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1  .TH PCREAPI 3  .TH PCREAPI 3 "29 October 2012" "PCRE 8.32"
2  .SH NAME  .SH NAME
3  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
 .SH "PCRE NATIVE API"  
 .rs  
4  .sp  .sp
5  .B #include <pcre.h>  .B #include <pcre.h>
6  .PP  .
7    .
8    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API BASIC FUNCTIONS"
9    .rs
10    .sp
11  .SM  .SM
12  .B pcre *pcre_compile(const char *\fIpattern\fP, int \fIoptions\fP,  .B pcre *pcre_compile(const char *\fIpattern\fP, int \fIoptions\fP,
13  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
# Line 25  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 27  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
27  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
28  .B const char **\fIerrptr\fP);  .B const char **\fIerrptr\fP);
29  .PP  .PP
30    .B void pcre_free_study(pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP);
31    .PP
32  .B int pcre_exec(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, "const pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,"  .B int pcre_exec(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, "const pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,"
33  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
34  .B "const char *\fIsubject\fP," int \fIlength\fP, int \fIstartoffset\fP,  .B "const char *\fIsubject\fP," int \fIlength\fP, int \fIstartoffset\fP,
# Line 38  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 42  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
42  .B int \fIoptions\fP, int *\fIovector\fP, int \fIovecsize\fP,  .B int \fIoptions\fP, int *\fIovector\fP, int \fIovecsize\fP,
43  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
44  .B int *\fIworkspace\fP, int \fIwscount\fP);  .B int *\fIworkspace\fP, int \fIwscount\fP);
45  .PP  .
46    .
47    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API STRING EXTRACTION FUNCTIONS"
48    .rs
49    .sp
50  .B int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *\fIcode\fP,  .B int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *\fIcode\fP,
51  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
52  .B const char *\fIsubject\fP, int *\fIovector\fP,  .B const char *\fIsubject\fP, int *\fIovector\fP,
# Line 82  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 90  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
90  .B void pcre_free_substring(const char *\fIstringptr\fP);  .B void pcre_free_substring(const char *\fIstringptr\fP);
91  .PP  .PP
92  .B void pcre_free_substring_list(const char **\fIstringptr\fP);  .B void pcre_free_substring_list(const char **\fIstringptr\fP);
93    .
94    .
95    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS"
96    .rs
97    .sp
98    .B pcre_jit_stack *pcre_jit_stack_alloc(int \fIstartsize\fP, int \fImaxsize\fP);
99    .PP
100    .B void pcre_jit_stack_free(pcre_jit_stack *\fIstack\fP);
101    .PP
102    .B void pcre_assign_jit_stack(pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,
103    .ti +5n
104    .B pcre_jit_callback \fIcallback\fP, void *\fIdata\fP);
105  .PP  .PP
106  .B const unsigned char *pcre_maketables(void);  .B const unsigned char *pcre_maketables(void);
107  .PP  .PP
# Line 89  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 109  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
109  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
110  .B int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);  .B int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);
111  .PP  .PP
 .B int pcre_info(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, int *\fIoptptr\fP, int  
 .B *\fIfirstcharptr\fP);  
 .PP  
112  .B int pcre_refcount(pcre *\fIcode\fP, int \fIadjust\fP);  .B int pcre_refcount(pcre *\fIcode\fP, int \fIadjust\fP);
113  .PP  .PP
114  .B int pcre_config(int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);  .B int pcre_config(int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);
115  .PP  .PP
116  .B char *pcre_version(void);  .B const char *pcre_version(void);
117  .PP  .PP
118    .B int pcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order(pcre *\fIcode\fP,
119    .ti +5n
120    .B pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP, const unsigned char *\fItables\fP);
121    .
122    .
123    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API INDIRECTED FUNCTIONS"
124    .rs
125    .sp
126  .B void *(*pcre_malloc)(size_t);  .B void *(*pcre_malloc)(size_t);
127  .PP  .PP
128  .B void (*pcre_free)(void *);  .B void (*pcre_free)(void *);
# Line 109  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 134  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
134  .B int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);  .B int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);
135  .  .
136  .  .
137    .SH "PCRE 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES"
138    .rs
139    .sp
140    From release 8.30, PCRE can be compiled as a library for handling 16-bit
141    character strings as well as, or instead of, the original library that handles
142    8-bit character strings. From release 8.32, PCRE can also be compiled as a
143    library for handling 32-bit character strings. To avoid too much complication,
144    this document describes the 8-bit versions of the functions, with only
145    occasional references to the 16-bit and 32-bit libraries.
146    .P
147    The 16-bit and 32-bit functions operate in the same way as their 8-bit
148    counterparts; they just use different data types for their arguments and
149    results, and their names start with \fBpcre16_\fP or \fBpcre32_\fP instead of
150    \fBpcre_\fP. For every option that has UTF8 in its name (for example,
151    PCRE_UTF8), there are corresponding 16-bit and 32-bit names with UTF8 replaced
152    by UTF16 or UTF32, respectively. This facility is in fact just cosmetic; the
153    16-bit and 32-bit option names define the same bit values.
154    .P
155    References to bytes and UTF-8 in this document should be read as references to
156    16-bit data quantities and UTF-16 when using the 16-bit library, or 32-bit data
157    quantities and UTF-32 when using the 32-bit library, unless specified
158    otherwise. More details of the specific differences for the 16-bit and 32-bit
159    libraries are given in the
160    .\" HREF
161    \fBpcre16\fP
162    .\"
163    and
164    .\" HREF
165    \fBpcre32\fP
166    .\"
167    pages.
168    .
169    .
170  .SH "PCRE API OVERVIEW"  .SH "PCRE API OVERVIEW"
171  .rs  .rs
172  .sp  .sp
173  PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There are  PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There are
174  also some wrapper functions that correspond to the POSIX regular expression  also some wrapper functions (for the 8-bit library only) that correspond to the
175  API. These are described in the  POSIX regular expression API, but they do not give access to all the
176    functionality. They are described in the
177  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
178  \fBpcreposix\fP  \fBpcreposix\fP
179  .\"  .\"
180  documentation. Both of these APIs define a set of C function calls. A C++  documentation. Both of these APIs define a set of C function calls. A C++
181  wrapper is distributed with PCRE. It is documented in the  wrapper (again for the 8-bit library only) is also distributed with PCRE. It is
182    documented in the
183  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
184  \fBpcrecpp\fP  \fBpcrecpp\fP
185  .\"  .\"
186  page.  page.
187  .P  .P
188  The native API C function prototypes are defined in the header file  The native API C function prototypes are defined in the header file
189  \fBpcre.h\fP, and on Unix systems the library itself is called \fBlibpcre\fP.  \fBpcre.h\fP, and on Unix-like systems the (8-bit) library itself is called
190  It can normally be accessed by adding \fB-lpcre\fP to the command for linking  \fBlibpcre\fP. It can normally be accessed by adding \fB-lpcre\fP to the
191  an application that uses PCRE. The header file defines the macros PCRE_MAJOR  command for linking an application that uses PCRE. The header file defines the
192  and PCRE_MINOR to contain the major and minor release numbers for the library.  macros PCRE_MAJOR and PCRE_MINOR to contain the major and minor release numbers
193  Applications can use these to include support for different releases of PCRE.  for the library. Applications can use these to include support for different
194    releases of PCRE.
195  .P  .P
196  In a Windows environment, if you want to statically link an application program  In a Windows environment, if you want to statically link an application program
197  against a non-dll \fBpcre.a\fP file, you must define PCRE_STATIC before  against a non-dll \fBpcre.a\fP file, you must define PCRE_STATIC before
# Line 152  documentation, and the Line 213  documentation, and the
213  .\"  .\"
214  documentation describes how to compile and run it.  documentation describes how to compile and run it.
215  .P  .P
216    Just-in-time compiler support is an optional feature of PCRE that can be built
217    in appropriate hardware environments. It greatly speeds up the matching
218    performance of many patterns. Simple programs can easily request that it be
219    used if available, by setting an option that is ignored when it is not
220    relevant. More complicated programs might need to make use of the functions
221    \fBpcre_jit_stack_alloc()\fP, \fBpcre_jit_stack_free()\fP, and
222    \fBpcre_assign_jit_stack()\fP in order to control the JIT code's memory usage.
223    .P
224    From release 8.32 there is also a direct interface for JIT execution, which
225    gives improved performance. The JIT-specific functions are discussed in the
226    .\" HREF
227    \fBpcrejit\fP
228    .\"
229    documentation.
230    .P
231  A second matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, which is not  A second matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, which is not
232  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the
233  matching. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given  matching. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given
# Line 186  specialist use. Most commonly, no specia Line 262  specialist use. Most commonly, no specia
262  internal tables that are generated when PCRE is built are used.  internal tables that are generated when PCRE is built are used.
263  .P  .P
264  The function \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP is used to find out information about a  The function \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP is used to find out information about a
265  compiled pattern; \fBpcre_info()\fP is an obsolete version that returns only  compiled pattern. The function \fBpcre_version()\fP returns a pointer to a
266  some of the available information, but is retained for backwards compatibility.  string containing the version of PCRE and its date of release.
 The function \fBpcre_version()\fP returns a pointer to a string containing the  
 version of PCRE and its date of release.  
267  .P  .P
268  The function \fBpcre_refcount()\fP maintains a reference count in a data block  The function \fBpcre_refcount()\fP maintains a reference count in a data block
269  containing a compiled pattern. This is provided for the benefit of  containing a compiled pattern. This is provided for the benefit of
# Line 237  PCRE supports five different conventions Line 311  PCRE supports five different conventions
311  strings: a single CR (carriage return) character, a single LF (linefeed)  strings: a single CR (carriage return) character, a single LF (linefeed)
312  character, the two-character sequence CRLF, any of the three preceding, or any  character, the two-character sequence CRLF, any of the three preceding, or any
313  Unicode newline sequence. The Unicode newline sequences are the three just  Unicode newline sequence. The Unicode newline sequences are the three just
314  mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed,  mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (form feed,
315  U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line separator, U+2028), and PS  U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line separator, U+2028), and PS
316  (paragraph separator, U+2029).  (paragraph separator, U+2029).
