba" is correctly matched, if
5466 the subject is "ababa", PCRE finds the palindrome "aba" at the start,
5467 then fails at top level because the end of the string does not follow.
5468 Once again, it cannot jump back into the recursion to try other alter-
5469 natives, so the entire match fails.
5470
5471
5472 SUBPATTERNS AS SUBROUTINES
5473
5474 If the syntax for a recursive subpattern reference (either by number or
5475 by name) is used outside the parentheses to which it refers, it oper-
5476 ates like a subroutine in a programming language. The "called" subpat-
5477 tern may be defined before or after the reference. A numbered reference
5478 can be absolute or relative, as in these examples:
5479
5480 (...(absolute)...)...(?2)...
5481 (...(relative)...)...(?-1)...
5482 (...(?+1)...(relative)...
5483
5484 An earlier example pointed out that the pattern
5485
5486 (sens|respons)e and \1ibility
5487
5488 matches "sense and sensibility" and "response and responsibility", but
5489 not "sense and responsibility". If instead the pattern
5490
5491 (sens|respons)e and (?1)ibility
5492
5493 is used, it does match "sense and responsibility" as well as the other
5494 two strings. Another example is given in the discussion of DEFINE
5495 above.
5496
5497 Like recursive subpatterns, a subroutine call is always treated as an
5498 atomic group. That is, once it has matched some of the subject string,
5499 it is never re-entered, even if it contains untried alternatives and
5500 there is a subsequent matching failure. Any capturing parentheses that
5501 are set during the subroutine call revert to their previous values
5502 afterwards.
5503
5504 When a subpattern is used as a subroutine, processing options such as
5505 case-independence are fixed when the subpattern is defined. They cannot
5506 be changed for different calls. For example, consider this pattern:
5507
5508 (abc)(?i:(?-1))
5509
5510 It matches "abcabc". It does not match "abcABC" because the change of
5511 processing option does not affect the called subpattern.
5512
5513
5514 ONIGURUMA SUBROUTINE SYNTAX
5515
5516 For compatibility with Oniguruma, the non-Perl syntax \g followed by a
5517 name or a number enclosed either in angle brackets or single quotes, is
5518 an alternative syntax for referencing a subpattern as a subroutine,
5519 possibly recursively. Here are two of the examples used above, rewrit-
5520 ten using this syntax:
5521
5522 (?<pn> \( ( (?>[^()]+) | \g<pn> )* \) )
5523 (sens|respons)e and \g'1'ibility
5524
5525 PCRE supports an extension to Oniguruma: if a number is preceded by a
5526 plus or a minus sign it is taken as a relative reference. For example:
5527
5528 (abc)(?i:\g<-1>)
5529
5530 Note that \g{...} (Perl syntax) and \g<...> (Oniguruma syntax) are not
5531 synonymous. The former is a back reference; the latter is a subroutine
5532 call.
5533
5534
5535 CALLOUTS
5536
5537 Perl has a feature whereby using the sequence (?{...}) causes arbitrary
5538 Perl code to be obeyed in the middle of matching a regular expression.
5539 This makes it possible, amongst other things, to extract different sub-
5540 strings that match the same pair of parentheses when there is a repeti-
5541 tion.
5542
5543 PCRE provides a similar feature, but of course it cannot obey arbitrary
5544 Perl code. The feature is called "callout". The caller of PCRE provides
5545 an external function by putting its entry point in the global variable
5546 pcre_callout. By default, this variable contains NULL, which disables
5547 all calling out.
5548
5549 Within a regular expression, (?C) indicates the points at which the
5550 external function is to be called. If you want to identify different
5551 callout points, you can put a number less than 256 after the letter C.
5552 The default value is zero. For example, this pattern has two callout
5553 points:
5554
5555 (?C1)abc(?C2)def
5556
5557 If the PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT flag is passed to pcre_compile(), callouts are
5558 automatically installed before each item in the pattern. They are all
5559 numbered 255.