317  .P  .P
# Line 282  callout function pointed to by \fBpcre_c Line 356  callout function pointed to by \fBpcre_c
356  .P  .P
357  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so
358  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.
359    .P
360    If the just-in-time optimization feature is being used, it needs separate
361    memory stack areas for each thread. See the
362    .\" HREF
363    \fBpcrejit\fP
364    .\"
365    documentation for more details.
366  .  .
367  .  .
368  .SH "SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE"  .SH "SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE"
# Line 293  which it was compiled. Details are given Line 374  which it was compiled. Details are given
374  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
375  \fBpcreprecompile\fP  \fBpcreprecompile\fP
376  .\"  .\"
377  documentation. However, compiling a regular expression with one version of PCRE  documentation, which includes a description of the
378  for use with a different version is not guaranteed to work and may cause  \fBpcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order()\fP function. However, compiling a regular
379  crashes.  expression with one version of PCRE for use with a different version is not
380    guaranteed to work and may cause crashes.
381  .  .
382  .  .
383  .SH "CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS"  .SH "CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS"
# Line 312  documentation has more details about the Line 394  documentation has more details about the
394  .P  .P
395  The first argument for \fBpcre_config()\fP is an integer, specifying which  The first argument for \fBpcre_config()\fP is an integer, specifying which
396  information is required; the second argument is a pointer to a variable into  information is required; the second argument is a pointer to a variable into
397  which the information is placed. The following information is available:  which the information is placed. The returned value is zero on success, or the
398    negative error code PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION if the value in the first argument is
399    not recognized. The following information is available:
400  .sp  .sp
401    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8
402  .sp  .sp
403  The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;  The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;
404  otherwise it is set to zero.  otherwise it is set to zero. This value should normally be given to the 8-bit
405    version of this function, \fBpcre_config()\fP. If it is given to the 16-bit
406    or 32-bit version of this function, the result is PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION.
407    .sp
408      PCRE_CONFIG_UTF16
409    .sp
410    The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-16 support is available;
411    otherwise it is set to zero. This value should normally be given to the 16-bit
412    version of this function, \fBpcre16_config()\fP. If it is given to the 8-bit
413    or 32-bit version of this function, the result is PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION.
414    .sp
415      PCRE_CONFIG_UTF32
416    .sp
417    The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-32 support is available;
418    otherwise it is set to zero. This value should normally be given to the 32-bit
419    version of this function, \fBpcre32_config()\fP. If it is given to the 8-bit
420    or 16-bit version of this function, the result is PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION.
421  .sp  .sp
422    PCRE_CONFIG_UNICODE_PROPERTIES    PCRE_CONFIG_UNICODE_PROPERTIES
423  .sp  .sp
424  The output is an integer that is set to one if support for Unicode character  The output is an integer that is set to one if support for Unicode character
425  properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.  properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
426  .sp  .sp
427      PCRE_CONFIG_JIT
428    .sp
429    The output is an integer that is set to one if support for just-in-time
430    compiling is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
431    .sp
432      PCRE_CONFIG_JITTARGET
433    .sp
434    The output is a pointer to a zero-terminated "const char *" string. If JIT
435    support is available, the string contains the name of the architecture for
436    which the JIT compiler is configured, for example "x86 32bit (little endian +
437    unaligned)". If JIT support is not available, the result is NULL.
438    .sp
439    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE
440  .sp  .sp
441  The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character sequence  The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character sequence
442  that is recognized as meaning "newline". The four values that are supported  that is recognized as meaning "newline". The values that are supported in
443  are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for ANYCRLF, and -1 for ANY.  ASCII/Unicode environments are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for
444  Though they are derived from ASCII, the same values are returned in EBCDIC  ANYCRLF, and -1 for ANY. In EBCDIC environments, CR, ANYCRLF, and ANY yield the
445  environments. The default should normally correspond to the standard sequence  same values. However, the value for LF is normally 21, though some EBCDIC
446  for your operating system.  environments use 37. The corresponding values for CRLF are 3349 and 3365. The
447    default should normally correspond to the standard sequence for your operating
448    system.
449  .sp  .sp
450    PCRE_CONFIG_BSR    PCRE_CONFIG_BSR
451  .sp  .sp
# Line 343  or CRLF. The default can be overridden w Line 457  or CRLF. The default can be overridden w
457    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE
458  .sp  .sp
459  The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal  The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal
460  linkage in compiled regular expressions. The value is 2, 3, or 4. Larger values  linkage in compiled regular expressions. For the 8-bit library, the value can
461  allow larger regular expressions to be compiled, at the expense of slower  be 2, 3, or 4. For the 16-bit library, the value is either 2 or 4 and is still
462  matching. The default value of 2 is sufficient for all but the most massive  a number of bytes. For the 32-bit library, the value is either 2 or 4 and is
463  patterns, since it allows the compiled pattern to be up to 64K in size.  still a number of bytes. The default value of 2 is sufficient for all but the
464    most massive patterns, since it allows the compiled pattern to be up to 64K in
465    size. Larger values allow larger regular expressions to be compiled, at the
466    expense of slower matching.
467  .sp  .sp
468    PCRE_CONFIG_POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD    PCRE_CONFIG_POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD
469  .sp  .sp
# Line 429  documentation). For those options that c Line 546  documentation). For those options that c
546  the pattern, the contents of the \fIoptions\fP argument specifies their  the pattern, the contents of the \fIoptions\fP argument specifies their
547  settings at the start of compilation and execution. The PCRE_ANCHORED,  settings at the start of compilation and execution. The PCRE_ANCHORED,
548  PCRE_BSR_\fIxxx\fP, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, and  PCRE_BSR_\fIxxx\fP, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, and
549  PCRE_NO_START_OPT options can be set at the time of matching as well as at  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE options can be set at the time of matching as well as at
550  compile time.  compile time.
551  .P  .P
552  If \fIerrptr\fP is NULL, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns NULL immediately.  If \fIerrptr\fP is NULL, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns NULL immediately.
# Line 440  not try to free it. Normally, the offset Line 557  not try to free it. Normally, the offset
557  byte that was being processed when the error was discovered is placed in the  byte that was being processed when the error was discovered is placed in the
558  variable pointed to by \fIerroffset\fP, which must not be NULL (if it is, an  variable pointed to by \fIerroffset\fP, which must not be NULL (if it is, an
559  immediate error is given). However, for an invalid UTF-8 string, the offset is  immediate error is given). However, for an invalid UTF-8 string, the offset is
560  that of the first byte of the failing character. Also, some errors are not  that of the first byte of the failing character.
 detected until checks are carried out when the whole pattern has been scanned;  
 in these cases the offset passed back is the length of the pattern.  
561  .P  .P
562  Note that the offset is in bytes, not characters, even in UTF-8 mode. It may  Some errors are not detected until the whole pattern has been scanned; in these
563  sometimes point into the middle of a UTF-8 character.  cases, the offset passed back is the length of the pattern. Note that the
564    offset is in bytes, not characters, even in UTF-8 mode. It may sometimes point
565    into the middle of a UTF-8 character.
566  .P  .P
567  If \fBpcre_compile2()\fP is used instead of \fBpcre_compile()\fP, and the  If \fBpcre_compile2()\fP is used instead of \fBpcre_compile()\fP, and the
568  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is
# Line 545  documentation. Line 662  documentation.
662  .sp  .sp
663    PCRE_EXTENDED    PCRE_EXTENDED
664  .sp  .sp
665  If this bit is set, whitespace data characters in the pattern are totally  If this bit is set, white space data characters in the pattern are totally
666  ignored except when escaped or inside a character class. Whitespace does not  ignored except when escaped or inside a character class. White space does not
667  include the VT character (code 11). In addition, characters between an  include the VT character (code 11). In addition, characters between an
668  unescaped # outside a character class and the next newline, inclusive, are also  unescaped # outside a character class and the next newline, inclusive, are also
669  ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x option, and it can be changed within a  ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x option, and it can be changed within a
# Line 564  comment is a literal newline sequence in Line 681  comment is a literal newline sequence in
681  happen to represent a newline do not count.  happen to represent a newline do not count.
682  .P  .P
683  This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated patterns.  This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated patterns.
684  Note, however, that this applies only to data characters. Whitespace characters  Note, however, that this applies only to data characters. White space characters
685  may never appear within special character sequences in a pattern, for example  may never appear within special character sequences in a pattern, for example
686  within the sequence (?( that introduces a conditional subpattern.  within the sequence (?( that introduces a conditional subpattern.
687  .sp  .sp
# Line 599  character). Thus, the pattern AB]CD beco Line 716  character). Thus, the pattern AB]CD beco
716  string (by default this causes the current matching alternative to fail). A  string (by default this causes the current matching alternative to fail). A
717  pattern such as (\e1)(a) succeeds when this option is set (assuming it can find  pattern such as (\e1)(a) succeeds when this option is set (assuming it can find
718  an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by default, for Perl compatibility.  an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by default, for Perl compatibility.
719    .P
720    (3) \eU matches an upper case "U" character; by default \eU causes a compile
721    time error (Perl uses \eU to upper case subsequent characters).
722    .P
723    (4) \eu matches a lower case "u" character unless it is followed by four
724    hexadecimal digits, in which case the hexadecimal number defines the code point
725    to match. By default, \eu causes a compile time error (Perl uses it to upper
726    case the following character).
727    .P
728    (5) \ex matches a lower case "x" character unless it is followed by two
729    hexadecimal digits, in which case the hexadecimal number defines the code point
730    to match. By default, as in Perl, a hexadecimal number is always expected after
731    \ex, but it may have zero, one, or two digits (so, for example, \exz matches a
732    binary zero character followed by z).
733  .sp  .sp
734    PCRE_MULTILINE    PCRE_MULTILINE
735  .sp  .sp
# Line 628  indicated by a single character (CR or L Line 759  indicated by a single character (CR or L
759  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF specifies that a newline is indicated by the two-character  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF specifies that a newline is indicated by the two-character
760  CRLF sequence. Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF specifies that any of the three  CRLF sequence. Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF specifies that any of the three
761  preceding sequences should be recognized. Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY specifies  preceding sequences should be recognized. Setting PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY specifies
762  that any Unicode newline sequence should be recognized. The Unicode newline  that any Unicode newline sequence should be recognized.
763  sequences are the three just mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical  .P
764  tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line  In an ASCII/Unicode environment, the Unicode newline sequences are the three
765  separator, U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029). The last two are  just mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (form
766    feed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line separator, U+2028), and PS
767    (paragraph separator, U+2029). For the 8-bit library, the last two are
768  recognized only in UTF-8 mode.  recognized only in UTF-8 mode.
769  .P  .P
770    When PCRE is compiled to run in an EBCDIC (mainframe) environment, the code for
771    CR is 0x0d, the same as ASCII. However, the character code for LF is normally
772    0x15, though in some EBCDIC environments 0x25 is used. Whichever of these is
773    not LF is made to correspond to Unicode's NEL character. EBCDIC codes are all
774    less than 256. For more details, see the
775    .\" HREF
776    \fBpcrebuild\fP
777    .\"
778    documentation.
779    .P
780  The newline setting in the options word uses three bits that are treated  The newline setting in the options word uses three bits that are treated
781  as a number, giving eight possibilities. Currently only six are used (default  as a number, giving eight possibilities. Currently only six are used (default
782  plus the five values above). This means that if you set more than one newline  plus the five values above). This means that if you set more than one newline
# Line 642  PCRE_NEWLINE_CR with PCRE_NEWLINE_LF is Line 785  PCRE_NEWLINE_CR with PCRE_NEWLINE_LF is
785  other combinations may yield unused numbers and cause an error.  other combinations may yield unused numbers and cause an error.
786  .P  .P
787  The only time that a line break in a pattern is specially recognized when  The only time that a line break in a pattern is specially recognized when
788  compiling is when PCRE_EXTENDED is set. CR and LF are whitespace characters,  compiling is when PCRE_EXTENDED is set. CR and LF are white space characters,
789  and so are ignored in this mode. Also, an unescaped # outside a character class  and so are ignored in this mode. Also, an unescaped # outside a character class
790  indicates a comment that lasts until after the next line break sequence. In  indicates a comment that lasts until after the next line break sequence. In
791  other circumstances, line break sequences in patterns are treated as literal  other circumstances, line break sequences in patterns are treated as literal
# Line 697  with Perl. It can also be set by a (?U) Line 840  with Perl. It can also be set by a (?U)
840    PCRE_UTF8    PCRE_UTF8
841  .sp  .sp
842  This option causes PCRE to regard both the pattern and the subject as strings  This option causes PCRE to regard both the pattern and the subject as strings
843  of UTF-8 characters instead of single-byte character strings. However, it is  of UTF-8 characters instead of single-byte strings. However, it is available
844  available only when PCRE is built to include UTF-8 support. If not, the use  only when PCRE is built to include UTF support. If not, the use of this option
845  of this option provokes an error. Details of how this option changes the  provokes an error. Details of how this option changes the behaviour of PCRE are
846  behaviour of PCRE are given in the  given in the
 .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#utf8support">  
 .\" </a>  
 section on UTF-8 support  
 .\"  
 in the main  
847  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
848  \fBpcre\fP  \fBpcreunicode\fP
849  .\"  .\"
850  page.  page.
851  .sp  .sp
# Line 715  page. Line 853  page.
853  .sp  .sp
854  When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8 string is  When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8 string is
855  automatically checked. There is a discussion about the  automatically checked. There is a discussion about the
856  .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#utf8strings">  .\" HTML <a href="pcreunicode.html#utf8strings">
857  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
858  validity of UTF-8 strings  validity of UTF-8 strings
859  .\"  .\"
860  in the main  in the
861  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
862  \fBpcre\fP  \fBpcreunicode\fP
863  .\"  .\"
864  page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found, \fBpcre_compile()\fP  page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence is found, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns an
865  returns an error. If you already know that your pattern is valid, and you want  error. If you already know that your pattern is valid, and you want to skip
866  to skip this check for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  this check for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option.
867  option. When it is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a  When it is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a pattern is
868  pattern is undefined. It may cause your program to crash. Note that this option  undefined. It may cause your program to crash. Note that this option can also
869  can also be passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP and \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to suppress  be passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP and \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to suppress the
870  the UTF-8 validity checking of subject strings.  validity checking of subject strings only. If the same string is being matched
871    many times, the option can be safely set for the second and subsequent
872    matchings to improve performance.
873  .  .
874  .  .
875  .SH "COMPILATION ERROR CODES"  .SH "COMPILATION ERROR CODES"
# Line 737  the UTF-8 validity checking of subject s Line 877  the UTF-8 validity checking of subject s
877  .sp  .sp
878  The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by  The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by
879  \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, along with the error messages that may be returned by  \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, along with the error messages that may be returned by
880  both compiling functions. As PCRE has developed, some error codes have fallen  both compiling functions. Note that error messages are always 8-bit ASCII
881  out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been re-used.  strings, even in 16-bit or 32-bit mode. As PCRE has developed, some error codes
882    have fallen out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been re-used.
883  .sp  .sp
884     0  no error     0  no error
885     1  \e at end of pattern     1  \e at end of pattern
# Line 772  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 913  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
913    29  (?R or (?[+-]digits must be followed by )    29  (?R or (?[+-]digits must be followed by )
914    30  unknown POSIX class name    30  unknown POSIX class name
915    31  POSIX collating elements are not supported    31  POSIX collating elements are not supported
916    32  this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UTF8 support    32  this version of PCRE is compiled without UTF support
917    33  [this code is not in use]    33  [this code is not in use]
918    34  character value in \ex{...} sequence is too large    34  character value in \ex{...} sequence is too large
919    35  invalid condition (?(0)    35  invalid condition (?(0)
920    36  \eC not allowed in lookbehind assertion    36  \eC not allowed in lookbehind assertion
921    37  PCRE does not support \eL, \el, \eN, \eU, or \eu    37  PCRE does not support \eL, \el, \eN{name}, \eU, or \eu
922    38  number after (?C is > 255    38  number after (?C is > 255
923    39  closing ) for (?C expected    39  closing ) for (?C expected
924    40  recursive call could loop indefinitely    40  recursive call could loop indefinitely
925    41  unrecognized character after (?P    41  unrecognized character after (?P
926    42  syntax error in subpattern name (missing terminator)    42  syntax error in subpattern name (missing terminator)
927    43  two named subpatterns have the same name    43  two named subpatterns have the same name
928    44  invalid UTF-8 string    44  invalid UTF-8 string (specifically UTF-8)
929    45  support for \eP, \ep, and \eX has not been compiled    45  support for \eP, \ep, and \eX has not been compiled
930    46  malformed \eP or \ep sequence    46  malformed \eP or \ep sequence
931    47  unknown property name after \eP or \ep    47  unknown property name after \eP or \ep
932    48  subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)    48  subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)
933    49  too many named subpatterns (maximum 10000)    49  too many named subpatterns (maximum 10000)
934    50  [this code is not in use]    50  [this code is not in use]
935    51  octal value is greater than \e377 (not in UTF-8 mode)    51  octal value is greater than \e377 in 8-bit non-UTF-8 mode
936    52  internal error: overran compiling workspace    52  internal error: overran compiling workspace
937    53  internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern    53  internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern
938          not found          not found
# Line 810  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 951  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
951    65  different names for subpatterns of the same number are    65  different names for subpatterns of the same number are
952          not allowed          not allowed
953    66  (*MARK) must have an argument    66  (*MARK) must have an argument
954    67  this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UCP support    67  this version of PCRE is not compiled with Unicode property
955            support
956      68  \ec must be followed by an ASCII character
957      69  \ek is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted name
958      70  internal error: unknown opcode in find_fixedlength()
959      71  \eN is not supported in a class
960      72  too many forward references
961      73  disallowed Unicode code point (>= 0xd800 && <= 0xdfff)
962      74  invalid UTF-16 string (specifically UTF-16)
963      75  name is too long in (*MARK), (*PRUNE), (*SKIP), or (*THEN)
964      76  character value in \eu.... sequence is too large
965      77  invalid UTF-32 string (specifically UTF-32)
966  .sp  .sp
967  The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may  The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may
968  be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.  be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.
969  .  .
970  .  .
971    .\" HTML <a name="studyingapattern"></a>
972  .SH "STUDYING A PATTERN"  .SH "STUDYING A PATTERN"
973  .rs  .rs
974  .sp  .sp
# Line 842  below Line 995  below
995  in the section on matching a pattern.  in the section on matching a pattern.
996  .P  .P
997  If studying the pattern does not produce any useful information,  If studying the pattern does not produce any useful information,
998  \fBpcre_study()\fP returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the calling program  \fBpcre_study()\fP returns NULL by default. In that circumstance, if the
999  wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP or  calling program wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
1000  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, it must set up its own \fBpcre_extra\fP block.  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, it must set up its own \fBpcre_extra\fP block. However,
1001  .P  if \fBpcre_study()\fP is called with the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, it
1002  The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. At present, no  returns a \fBpcre_extra\fP block even if studying did not find any additional
1003  options are defined, and this argument should always be zero.  information. It may still return NULL, however, if an error occurs in
1004    \fBpcre_study()\fP.
1005    .P
1006    The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. There are three
1007    further options in addition to PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED:
1008    .sp
1009      PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE
1010      PCRE_STUDY_JIT_PARTIAL_HARD_COMPILE
1011      PCRE_STUDY_JIT_PARTIAL_SOFT_COMPILE
1012    .sp
1013    If any of these are set, and the just-in-time compiler is available, the
1014    pattern is further compiled into machine code that executes much faster than
1015    the \fBpcre_exec()\fP interpretive matching function. If the just-in-time
1016    compiler is not available, these options are ignored. All undefined bits in the
1017    \fIoptions\fP argument must be zero.