5560
5561 During matching, when PCRE reaches a callout point (and pcre_callout is
5562 set), the external function is called. It is provided with the number
5563 of the callout, the position in the pattern, and, optionally, one item
5564 of data originally supplied by the caller of pcre_exec(). The callout
5565 function may cause matching to proceed, to backtrack, or to fail alto-
5566 gether. A complete description of the interface to the callout function
5567 is given in the pcrecallout documentation.
5568
5569
5570 BACKTRACKING CONTROL
5571
5572 Perl 5.10 introduced a number of "Special Backtracking Control Verbs",
5573 which are described in the Perl documentation as "experimental and sub-
5574 ject to change or removal in a future version of Perl". It goes on to
5575 say: "Their usage in production code should be noted to avoid problems
5576 during upgrades." The same remarks apply to the PCRE features described
5577 in this section.
5578
5579 Since these verbs are specifically related to backtracking, most of
5580 them can be used only when the pattern is to be matched using
5581 pcre_exec(), which uses a backtracking algorithm. With the exception of
5582 (*FAIL), which behaves like a failing negative assertion, they cause an
5583 error if encountered by pcre_dfa_exec().
5584
5585 If any of these verbs are used in an assertion or subroutine subpattern
5586 (including recursive subpatterns), their effect is confined to that
5587 subpattern; it does not extend to the surrounding pattern, with one
5588 exception: a *MARK that is encountered in a positive assertion is
5589 passed back (compare capturing parentheses in assertions). Note that
5590 such subpatterns are processed as anchored at the point where they are
5591 tested.
5592
5593 The new verbs make use of what was previously invalid syntax: an open-
5594 ing parenthesis followed by an asterisk. They are generally of the form
5595 (*VERB) or (*VERB:NAME). Some may take either form, with differing be-
5596 haviour, depending on whether or not an argument is present. An name is
5597 a sequence of letters, digits, and underscores. If the name is empty,
5598 that is, if the closing parenthesis immediately follows the colon, the
5599 effect is as if the colon were not there. Any number of these verbs may
5600 occur in a pattern.
5601
5602 PCRE contains some optimizations that are used to speed up matching by
5603 running some checks at the start of each match attempt. For example, it
5604 may know the minimum length of matching subject, or that a particular
5605 character must be present. When one of these optimizations suppresses
5606 the running of a match, any included backtracking verbs will not, of
5607 course, be processed. You can suppress the start-of-match optimizations
5608 by setting the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling pcre_com-
5609 pile() or pcre_exec(), or by starting the pattern with (*NO_START_OPT).
5610
5611 Verbs that act immediately
5612
5613 The following verbs act as soon as they are encountered. They may not
5614 be followed by a name.
5615
5616 (*ACCEPT)
5617
5618 This verb causes the match to end successfully, skipping the remainder
5619 of the pattern. When inside a recursion, only the innermost pattern is
5620 ended immediately. If (*ACCEPT) is inside capturing parentheses, the
5621 data so far is captured. (This feature was added to PCRE at release
5622 8.00.) For example:
5623
5624 A((?:A|B(*ACCEPT)|C)D)
5625
5626 This matches "AB", "AAD", or "ACD"; when it matches "AB", "B" is cap-
5627 tured by the outer parentheses.
5628
5629 (*FAIL) or (*F)
5630
5631 This verb causes the match to fail, forcing backtracking to occur. It
5632 is equivalent to (?!) but easier to read. The Perl documentation notes
5633 that it is probably useful only when combined with (?{}) or (??{}).
5634 Those are, of course, Perl features that are not present in PCRE. The
5635 nearest equivalent is the callout feature, as for example in this pat-
5636 tern:
5637
5638 a+(?C)(*FAIL)
5639
5640 A match with the string "aaaa" always fails, but the callout is taken
5641 before each backtrack happens (in this example, 10 times).
5642
5643 Recording which path was taken
5644
5645 There is one verb whose main purpose is to track how a match was
5646 arrived at, though it also has a secondary use in conjunction with
5647 advancing the match starting point (see (*SKIP) below).
5648
5649 (*MARK:NAME) or (*:NAME)
5650
5651 A name is always required with this verb. There may be as many
5652 instances of (*MARK) as you like in a pattern, and their names do not
5653 have to be unique.
5654
5655 When a match succeeds, the name of the last-encountered (*MARK) is
5656 passed back to the caller via the pcre_extra data structure, as
5657 described in the section on pcre_extra in the pcreapi documentation. No
5658 data is returned for a partial match. Here is an example of pcretest
5659 output, where the /K modifier requests the retrieval and outputting of
5660 (*MARK) data:
5661
5662 /X(*MARK:A)Y|X(*MARK:B)Z/K
5663 XY
5664 0: XY
5665 MK: A
5666 XZ
5667 0: XZ
5668 MK: B
5669
5670 The (*MARK) name is tagged with "MK:" in this output, and in this exam-
5671 ple it indicates which of the two alternatives matched. This is a more
5672 efficient way of obtaining this information than putting each alterna-
5673 tive in its own capturing parentheses.
5674
5675 If (*MARK) is encountered in a positive assertion, its name is recorded
5676 and passed back if it is the last-encountered. This does not happen for
5677 negative assetions.
5678
5679 A name may also be returned after a failed match if the final path
5680 through the pattern involves (*MARK). However, unless (*MARK) used in
5681 conjunction with (*COMMIT), this is unlikely to happen for an unan-
5682 chored pattern because, as the starting point for matching is advanced,
5683 the final check is often with an empty string, causing a failure before
5684 (*MARK) is reached. For example:
5685
5686 /X(*MARK:A)Y|X(*MARK:B)Z/K
5687 XP
5688 No match
5689
5690 There are three potential starting points for this match (starting with
5691 X, starting with P, and with an empty string). If the pattern is
5692 anchored, the result is different:
5693
5694 /^X(*MARK:A)Y|^X(*MARK:B)Z/K
5695 XP
5696 No match, mark = B
5697
5698 PCRE's start-of-match optimizations can also interfere with this. For
5699 example, if, as a result of a call to pcre_study(), it knows the mini-
5700 mum subject length for a match, a shorter subject will not be scanned
5701 at all.
5702
5703 Note that similar anomalies (though different in detail) exist in Perl,
5704 no doubt for the same reasons. The use of (*MARK) data after a failed
5705 match of an unanchored pattern is not recommended, unless (*COMMIT) is
5706 involved.
5707
5708 Verbs that act after backtracking
5709
5710 The following verbs do nothing when they are encountered. Matching con-
5711 tinues with what follows, but if there is no subsequent match, causing
5712 a backtrack to the verb, a failure is forced. That is, backtracking
5713 cannot pass to the left of the verb. However, when one of these verbs
5714 appears inside an atomic group, its effect is confined to that group,
5715 because once the group has been matched, there is never any backtrack-
5716 ing into it. In this situation, backtracking can "jump back" to the
5717 left of the entire atomic group. (Remember also, as stated above, that
5718 this localization also applies in subroutine calls and assertions.)
5719
5720 These verbs differ in exactly what kind of failure occurs when back-
5721 tracking reaches them.
5722
5723 (*COMMIT)
5724
5725 This verb, which may not be followed by a name, causes the whole match
5726 to fail outright if the rest of the pattern does not match. Even if the
5727 pattern is unanchored, no further attempts to find a match by advancing
5728 the starting point take place. Once (*COMMIT) has been passed,
5729 pcre_exec() is committed to finding a match at the current starting
5730 point, or not at all. For example:
5731
5732 a+(*COMMIT)b
5733
5734 This matches "xxaab" but not "aacaab". It can be thought of as a kind
5735 of dynamic anchor, or "I've started, so I must finish." The name of the
5736 most recently passed (*MARK) in the path is passed back when (*COMMIT)
5737 forces a match failure.