1018    .P
1019    JIT compilation is a heavyweight optimization. It can take some time for
1020    patterns to be analyzed, and for one-off matches and simple patterns the
1021    benefit of faster execution might be offset by a much slower study time.
1022    Not all patterns can be optimized by the JIT compiler. For those that cannot be
1023    handled, matching automatically falls back to the \fBpcre_exec()\fP
1024    interpreter. For more details, see the
1025    .\" HREF
1026    \fBpcrejit\fP
1027    .\"
1028    documentation.
1029  .P  .P
1030  The third argument for \fBpcre_study()\fP is a pointer for an error message. If  The third argument for \fBpcre_study()\fP is a pointer for an error message. If
1031  studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it points to is  studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it points to is
# Line 856  static string that is part of the librar Line 1034  static string that is part of the librar
1034  should test the error pointer for NULL after calling \fBpcre_study()\fP, to be  should test the error pointer for NULL after calling \fBpcre_study()\fP, to be
1035  sure that it has run successfully.  sure that it has run successfully.
1036  .P  .P
1037  This is a typical call to \fBpcre_study\fP():  When you are finished with a pattern, you can free the memory used for the
1038    study data by calling \fBpcre_free_study()\fP. This function was added to the
1039    API for release 8.20. For earlier versions, the memory could be freed with
1040    \fBpcre_free()\fP, just like the pattern itself. This will still work in cases
1041    where JIT optimization is not used, but it is advisable to change to the new
1042    function when convenient.
1043    .P
1044    This is a typical way in which \fBpcre_study\fP() is used (except that in a
1045    real application there should be tests for errors):
1046  .sp  .sp
1047    pcre_extra *pe;    int rc;
1048    pe = pcre_study(    pcre *re;
1049      pcre_extra *sd;
1050      re = pcre_compile("pattern", 0, &error, &erroroffset, NULL);
1051      sd = pcre_study(
1052      re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */      re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */
1053      0,              /* no options exist */      0,              /* no options */
1054      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */
1055      rc = pcre_exec(   /* see below for details of pcre_exec() options */
1056        re, sd, "subject", 7, 0, 0, ovector, 30);
1057      ...
1058      pcre_free_study(sd);
1059      pcre_free(re);
1060  .sp  .sp
1061  Studying a pattern does two things: first, a lower bound for the length of  Studying a pattern does two things: first, a lower bound for the length of
1062  subject string that is needed to match the pattern is computed. This does not  subject string that is needed to match the pattern is computed. This does not
1063  mean that there are any strings of that length that match, but it does  mean that there are any strings of that length that match, but it does
1064  guarantee that no shorter strings match. The value is used by  guarantee that no shorter strings match. The value is used to avoid wasting
1065  \fBpcre_exec()\fP and \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to avoid wasting time by trying to  time by trying to match strings that are shorter than the lower bound. You can
1066  match strings that are shorter than the lower bound. You can find out the value  find out the value in a calling program via the \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function.
 in a calling program via the \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function.  
1067  .P  .P
1068  Studying a pattern is also useful for non-anchored patterns that do not have a  Studying a pattern is also useful for non-anchored patterns that do not have a
1069  single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting bytes is  single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting bytes is
1070  created. This speeds up finding a position in the subject at which to start  created. This speeds up finding a position in the subject at which to start
1071  matching.  matching. (In 16-bit mode, the bitmap is used for 16-bit values less than 256.
1072    In 32-bit mode, the bitmap is used for 32-bit values less than 256.)
1073  .P  .P
1074  The two optimizations just described can be disabled by setting the  These two optimizations apply to both \fBpcre_exec()\fP and
1075  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP or  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, and the information is also used by the JIT compiler.
1076  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. You might want to do this if your pattern contains  The optimizations can be disabled by setting the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option
1077  callouts or (*MARK), and you want to make use of these facilities in cases  when calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, but if this is done,
1078  where matching fails. See the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE  JIT execution is also disabled. You might want to do this if your pattern
1079    contains callouts or (*MARK) and you want to make use of these facilities in
1080    cases where matching fails. See the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
1081  .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">  .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">
1082  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
1083  below.  below.
# Line 894  below. Line 1090  below.
1090  .sp  .sp
1091  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters,  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters,
1092  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed by character  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed by character
1093  value. When running in UTF-8 mode, this applies only to characters with codes  value. When running in UTF-8 mode, this applies only to characters
1094  less than 128. By default, higher-valued codes never match escapes such as \ew  with codes less than 128. By default, higher-valued codes never match escapes
1095  or \ed, but they can be tested with \ep if PCRE is built with Unicode character  such as \ew or \ed, but they can be tested with \ep if PCRE is built with
1096  property support. Alternatively, the PCRE_UCP option can be set at compile  Unicode character property support. Alternatively, the PCRE_UCP option can be
1097  time; this causes \ew and friends to use Unicode property support instead of  set at compile time; this causes \ew and friends to use Unicode property
1098  built-in tables. The use of locales with Unicode is discouraged. If you are  support instead of built-in tables. The use of locales with Unicode is
1099  handling characters with codes greater than 128, you should either use UTF-8  discouraged. If you are handling characters with codes greater than 128, you
1100  and Unicode, or use locales, but not try to mix the two.  should either use UTF-8 and Unicode, or use locales, but not try to mix the
1101    two.
1102  .P  .P
1103  PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used when the final argument  PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used when the final argument
1104  of \fBpcre_compile()\fP is NULL. These are sufficient for many applications.  of \fBpcre_compile()\fP is NULL. These are sufficient for many applications.
# Line 955  below in the section on matching a patte Line 1152  below in the section on matching a patte
1152  .B int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);  .B int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);
1153  .PP  .PP
1154  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function returns information about a compiled  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function returns information about a compiled
1155  pattern. It replaces the obsolete \fBpcre_info()\fP function, which is  pattern. It replaces the \fBpcre_info()\fP function, which was removed from the
1156  nevertheless retained for backwards compability (and is documented below).  library at version 8.30, after more than 10 years of obsolescence.
1157  .P  .P
1158  The first argument for \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP is a pointer to the compiled  The first argument for \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP is a pointer to the compiled
1159  pattern. The second argument is the result of \fBpcre_study()\fP, or NULL if  pattern. The second argument is the result of \fBpcre_study()\fP, or NULL if
# Line 965  information is required, and the fourth Line 1162  information is required, and the fourth
1162  to receive the data. The yield of the function is zero for success, or one of  to receive the data. The yield of the function is zero for success, or one of
1163  the following negative numbers:  the following negative numbers:
1164  .sp  .sp
1165    PCRE_ERROR_NULL       the argument \fIcode\fP was NULL    PCRE_ERROR_NULL           the argument \fIcode\fP was NULL
1166                          the argument \fIwhere\fP was NULL                              the argument \fIwhere\fP was NULL
1167    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC   the "magic number" was not found    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC       the "magic number" was not found
1168    PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION  the value of \fIwhat\fP was invalid    PCRE_ERROR_BADENDIANNESS  the pattern was compiled with different
1169                                endianness
1170      PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION      the value of \fIwhat\fP was invalid
1171  .sp  .sp
1172  The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled pattern as an simple  The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled pattern as an simple
1173  check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. Here is a typical call of  check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. The endianness error can
1174  \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP, to obtain the length of the compiled pattern:  occur if a compiled pattern is saved and reloaded on a different host. Here is
1175    a typical call of \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP, to obtain the length of the compiled
1176    pattern:
1177  .sp  .sp
1178    int rc;    int rc;
1179    size_t length;    size_t length;
1180    rc = pcre_fullinfo(    rc = pcre_fullinfo(
1181      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */
1182      pe,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */      sd,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */
1183      PCRE_INFO_SIZE,   /* what is required */      PCRE_INFO_SIZE,   /* what is required */
1184      &length);         /* where to put the data */      &length);         /* where to put the data */
1185  .sp  .sp
# Line 1006  a NULL table pointer. Line 1207  a NULL table pointer.
1207  .sp  .sp
1208    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE
1209  .sp  .sp
1210  Return information about the first byte of any matched string, for a  Return information about the first data unit of any matched string, for a
1211  non-anchored pattern. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP  non-anchored pattern. (The name of this option refers to the 8-bit library,
1212  variable. (This option used to be called PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR; the old name is  where data units are bytes.) The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP
1213  still recognized for backwards compatibility.)  variable.
1214    .P
1215    If there is a fixed first value, for example, the letter "c" from a pattern
1216    such as (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. In the 8-bit library, the
1217    value is always less than 256. In the 16-bit library the value can be up to
1218    0xffff. In the 32-bit library the value can be up to 0x10ffff.
1219  .P  .P
1220  If there is a fixed first byte, for example, from a pattern such as  If there is no fixed first value, and if either
 (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. Otherwise, if either  
1221  .sp  .sp
1222  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch
1223  starts with "^", or  starts with "^", or
# Line 1023  starts with "^", or Line 1228  starts with "^", or
1228  -1 is returned, indicating that the pattern matches only at the start of a  -1 is returned, indicating that the pattern matches only at the start of a
1229  subject string or after any newline within the string. Otherwise -2 is  subject string or after any newline within the string. Otherwise -2 is
1230  returned. For anchored patterns, -2 is returned.  returned. For anchored patterns, -2 is returned.
1231    .P
1232    Since for the 32-bit library using the non-UTF-32 mode, this function is unable
1233    to return the full 32-bit range of the character, this value is deprecated;
1234    instead the PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHARACTERFLAGS and PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHARACTER values
1235    should be used.
1236  .sp  .sp
1237    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTTABLE    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTTABLE
1238  .sp  .sp
1239  If the pattern was studied, and this resulted in the construction of a 256-bit  If the pattern was studied, and this resulted in the construction of a 256-bit
1240  table indicating a fixed set of bytes for the first byte in any matching  table indicating a fixed set of values for the first data unit in any matching
1241  string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned. The  string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned. The
1242  fourth argument should point to an \fBunsigned char *\fP variable.  fourth argument should point to an \fBunsigned char *\fP variable.