5738
5739 Note that (*COMMIT) at the start of a pattern is not the same as an
5740 anchor, unless PCRE's start-of-match optimizations are turned off, as
5741 shown in this pcretest example:
5742
5743 /(*COMMIT)abc/
5744 xyzabc
5745 0: abc
5746 xyzabc\Y
5747 No match
5748
5749 PCRE knows that any match must start with "a", so the optimization
5750 skips along the subject to "a" before running the first match attempt,
5751 which succeeds. When the optimization is disabled by the \Y escape in
5752 the second subject, the match starts at "x" and so the (*COMMIT) causes
5753 it to fail without trying any other starting points.
5754
5755 (*PRUNE) or (*PRUNE:NAME)
5756
5757 This verb causes the match to fail at the current starting position in
5758 the subject if the rest of the pattern does not match. If the pattern
5759 is unanchored, the normal "bumpalong" advance to the next starting
5760 character then happens. Backtracking can occur as usual to the left of
5761 (*PRUNE), before it is reached, or when matching to the right of
5762 (*PRUNE), but if there is no match to the right, backtracking cannot
5763 cross (*PRUNE). In simple cases, the use of (*PRUNE) is just an alter-
5764 native to an atomic group or possessive quantifier, but there are some
5765 uses of (*PRUNE) that cannot be expressed in any other way. The behav-
5766 iour of (*PRUNE:NAME) is the same as (*MARK:NAME)(*PRUNE) when the
5767 match fails completely; the name is passed back if this is the final
5768 attempt. (*PRUNE:NAME) does not pass back a name if the match suc-
5769 ceeds. In an anchored pattern (*PRUNE) has the same effect as (*COM-
5770 MIT).
5771
5772 (*SKIP)
5773
5774 This verb, when given without a name, is like (*PRUNE), except that if
5775 the pattern is unanchored, the "bumpalong" advance is not to the next
5776 character, but to the position in the subject where (*SKIP) was encoun-
5777 tered. (*SKIP) signifies that whatever text was matched leading up to
5778 it cannot be part of a successful match. Consider:
5779
5780 a+(*SKIP)b
5781
5782 If the subject is "aaaac...", after the first match attempt fails
5783 (starting at the first character in the string), the starting point
5784 skips on to start the next attempt at "c". Note that a possessive quan-
5785 tifer does not have the same effect as this example; although it would
5786 suppress backtracking during the first match attempt, the second
5787 attempt would start at the second character instead of skipping on to
5788 "c".
5789
5790 (*SKIP:NAME)
5791
5792 When (*SKIP) has an associated name, its behaviour is modified. If the
5793 following pattern fails to match, the previous path through the pattern
5794 is searched for the most recent (*MARK) that has the same name. If one
5795 is found, the "bumpalong" advance is to the subject position that cor-
5796 responds to that (*MARK) instead of to where (*SKIP) was encountered.
5797 If no (*MARK) with a matching name is found, normal "bumpalong" of one
5798 character happens (the (*SKIP) is ignored).
5799
5800 (*THEN) or (*THEN:NAME)
5801
5802 This verb causes a skip to the next alternation in the innermost
5803 enclosing group if the rest of the pattern does not match. That is, it
5804 cancels pending backtracking, but only within the current alternation.
5805 Its name comes from the observation that it can be used for a pattern-
5806 based if-then-else block:
5807
5808 ( COND1 (*THEN) FOO | COND2 (*THEN) BAR | COND3 (*THEN) BAZ ) ...
5809
5810 If the COND1 pattern matches, FOO is tried (and possibly further items
5811 after the end of the group if FOO succeeds); on failure the matcher
5812 skips to the second alternative and tries COND2, without backtracking
5813 into COND1. The behaviour of (*THEN:NAME) is exactly the same as
5814 (*MARK:NAME)(*THEN) if the overall match fails. If (*THEN) is not
5815 directly inside an alternation, it acts like (*PRUNE).