1243  .sp  .sp
# Line 1043  Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option set Line 1253  Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option set
1253  0. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. (?J) and  0. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. (?J) and
1254  (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.  (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.
1255  .sp  .sp
1256      PCRE_INFO_JIT
1257    .sp
1258    Return 1 if the pattern was studied with one of the JIT options, and
1259    just-in-time compiling was successful. The fourth argument should point to an
1260    \fBint\fP variable. A return value of 0 means that JIT support is not available
1261    in this version of PCRE, or that the pattern was not studied with a JIT option,
1262    or that the JIT compiler could not handle this particular pattern. See the
1263    .\" HREF
1264    \fBpcrejit\fP
1265    .\"
1266    documentation for details of what can and cannot be handled.
1267    .sp
1268      PCRE_INFO_JITSIZE
1269    .sp
1270    If the pattern was successfully studied with a JIT option, return the size of
1271    the JIT compiled code, otherwise return zero. The fourth argument should point
1272    to a \fBsize_t\fP variable.
1273    .sp
1274    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL
1275  .sp  .sp
1276  Return the value of the rightmost literal byte that must exist in any matched  Return the value of the rightmost literal data unit that must exist in any
1277  string, other than at its start, if such a byte has been recorded. The fourth  matched string, other than at its start, if such a value has been recorded. The
1278  argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. If there is no such byte, -1 is  fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. If there is no such
1279  returned. For anchored patterns, a last literal byte is recorded only if it  value, -1 is returned. For anchored patterns, a last literal value is recorded
1280  follows something of variable length. For example, for the pattern  only if it follows something of variable length. For example, for the pattern
1281  /^a\ed+z\ed+/ the returned value is "z", but for /^a\edz\ed/ the returned value  /^a\ed+z\ed+/ the returned value is "z", but for /^a\edz\ed/ the returned value
1282  is -1.  is -1.
1283    .P
1284    Since for the 32-bit library using the non-UTF-32 mode, this function is unable
1285    to return the full 32-bit range of the character, this value is deprecated;
1286    instead the PCRE_INFO_REQUIREDCHARFLAGS and PCRE_INFO_REQUIREDCHAR values should
1287    be used.
1288    .sp
1289      PCRE_INFO_MAXLOOKBEHIND
1290    .sp
1291    Return the number of characters (NB not bytes) in the longest lookbehind
1292    assertion in the pattern. Note that the simple assertions \eb and \eB require a
1293    one-character lookbehind. This information is useful when doing multi-segment
1294    matching using the partial matching facilities.
1295  .sp  .sp
1296    PCRE_INFO_MINLENGTH    PCRE_INFO_MINLENGTH
1297  .sp  .sp
1298  If the pattern was studied and a minimum length for matching subject strings  If the pattern was studied and a minimum length for matching subject strings
1299  was computed, its value is returned. Otherwise the returned value is -1. The  was computed, its value is returned. Otherwise the returned value is -1. The
1300  value is a number of characters, not bytes (this may be relevant in UTF-8  value is a number of characters, which in UTF-8 mode may be different from the
1301  mode). The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. A  number of bytes. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. A
1302  non-negative value is a lower bound to the length of any matching string. There  non-negative value is a lower bound to the length of any matching string. There
1303  may not be any strings of that length that do actually match, but every string  may not be any strings of that length that do actually match, but every string
1304  that does match is at least that long.  that does match is at least that long.
# Line 1081  The map consists of a number of fixed-si Line 1321  The map consists of a number of fixed-si
1321  the number of entries, and PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE gives the size of each  the number of entries, and PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE gives the size of each
1322  entry; both of these return an \fBint\fP value. The entry size depends on the  entry; both of these return an \fBint\fP value. The entry size depends on the
1323  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE returns a pointer to the first  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE returns a pointer to the first
1324  entry of the table (a pointer to \fBchar\fP). The first two bytes of each entry  entry of the table. This is a pointer to \fBchar\fP in the 8-bit library, where
1325  are the number of the capturing parenthesis, most significant byte first. The  the first two bytes of each entry are the number of the capturing parenthesis,
1326  rest of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated.  most significant byte first. In the 16-bit library, the pointer points to
1327    16-bit data units, the first of which contains the parenthesis number.
1328    In the 32-bit library, the pointer points to 32-bit data units, the first of
1329    which contains the parenthesis number. The rest
1330    of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated.
1331  .P  .P
1332  The names are in alphabetical order. Duplicate names may appear if (?| is used  The names are in alphabetical order. Duplicate names may appear if (?| is used
1333  to create multiple groups with the same number, as described in the  to create multiple groups with the same number, as described in the
# Line 1102  table in the order in which they were fo Line 1346  table in the order in which they were fo
1346  necessarily the case because later subpatterns may have lower numbers.  necessarily the case because later subpatterns may have lower numbers.
1347  .P  .P
1348  As a simple example of the name/number table, consider the following pattern  As a simple example of the name/number table, consider the following pattern
1349  (assume PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including newlines - is  after compilation by the 8-bit library (assume PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white
1350  ignored):  space - including newlines - is ignored):
1351  .sp  .sp
1352  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
1353    (?<date> (?<year>(\ed\ed)?\ed\ed) -    (?<date> (?<year>(\ed\ed)?\ed\ed) -
# Line 1158  For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit Line 1402  For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit
1402  .sp  .sp
1403    PCRE_INFO_SIZE    PCRE_INFO_SIZE
1404  .sp  .sp
1405  Return the size of the compiled pattern, that is, the value that was passed as  Return the size of the compiled pattern in bytes (for both libraries). The
1406  the argument to \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when PCRE was getting memory in which to  fourth argument should point to a \fBsize_t\fP variable. This value does not
1407  place the compiled data. The fourth argument should point to a \fBsize_t\fP  include the size of the \fBpcre\fP structure that is returned by
1408  variable.  \fBpcre_compile()\fP. The value that is passed as the argument to
1409    \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when \fBpcre_compile()\fP is getting memory in which to
1410    place the compiled data is the value returned by this option plus the size of
1411    the \fBpcre\fP structure. Studying a compiled pattern, with or without JIT,
1412    does not alter the value returned by this option.
1413  .sp  .sp
1414    PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE    PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE
1415  .sp  .sp
1416  Return the size of the data block pointed to by the \fIstudy_data\fP field in  Return the size in bytes of the data block pointed to by the \fIstudy_data\fP
1417  a \fBpcre_extra\fP block. That is, it is the value that was passed to  field in a \fBpcre_extra\fP block. If \fBpcre_extra\fP is NULL, or there is no
 \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when PCRE was getting memory into which to place the data  
 created by \fBpcre_study()\fP. If \fBpcre_extra\fP is NULL, or there is no  
1418  study data, zero is returned. The fourth argument should point to a  study data, zero is returned. The fourth argument should point to a
1419  \fBsize_t\fP variable.  \fBsize_t\fP variable. The \fIstudy_data\fP field is set by \fBpcre_study()\fP
1420  .  to record information that will speed up matching (see the section entitled
1421  .  .\" HTML <a href="#studyingapattern">
1422  .SH "OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION"  .\" </a>
1423  .rs  "Studying a pattern"
1424    .\"
1425    above). The format of the \fIstudy_data\fP block is private, but its length
1426    is made available via this option so that it can be saved and restored (see the
1427    .\" HREF
1428    \fBpcreprecompile\fP
1429    .\"
1430    documentation for details).
1431  .sp  .sp
1432  .B int pcre_info(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, int *\fIoptptr\fP, int    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHARACTERFLAGS
 .B *\fIfirstcharptr\fP);  
 .PP  
 The \fBpcre_info()\fP function is now obsolete because its interface is too  
 restrictive to return all the available data about a compiled pattern. New  
 programs should use \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP instead. The yield of  
 \fBpcre_info()\fP is the number of capturing subpatterns, or one of the  
 following negative numbers:  
1433  .sp  .sp
1434    PCRE_ERROR_NULL       the argument \fIcode\fP was NULL  Return information about the first data unit of any matched string, for a
1435    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC   the "magic number" was not found  non-anchored pattern. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP
1436    variable.
1437    .P
1438    If there is a fixed first value, for example, the letter "c" from a pattern
1439    such as (cat|cow|coyote), 1 is returned, and the character value can be
1440    retrieved using PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHARACTER.
1441    .P
1442    If there is no fixed first value, and if either
1443  .sp  .sp
1444  If the \fIoptptr\fP argument is not NULL, a copy of the options with which the  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch
1445  pattern was compiled is placed in the integer it points to (see  starts with "^", or
1446  PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS above).  .sp
1447    (b) every branch of the pattern starts with ".*" and PCRE_DOTALL is not set
1448    (if it were set, the pattern would be anchored),
1449    .sp
1450    2 is returned, indicating that the pattern matches only at the start of a
1451    subject string or after any newline within the string. Otherwise 0 is
1452    returned. For anchored patterns, 0 is returned.
1453    .sp
1454      PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHARACTER
1455    .sp
1456    Return the fixed first character value, if PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHARACTERFLAGS
1457    returned 1; otherwise returns 0. The fourth argument should point to an
1458    \fBuint_t\fP variable.
1459    .P
1460    In the 8-bit library, the value is always less than 256. In the 16-bit library
1461    the value can be up to 0xffff. In the 32-bit library in UTF-32 mode the value
1462    can be up to 0x10ffff, and up to 0xffffffff when not using UTF-32 mode.
1463  .P  .P
1464  If the pattern is not anchored and the \fIfirstcharptr\fP argument is not NULL,  If there is no fixed first value, and if either
1465  it is used to pass back information about the first character of any matched  .sp
1466  string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above).  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch
1467    starts with "^", or
1468    .sp
1469    (b) every branch of the pattern starts with ".*" and PCRE_DOTALL is not set
1470    (if it were set, the pattern would be anchored),
1471    .sp
1472    -1 is returned, indicating that the pattern matches only at the start of a
1473    subject string or after any newline within the string. Otherwise -2 is
1474    returned. For anchored patterns, -2 is returned.
1475    .sp
1476      PCRE_INFO_REQUIREDCHARFLAGS
1477    .sp
1478    Returns 1 if there is a rightmost literal data unit that must exist in any
1479    matched string, other than at its start. The fourth argument should  point to
1480    an \fBint\fP variable. If there is no such value, 0 is returned. If returning
1481    1, the character value itself can be retrieved using PCRE_INFO_REQUIREDCHAR.
1482    .P
1483    For anchored patterns, a last literal value is recorded only if it follows
1484    something of variable length. For example, for the pattern /^a\ed+z\ed+/ the
1485    returned value 1 (with "z" returned from PCRE_INFO_REQUIREDCHAR), but for
1486    /^a\edz\ed/ the returned value is 0.
1487    .sp
1488      PCRE_INFO_REQUIREDCHAR
1489    .sp
1490    Return the value of the rightmost literal data unit that must exist in any
1491    matched string, other than at its start, if such a value has been recorded. The
1492    fourth argument should point to an \fBuint32_t\fP variable. If there is no such
1493    value, 0 is returned.
1494  .  .
1495  .  .
1496  .SH "REFERENCE COUNTS"  .SH "REFERENCE COUNTS"
# Line 1232  is different. (This seems a highly unlik Line 1528  is different. (This seems a highly unlik
1528  The function \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called to match a subject string against a  The function \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called to match a subject string against a
1529  compiled pattern, which is passed in the \fIcode\fP argument. If the  compiled pattern, which is passed in the \fIcode\fP argument. If the
1530  pattern was studied, the result of the study should be passed in the  pattern was studied, the result of the study should be passed in the
1531  \fIextra\fP argument. This function is the main matching facility of the  \fIextra\fP argument. You can call \fBpcre_exec()\fP with the same \fIcode\fP
1532  library, and it operates in a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is  and \fIextra\fP arguments as many times as you like, in order to match
1533  also an alternative matching function, which is described  different subject strings with the same pattern.
1534    .P
1535    This function is the main matching facility of the library, and it operates in
1536    a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is also an alternative matching
1537    function, which is described
1538  .\" HTML <a href="#dfamatch">  .\" HTML <a href="#dfamatch">
1539  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
1540  below  below
# Line 1265  Here is an example of a simple call to \ Line 1565  Here is an example of a simple call to \
1565      ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */      ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */
1566      30);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */      30);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
1567  .  .
1568    .
1569  .\" HTML <a name="extradata"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="extradata"></a>
1570  .SS "Extra data for \fBpcre_exec()\fR"  .SS "Extra data for \fBpcre_exec()\fR"
1571  .rs  .rs
# Line 1277  fields (not necessarily in this order): Line 1578  fields (not necessarily in this order):
1578  .sp  .sp
1579    unsigned long int \fIflags\fP;    unsigned long int \fIflags\fP;
1580    void *\fIstudy_data\fP;    void *\fIstudy_data\fP;
1581      void *\fIexecutable_jit\fP;
1582    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit\fP;    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit\fP;
1583    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP;    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP;
1584    void *\fIcallout_data\fP;    void *\fIcallout_data\fP;
1585    const unsigned char *\fItables\fP;    const unsigned char *\fItables\fP;
1586    unsigned char **\fImark\fP;    unsigned char **\fImark\fP;
1587  .sp  .sp
1588  The \fIflags\fP field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields  In the 16-bit version of this structure, the \fImark\fP field has type
1589  are set. The flag bits are:  "PCRE_UCHAR16 **".
1590  .sp  .sp
1591    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA  In the 32-bit version of this structure, the \fImark\fP field has type
1592    "PCRE_UCHAR32 **".
1593    .P
1594    The \fIflags\fP field is used to specify which of the other fields are set. The
1595    flag bits are:
1596    .sp
1597      PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA
1598      PCRE_EXTRA_EXECUTABLE_JIT
1599      PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
1600    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT
1601    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION
1602    PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA
1603    PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES    PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES
   PCRE_EXTRA_MARK  
1604  .sp  .sp
1605  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The \fIstudy_data\fP field is set in the  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The \fIstudy_data\fP field and sometimes
1606  \fBpcre_extra\fP block that is returned by \fBpcre_study()\fP, together with  the \fIexecutable_jit\fP field are set in the \fBpcre_extra\fP block that is
1607  the appropriate flag bit. You should not set this yourself, but you may add to  returned by \fBpcre_study()\fP, together with the appropriate flag bits. You
1608  the block by setting the other fields and their corresponding flag bits.  should not set these yourself, but you may add to the block by setting other
1609    fields and their corresponding flag bits.
1610  .P  .P
1611  The \fImatch_limit\fP field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a  The \fImatch_limit\fP field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a
1612  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,
1613  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The
1614  classic example is a pattern that uses nested unlimited repeats.  classic example is a pattern that uses nested unlimited repeats.
1615  .P  .P
1616  Internally, PCRE uses a function called \fBmatch()\fP which it calls repeatedly  Internally, \fBpcre_exec()\fP uses a function called \fBmatch()\fP, which it
1617  (sometimes recursively). The limit set by \fImatch_limit\fP is imposed on the  calls repeatedly (sometimes recursively). The limit set by \fImatch_limit\fP is
1618  number of times this function is called during a match, which has the effect of  imposed on the number of times this function is called during a match, which
1619  limiting the amount of backtracking that can take place. For patterns that are  has the effect of limiting the amount of backtracking that can take place. For
1620  not anchored, the count restarts from zero for each position in the subject  patterns that are not anchored, the count restarts from zero for each position
1621  string.  in the subject string.
1622    .P
1623    When \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called with a pattern that was successfully studied
1624    with a JIT option, the way that the matching is executed is entirely different.
1625    However, there is still the possibility of runaway matching that goes on for a
1626    very long time, and so the \fImatch_limit\fP value is also used in this case
1627    (but in a different way) to limit how long the matching can continue.
1628  .P  .P
1629  The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the default  The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the default
1630  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can
# Line 1323  limits the depth of recursion. The recur Line 1639  limits the depth of recursion. The recur
1639  total number of calls, because not all calls to \fBmatch()\fP are recursive.  total number of calls, because not all calls to \fBmatch()\fP are recursive.
1640  This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than \fImatch_limit\fP.  This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than \fImatch_limit\fP.
1641  .P  .P
1642  Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of stack that can be used, or,  Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of machine stack that can be
1643  when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead of the stack, the  used, or, when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead of the
1644  amount of heap memory that can be used.  stack, the amount of heap memory that can be used. This limit is not relevant,
1645    and is ignored, when matching is done using JIT compiled code.
1646  .P  .P
1647  The default value for \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP can be set when PCRE is  The default value for \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP can be set when PCRE is
1648  built; the default default is the same value as the default for  built; the default default is the same value as the default for
# Line 1356  called. See the Line 1673  called. See the
1673  documentation for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.  documentation for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.
1674  .P  .P
1675  If PCRE_EXTRA_MARK is set in the \fIflags\fP field, the \fImark\fP field must  If PCRE_EXTRA_MARK is set in the \fIflags\fP field, the \fImark\fP field must
1676  be set to point to a \fBchar *\fP variable. If the pattern contains any  be set to point to a suitable variable. If the pattern contains any
1677  backtracking control verbs such as (*MARK:NAME), and the execution ends up with  backtracking control verbs such as (*MARK:NAME), and the execution ends up with
1678  a name to pass back, a pointer to the name string (zero terminated) is placed  a name to pass back, a pointer to the name string (zero terminated) is placed
1679  in the variable pointed to by the \fImark\fP field. The names are within the  in the variable pointed to by the \fImark\fP field. The names are within the
1680  compiled pattern; if you wish to retain such a name you must copy it before  compiled pattern; if you wish to retain such a name you must copy it before
1681  freeing the memory of a compiled pattern. If there is no name to pass back, the  freeing the memory of a compiled pattern. If there is no name to pass back, the
1682  variable pointed to by the \fImark\fP field set to NULL. For details of the  variable pointed to by the \fImark\fP field is set to NULL. For details of the
1683  backtracking control verbs, see the section entitled  backtracking control verbs, see the section entitled
1684  .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern#backtrackcontrol">  .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern#backtrackcontrol">
1685  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
# Line 1382  documentation. Line 1699  documentation.
1699  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP must be  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP must be
1700  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,
1701  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
1702  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, and  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD, and
1703  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD.  PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT.
1704    .P
1705    If the pattern was successfully studied with one of the just-in-time (JIT)
1706    compile options, the only supported options for JIT execution are
1707    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY,
1708    PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART, PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD, and PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. If an
1709    unsupported option is used, JIT execution is disabled and the normal
1710    interpretive code in \fBpcre_exec()\fP is run.
1711  .sp  .sp
1712    PCRE_ANCHORED    PCRE_ANCHORED
1713  .sp  .sp
# Line 1502  causing performance to suffer, but ensur Line 1826  causing performance to suffer, but ensur
1826  "no match", the callouts do occur, and that items such as (*COMMIT) and (*MARK)  "no match", the callouts do occur, and that items such as (*COMMIT) and (*MARK)
1827  are considered at every possible starting position in the subject string. If  are considered at every possible starting position in the subject string. If
1828  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE is set at compile time, it cannot be unset at matching  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE is set at compile time, it cannot be unset at matching
1829  time.  time. The use of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE disables JIT execution; when it is set,
1830    matching is always done using interpretively.
1831  .P  .P
1832  Setting PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE can change the outcome of a matching operation.  Setting PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE can change the outcome of a matching operation.
1833  Consider the pattern  Consider the pattern
# Line 1535  returned. Line 1860  returned.
1860  .sp  .sp
1861  When PCRE_UTF8 is set at compile time, the validity of the subject as a UTF-8  When PCRE_UTF8 is set at compile time, the validity of the subject as a UTF-8
1862  string is automatically checked when \fBpcre_exec()\fP is subsequently called.  string is automatically checked when \fBpcre_exec()\fP is subsequently called.