5816
5817 The above verbs provide four different "strengths" of control when sub-
5818 sequent matching fails. (*THEN) is the weakest, carrying on the match
5819 at the next alternation. (*PRUNE) comes next, failing the match at the
5820 current starting position, but allowing an advance to the next charac-
5821 ter (for an unanchored pattern). (*SKIP) is similar, except that the
5822 advance may be more than one character. (*COMMIT) is the strongest,
5823 causing the entire match to fail.
5824
5825 If more than one is present in a pattern, the "stongest" one wins. For
5826 example, consider this pattern, where A, B, etc. are complex pattern
5827 fragments:
5828
5829 (A(*COMMIT)B(*THEN)C|D)
5830
5831 Once A has matched, PCRE is committed to this match, at the current
5832 starting position. If subsequently B matches, but C does not, the nor-
5833 mal (*THEN) action of trying the next alternation (that is, D) does not
5834 happen because (*COMMIT) overrides.
5835
5836
5837 SEE ALSO
5838
5839 pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3), pcresyntax(3), pcre(3).
5840
5841
5842 AUTHOR
5843
5844 Philip Hazel
5845 University Computing Service
5846 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
5847
5848
5849 REVISION
5850
5851 Last updated: 24 August 2011
5852 Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
5853 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5854
5855
5856 PCRESYNTAX(3) PCRESYNTAX(3)
5857
5858
5859 NAME
5860 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
5861
5862
5863 PCRE REGULAR EXPRESSION SYNTAX SUMMARY
5864
5865 The full syntax and semantics of the regular expressions that are sup-
5866 ported by PCRE are described in the pcrepattern documentation. This
5867 document contains just a quick-reference summary of the syntax.
5868
5869
5870 QUOTING
5871
5872 \x where x is non-alphanumeric is a literal x
5873 \Q...\E treat enclosed characters as literal
5874
5875
5876 CHARACTERS
5877
5878 \a alarm, that is, the BEL character (hex 07)
5879 \cx "control-x", where x is any ASCII character
5880 \e escape (hex 1B)
5881 \f formfeed (hex 0C)
5882 \n newline (hex 0A)
5883 \r carriage return (hex 0D)
5884 \t tab (hex 09)
5885 \ddd character with octal code ddd, or backreference
5886 \xhh character with hex code hh
5887 \x{hhh..} character with hex code hhh..
5888
5889
5890 CHARACTER TYPES
5891
5892 . any character except newline;
5893 in dotall mode, any character whatsoever
5894 \C one byte, even in UTF-8 mode (best avoided)
5895 \d a decimal digit
5896 \D a character that is not a decimal digit
5897 \h a horizontal whitespace character
5898 \H a character that is not a horizontal whitespace character
5899 \N a character that is not a newline
5900 \p{xx} a character with the xx property
5901 \P{xx} a character without the xx property
5902 \R a newline sequence
5903 \s a whitespace character
5904 \S a character that is not a whitespace character
5905 \v a vertical whitespace character
5906 \V a character that is not a vertical whitespace character
5907 \w a "word" character
5908 \W a "non-word" character
5909 \X an extended Unicode sequence
5910
5911 In PCRE, by default, \d, \D, \s, \S, \w, and \W recognize only ASCII
5912 characters, even in UTF-8 mode. However, this can be changed by setting
5913 the PCRE_UCP option.