1863  The value of \fIstartoffset\fP is also checked to ensure that it points to the  The entire string is checked before any other processing takes place. The value
1864  start of a UTF-8 character. There is a discussion about the validity of UTF-8  of \fIstartoffset\fP is also checked to ensure that it points to the start of a
1865  strings in the  UTF-8 character. There is a discussion about the
1866  .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#utf8strings">  .\" HTML <a href="pcreunicode.html#utf8strings">
1867  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
1868  section on UTF-8 support  validity of UTF-8 strings
1869  .\"  .\"
1870  in the main  in the
1871  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
1872  \fBpcre\fP  \fBpcreunicode\fP
1873  .\"  .\"
1874  page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns  page. If an invalid sequence of bytes is found, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns the
1875  the error PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or, if PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set and the problem is  error PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or, if PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set and the problem is a
1876  a truncated UTF-8 character at the end of the subject, PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8. In  truncated character at the end of the subject, PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8. In both
1877  both cases, information about the precise nature of the error may also be  cases, information about the precise nature of the error may also be returned
1878  returned (see the descriptions of these errors in the section entitled \fIError  (see the descriptions of these errors in the section entitled \fIError return
1879  return values from\fP \fBpcre_exec()\fP  values from\fP \fBpcre_exec()\fP
1880  .\" HTML <a href="#errorlist">  .\" HTML <a href="#errorlist">
1881  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
1882  below).  below).
# Line 1565  checks for performance reasons, you can Line 1890  checks for performance reasons, you can
1890  calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP. You might want to do this for the second and  calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP. You might want to do this for the second and
1891  subsequent calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP if you are making repeated calls to find  subsequent calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP if you are making repeated calls to find
1892  all the matches in a single subject string. However, you should be sure that  all the matches in a single subject string. However, you should be sure that
1893  the value of \fIstartoffset\fP points to the start of a UTF-8 character (or the  the value of \fIstartoffset\fP points to the start of a character (or the end
1894  end of the subject). When PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an  of the subject). When PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an
1895  invalid UTF-8 string as a subject or an invalid value of \fIstartoffset\fP is  invalid string as a subject or an invalid value of \fIstartoffset\fP is
1896  undefined. Your program may crash.  undefined. Your program may crash.
1897  .sp  .sp
1898    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
# Line 1602  documentation. Line 1927  documentation.
1927  .rs  .rs
1928  .sp  .sp
1929  The subject string is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP as a pointer in  The subject string is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP as a pointer in
1930  \fIsubject\fP, a length (in bytes) in \fIlength\fP, and a starting byte offset  \fIsubject\fP, a length in bytes in \fIlength\fP, and a starting byte offset
1931  in \fIstartoffset\fP. If this is negative or greater than the length of the  in \fIstartoffset\fP. If this is negative or greater than the length of the
1932  subject, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET. When the starting  subject, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET. When the starting
1933  offset is zero, the search for a match starts at the beginning of the subject,  offset is zero, the search for a match starts at the beginning of the subject,
# Line 1690  string that it matched that is returned. Line 2015  string that it matched that is returned.
2015  .P  .P
2016  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets, it is  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets, it is
2017  used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function  used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function
2018  returns a value of zero. If the substring offsets are not of interest,  returns a value of zero. If neither the actual string matched nor any captured
2019  \fBpcre_exec()\fP may be called with \fIovector\fP passed as NULL and  substrings are of interest, \fBpcre_exec()\fP may be called with \fIovector\fP
2020  \fIovecsize\fP as zero. However, if the pattern contains back references and  passed as NULL and \fIovecsize\fP as zero. However, if the pattern contains
2021  the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to remember the related substrings, PCRE  back references and the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to remember the related
2022  has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usually  substrings, PCRE has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it
2023  advisable to supply an \fIovector\fP.  is usually advisable to supply an \fIovector\fP of reasonable size.
2024    .P
2025    There are some cases where zero is returned (indicating vector overflow) when
2026    in fact the vector is exactly the right size for the final match. For example,
2027    consider the pattern
2028    .sp
2029      (a)(?:(b)c|bd)
2030    .sp
2031    If a vector of 6 elements (allowing for only 1 captured substring) is given
2032    with subject string "abd", \fBpcre_exec()\fP will try to set the second
2033    captured string, thereby recording a vector overflow, before failing to match
2034    "c" and backing up to try the second alternative. The zero return, however,
2035    does correctly indicate that the maximum number of slots (namely 2) have been
2036    filled. In similar cases where there is temporary overflow, but the final
2037    number of used slots is actually less than the maximum, a non-zero value is
2038    returned.
2039  .P  .P
2040  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function can be used to find out how many capturing  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function can be used to find out how many capturing
2041  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for
# Line 1716  return from the function is 2, because t Line 2056  return from the function is 2, because t
2056  number is 1, and the offsets for for the second and third capturing subpatterns  number is 1, and the offsets for for the second and third capturing subpatterns
2057  (assuming the vector is large enough, of course) are set to -1.  (assuming the vector is large enough, of course) are set to -1.
2058  .P  .P
2059  \fBNote\fP: Elements of \fIovector\fP that do not correspond to capturing  \fBNote\fP: Elements in the first two-thirds of \fIovector\fP that do not
2060  parentheses in the pattern are never changed. That is, if a pattern contains  correspond to capturing parentheses in the pattern are never changed. That is,
2061  \fIn\fP capturing parentheses, no more than \fIovector[0]\fP to  if a pattern contains \fIn\fP capturing parentheses, no more than
2062  \fIovector[2n+1]\fP are set by \fBpcre_exec()\fP. The other elements retain  \fIovector[0]\fP to \fIovector[2n+1]\fP are set by \fBpcre_exec()\fP. The other
2063  whatever values they previously had.  elements (in the first two-thirds) retain whatever values they previously had.
2064  .P  .P
2065  Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings  Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings
2066  as separate strings. These are described below.  as separate strings. These are described below.
# Line 1810  PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8 is returned instead Line 2150  PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8 is returned instead
2150  .sp  .sp
2151    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)
2152  .sp  .sp
2153  The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was checked and found to  The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was checked and found to
2154  be valid (the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option was not set), but the value of  be valid (the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option was not set), but the value of
2155  \fIstartoffset\fP did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 character or the  \fIstartoffset\fP did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 character or the
2156  end of the subject.  end of the subject.
# Line 1862  Information about the failure is returne Line 2202  Information about the failure is returne
2202  fact sufficient to detect this case, but this special error code for  fact sufficient to detect this case, but this special error code for
2203  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD precedes the implementation of returned information; it is  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD precedes the implementation of returned information; it is
2204  retained for backwards compatibility.  retained for backwards compatibility.
2205    .sp
2206      PCRE_ERROR_RECURSELOOP    (-26)
2207    .sp
2208    This error is returned when \fBpcre_exec()\fP detects a recursion loop within
2209    the pattern. Specifically, it means that either the whole pattern or a
2210    subpattern has been called recursively for the second time at the same position
2211    in the subject string. Some simple patterns that might do this are detected and
2212    faulted at compile time, but more complicated cases, in particular mutual
2213    recursions between two different subpatterns, cannot be detected until run
2214    time.
2215    .sp
2216      PCRE_ERROR_JIT_STACKLIMIT (-27)
2217    .sp
2218    This error is returned when a pattern that was successfully studied using a
2219    JIT compile option is being matched, but the memory available for the
2220    just-in-time processing stack is not large enough. See the
2221    .\" HREF
2222    \fBpcrejit\fP
2223    .\"
2224    documentation for more details.
2225    .sp
2226      PCRE_ERROR_BADMODE        (-28)
2227    .sp
2228    This error is given if a pattern that was compiled by the 8-bit library is
2229    passed to a 16-bit or 32-bit library function, or vice versa.
2230    .sp
2231      PCRE_ERROR_BADENDIANNESS  (-29)
2232    .sp
2233    This error is given if a pattern that was compiled and saved is reloaded on a
2234    host with different endianness. The utility function
2235    \fBpcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order()\fP can be used to convert such a pattern
2236    so that it runs on the new host.
2237    .sp
2238      PCRE_ERROR_BADLENGTH      (-32)
2239    .sp
2240    This error is given if \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called with a negative value for
2241    the \fIlength\fP argument.
2242  .P  .P
2243  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.  Error numbers -16 to -20, -22, 30, and -31 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.
2244  .  .
2245  .  .
2246  .\" HTML <a name="badutf8reasons"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="badutf8reasons"></a>
2247  .SS "Reason codes for invalid UTF-8 strings"  .SS "Reason codes for invalid UTF-8 strings"
2248  .rs  .rs
2249  .sp  .sp
2250  When \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns either PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or  This section applies only to the 8-bit library. The corresponding information
2251  PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8, and the size of the output vector (\fIovecsize\fP) is at  for the 16-bit library is given in the
2252  least 2, the offset of the start of the invalid UTF-8 character is placed in  .\" HREF
2253  the first output vector element (\fIovector[0]\fP) and a reason code is placed  \fBpcre16\fP
2254    .\"
2255    page. The corresponding information for the 32-bit library is given in the
2256    .\" HREF
2257    \fBpcre32\fP
2258    .\"
2259    page.
2260    .P
2261    When \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns either PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or
2262    PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8, and the size of the output vector (\fIovecsize\fP) is at
2263    least 2, the offset of the start of the invalid UTF-8 character is placed in
2264    the first output vector element (\fIovector[0]\fP) and a reason code is placed
2265  in the second element (\fIovector[1]\fP). The reason codes are given names in  in the second element (\fIovector[1]\fP). The reason codes are given names in
2266  the \fBpcre.h\fP header file:  the \fBpcre.h\fP header file:
2267  .sp  .sp
# Line 1883  the \fBpcre.h\fP header file: Line 2271  the \fBpcre.h\fP header file:
2271    PCRE_UTF8_ERR4    PCRE_UTF8_ERR4
2272    PCRE_UTF8_ERR5    PCRE_UTF8_ERR5
2273  .sp  .sp
2274  The string ends with a truncated UTF-8 character; the code specifies how many  The string ends with a truncated UTF-8 character; the code specifies how many
2275  bytes are missing (1 to 5). Although RFC 3629 restricts UTF-8 characters to be  bytes are missing (1 to 5). Although RFC 3629 restricts UTF-8 characters to be
2276  no longer than 4 bytes, the encoding scheme (originally defined by RFC 2279)  no longer than 4 bytes, the encoding scheme (originally defined by RFC 2279)
2277  allows for up to 6 bytes, and this is checked first; hence the possibility of  allows for up to 6 bytes, and this is checked first; hence the possibility of
2278  4 or 5 missing bytes.  4 or 5 missing bytes.