5914
5915
5916 GENERAL CATEGORY PROPERTIES FOR \p and \P
5917
5918 C Other
5919 Cc Control
5920 Cf Format
5921 Cn Unassigned
5922 Co Private use
5923 Cs Surrogate
5924
5925 L Letter
5926 Ll Lower case letter
5927 Lm Modifier letter
5928 Lo Other letter
5929 Lt Title case letter
5930 Lu Upper case letter
5931 L& Ll, Lu, or Lt
5932
5933 M Mark
5934 Mc Spacing mark
5935 Me Enclosing mark
5936 Mn Non-spacing mark
5937
5938 N Number
5939 Nd Decimal number
5940 Nl Letter number
5941 No Other number
5942
5943 P Punctuation
5944 Pc Connector punctuation
5945 Pd Dash punctuation
5946 Pe Close punctuation
5947 Pf Final punctuation
5948 Pi Initial punctuation
5949 Po Other punctuation
5950 Ps Open punctuation
5951
5952 S Symbol
5953 Sc Currency symbol
5954 Sk Modifier symbol
5955 Sm Mathematical symbol
5956 So Other symbol
5957
5958 Z Separator
5959 Zl Line separator
5960 Zp Paragraph separator
5961 Zs Space separator
5962
5963
5964 PCRE SPECIAL CATEGORY PROPERTIES FOR \p and \P
5965
5966 Xan Alphanumeric: union of properties L and N
5967 Xps POSIX space: property Z or tab, NL, VT, FF, CR
5968 Xsp Perl space: property Z or tab, NL, FF, CR
5969 Xwd Perl word: property Xan or underscore
5970
5971
5972 SCRIPT NAMES FOR \p AND \P
5973
5974 Arabic, Armenian, Avestan, Balinese, Bamum, Bengali, Bopomofo, Braille,
5975 Buginese, Buhid, Canadian_Aboriginal, Carian, Cham, Cherokee, Common,
5976 Coptic, Cuneiform, Cypriot, Cyrillic, Deseret, Devanagari, Egyp-
5977 tian_Hieroglyphs, Ethiopic, Georgian, Glagolitic, Gothic, Greek,
5978 Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Han, Hangul, Hanunoo, Hebrew, Hiragana, Impe-
5979 rial_Aramaic, Inherited, Inscriptional_Pahlavi, Inscriptional_Parthian,
5980 Javanese, Kaithi, Kannada, Katakana, Kayah_Li, Kharoshthi, Khmer, Lao,
5981 Latin, Lepcha, Limbu, Linear_B, Lisu, Lycian, Lydian, Malayalam,
5982 Meetei_Mayek, Mongolian, Myanmar, New_Tai_Lue, Nko, Ogham, Old_Italic,
5983 Old_Persian, Old_South_Arabian, Old_Turkic, Ol_Chiki, Oriya, Osmanya,
5984 Phags_Pa, Phoenician, Rejang, Runic, Samaritan, Saurashtra, Shavian,
5985 Sinhala, Sundanese, Syloti_Nagri, Syriac, Tagalog, Tagbanwa, Tai_Le,
5986 Tai_Tham, Tai_Viet, Tamil, Telugu, Thaana, Thai, Tibetan, Tifinagh,
5987 Ugaritic, Vai, Yi.
5988
5989
5990 CHARACTER CLASSES
5991
5992 [...] positive character class
5993 [^...] negative character class
5994 [x-y] range (can be used for hex characters)
5995 [[:xxx:]] positive POSIX named set
5996 [[:^xxx:]] negative POSIX named set
5997
5998 alnum alphanumeric
5999 alpha alphabetic
6000 ascii 0-127
6001 blank space or tab
6002 cntrl control character
6003 digit decimal digit
6004 graph printing, excluding space
6005 lower lower case letter
6006 print printing, including space
6007 punct printing, excluding alphanumeric
6008 space whitespace
6009 upper upper case letter
6010 word same as \w
6011 xdigit hexadecimal digit
6012
6013 In PCRE, POSIX character set names recognize only ASCII characters by
6014 default, but some of them use Unicode properties if PCRE_UCP is set.
6015 You can use \Q...\E inside a character class.
6016
6017
6018 QUANTIFIERS
6019
6020 ? 0 or 1, greedy
6021 ?+ 0 or 1, possessive
6022 ?? 0 or 1, lazy
6023 * 0 or more, greedy
6024