2279  .sp  .sp
2280    PCRE_UTF8_ERR6    PCRE_UTF8_ERR6
# Line 1895  allows for up to 6 bytes, and this is ch Line 2283  allows for up to 6 bytes, and this is ch
2283    PCRE_UTF8_ERR9    PCRE_UTF8_ERR9
2284    PCRE_UTF8_ERR10    PCRE_UTF8_ERR10
2285  .sp  .sp
2286  The two most significant bits of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, or 6th byte of the  The two most significant bits of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, or 6th byte of the
2287  character do not have the binary value 0b10 (that is, either the most  character do not have the binary value 0b10 (that is, either the most
2288  significant bit is 0, or the next bit is 1).  significant bit is 0, or the next bit is 1).
2289  .sp  .sp
2290    PCRE_UTF8_ERR11    PCRE_UTF8_ERR11
2291    PCRE_UTF8_ERR12    PCRE_UTF8_ERR12
2292  .sp  .sp
2293  A character that is valid by the RFC 2279 rules is either 5 or 6 bytes long;  A character that is valid by the RFC 2279 rules is either 5 or 6 bytes long;
2294  these code points are excluded by RFC 3629.  these code points are excluded by RFC 3629.
2295  .sp  .sp
2296    PCRE_UTF8_ERR13    PCRE_UTF8_ERR13
2297  .sp  .sp
2298  A 4-byte character has a value greater than 0x10fff; these code points are  A 4-byte character has a value greater than 0x10fff; these code points are
2299  excluded by RFC 3629.  excluded by RFC 3629.
2300  .sp  .sp
2301    PCRE_UTF8_ERR14    PCRE_UTF8_ERR14
2302  .sp  .sp
2303  A 3-byte character has a value in the range 0xd800 to 0xdfff; this range of  A 3-byte character has a value in the range 0xd800 to 0xdfff; this range of
2304  code points are reserved by RFC 3629 for use with UTF-16, and so are excluded  code points are reserved by RFC 3629 for use with UTF-16, and so are excluded
2305  from UTF-8.  from UTF-8.
2306  .sp  .sp
2307    PCRE_UTF8_ERR15    PCRE_UTF8_ERR15
2308    PCRE_UTF8_ERR16    PCRE_UTF8_ERR16
2309    PCRE_UTF8_ERR17    PCRE_UTF8_ERR17
2310    PCRE_UTF8_ERR18    PCRE_UTF8_ERR18
2311    PCRE_UTF8_ERR19    PCRE_UTF8_ERR19
2312  .sp  .sp
2313  A 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-byte character is "overlong", that is, it codes for a  A 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-byte character is "overlong", that is, it codes for a
2314  value that can be represented by fewer bytes, which is invalid. For example,  value that can be represented by fewer bytes, which is invalid. For example,
2315  the two bytes 0xc0, 0xae give the value 0x2e, whose correct coding uses just  the two bytes 0xc0, 0xae give the value 0x2e, whose correct coding uses just
2316  one byte.  one byte.
2317  .sp  .sp
2318    PCRE_UTF8_ERR20    PCRE_UTF8_ERR20
2319  .sp  .sp
2320  The two most significant bits of the first byte of a character have the binary  The two most significant bits of the first byte of a character have the binary
2321  value 0b10 (that is, the most significant bit is 1 and the second is 0). Such a  value 0b10 (that is, the most significant bit is 1 and the second is 0). Such a
2322  byte can only validly occur as the second or subsequent byte of a multi-byte  byte can only validly occur as the second or subsequent byte of a multi-byte
2323  character.  character.
2324  .sp  .sp
# Line 1938  character. Line 2326  character.
2326  .sp  .sp
2327  The first byte of a character has the value 0xfe or 0xff. These values can  The first byte of a character has the value 0xfe or 0xff. These values can
2328  never occur in a valid UTF-8 string.  never occur in a valid UTF-8 string.
2329    .sp
2330      PCRE_UTF8_ERR2
2331    .sp
2332    Non-character. These are the last two characters in each plane (0xfffe, 0xffff,
2333    0x1fffe, 0x1ffff .. 0x10fffe, 0x10ffff), and the characters 0xfdd0..0xfdef.
2334  .  .
2335  .  .
2336  .SH "EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER"  .SH "EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER"
# Line 2102  names are not included in the compiled c Line 2495  names are not included in the compiled c
2495  numbers. For this reason, the use of different names for subpatterns of the  numbers. For this reason, the use of different names for subpatterns of the
2496  same number causes an error at compile time.  same number causes an error at compile time.
2497  .  .
2498    .
2499  .SH "DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES"  .SH "DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES"
2500  .rs  .rs
2501  .sp  .sp
# Line 2166  other alternatives. Ultimately, when it Line 2560  other alternatives. Ultimately, when it
2560  will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.  will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.
2561  .  .
2562  .  .
2563    .SH "OBTAINING AN ESTIMATE OF STACK USAGE"
2564    .rs
2565    .sp
2566    Matching certain patterns using \fBpcre_exec()\fP can use a lot of process
2567    stack, which in certain environments can be rather limited in size. Some users
2568    find it helpful to have an estimate of the amount of stack that is used by
2569    \fBpcre_exec()\fP, to help them set recursion limits, as described in the
2570    .\" HREF
2571    \fBpcrestack\fP
2572    .\"
2573    documentation. The estimate that is output by \fBpcretest\fP when called with
2574    the \fB-m\fP and \fB-C\fP options is obtained by calling \fBpcre_exec\fP with
2575    the values NULL, NULL, NULL, -999, and -999 for its first five arguments.
2576    .P
2577    Normally, if its first argument is NULL, \fBpcre_exec()\fP immediately returns
2578    the negative error code PCRE_ERROR_NULL, but with this special combination of
2579    arguments, it returns instead a negative number whose absolute value is the
2580    approximate stack frame size in bytes. (A negative number is used so that it is
2581    clear that no match has happened.) The value is approximate because in some
2582    cases, recursive calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP occur when there are one or two
2583    additional variables on the stack.
2584    .P
2585    If PCRE has been compiled to use the heap instead of the stack for recursion,
2586    the value returned is the size of each block that is obtained from the heap.
2587    .
2588    .
2589  .\" HTML <a name="dfamatch"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="dfamatch"></a>
2590  .SH "MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION"  .SH "MATCHING A PATTERN: THE ALTERNATIVE FUNCTION"
2591  .rs  .rs
# Line 2301  returns data, even though the meaning of Line 2721  returns data, even though the meaning of
2721  The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the longest  The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the longest
2722  matching string is given first. If there were too many matches to fit into  matching string is given first. If there were too many matches to fit into
2723  \fIovector\fP, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is filled with  \fIovector\fP, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is filled with
2724  the longest matches.  the longest matches. Unlike \fBpcre_exec()\fP, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP can use
2725    the entire \fIovector\fP for returning matched strings.
2726  .  .
2727  .  .
2728  .SS "Error returns from \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP"  .SS "Error returns from \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP"
# Line 2331  group. These are not supported. Line 2752  group. These are not supported.
2752    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UMLIMIT    (-18)    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UMLIMIT    (-18)
2753  .sp  .sp
2754  This return is given if \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP is called with an \fIextra\fP  This return is given if \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP is called with an \fIextra\fP
2755  block that contains a setting of the \fImatch_limit\fP field. This is not  block that contains a setting of the \fImatch_limit\fP or
2756  supported (it is meaningless).  \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP fields. This is not supported (these fields are
2757    meaningless for DFA matching).
2758  .sp  .sp
2759    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_WSSIZE     (-19)    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_WSSIZE     (-19)
2760  .sp  .sp
# Line 2345  When a recursive subpattern is processed Line 2767  When a recursive subpattern is processed
2767  recursively, using private vectors for \fIovector\fP and \fIworkspace\fP. This  recursively, using private vectors for \fIovector\fP and \fIworkspace\fP. This
2768  error is given if the output vector is not large enough. This should be  error is given if the output vector is not large enough. This should be
2769  extremely rare, as a vector of size 1000 is used.  extremely rare, as a vector of size 1000 is used.
2770    .sp
2771      PCRE_ERROR_DFA_BADRESTART (-30)
2772    .sp
2773    When \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP is called with the \fBPCRE_DFA_RESTART\fP option,
2774    some plausibility checks are made on the contents of the workspace, which
2775    should contain data about the previous partial match. If any of these checks
2776    fail, this error is given.
2777  .  .
2778  .  .
2779  .SH "SEE ALSO"  .SH "SEE ALSO"
2780  .rs  .rs
2781  .sp  .sp
2782  \fBpcrebuild\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrecpp(3)\fP(3),  \fBpcre16\fP(3), \fBpcre32\fP(3), \fBpcrebuild\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3),
2783  \fBpcrematching\fP(3), \fBpcrepartial\fP(3), \fBpcreposix\fP(3),  \fBpcrecpp(3)\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3), \fBpcrepartial\fP(3),
2784  \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3), \fBpcresample\fP(3), \fBpcrestack\fP(3).  \fBpcreposix\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3), \fBpcresample\fP(3),
2785    \fBpcrestack\fP(3).
2786  .  .
2787  .  .
2788  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
# Line 2369  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England. Line 2799  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
2799  .rs  .rs
2800  .sp  .sp
2801  .nf  .nf
2802  Last updated: 07 May 2011  Last updated: 29 October 2012
2803  Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.
2804  .fi  .fi

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