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revision 211 by ph10, Thu Aug 9 09:52:43 2007 UTC revision 371 by ph10, Mon Aug 25 18:28:05 2008 UTC
# Line 140  distribution. The Line 140  distribution. The
140  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
141  \fBpcresample\fP  \fBpcresample\fP
142  .\"  .\"
143  documentation describes how to run it.  documentation describes how to compile and run it.
144  .P  .P
145  A second matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, which is not  A second matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, which is not
146  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the
# Line 218  points during a matching operation. Deta Line 218  points during a matching operation. Deta
218  documentation.  documentation.
219  .  .
220  .  .
221    .\" HTML <a name="newlines"></a>
222  .SH NEWLINES  .SH NEWLINES
223  .rs  .rs
224  .sp  .sp
# Line 235  The default default is LF, which is the Line 236  The default default is LF, which is the
236  default can be overridden, either when a pattern is compiled, or when it is  default can be overridden, either when a pattern is compiled, or when it is
237  matched.  matched.
238  .P  .P
239    At compile time, the newline convention can be specified by the \fIoptions\fP
240    argument of \fBpcre_compile()\fP, or it can be specified by special text at the
241    start of the pattern itself; this overrides any other settings. See the
242    .\" HREF
243    \fBpcrepattern\fP
244    .\"
245    page for details of the special character sequences.
246    .P
247  In the PCRE documentation the word "newline" is used to mean "the character or  In the PCRE documentation the word "newline" is used to mean "the character or
248  pair of characters that indicate a line break". The choice of newline  pair of characters that indicate a line break". The choice of newline
249  convention affects the handling of the dot, circumflex, and dollar  convention affects the handling of the dot, circumflex, and dollar
250  metacharacters, the handling of #-comments in /x mode, and, when CRLF is a  metacharacters, the handling of #-comments in /x mode, and, when CRLF is a
251  recognized line ending sequence, the match position advancement for a  recognized line ending sequence, the match position advancement for a
252  non-anchored pattern. The choice of newline convention does not affect the  non-anchored pattern. There is more detail about this in the
253  interpretation of the \en or \er escape sequences.  .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">
254    .\" </a>
255    section on \fBpcre_exec()\fP options
256    .\"
257    below.
258    .P
259    The choice of newline convention does not affect the interpretation of
260    the \en or \er escape sequences, nor does it affect what \eR matches, which is
261    controlled in a similar way, but by separate options.
262  .  .
263  .  .
264  .SH MULTITHREADING  .SH MULTITHREADING
# Line 303  that is recognized as meaning "newline". Line 320  that is recognized as meaning "newline".
320  are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for ANYCRLF, and -1 for ANY. The  are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for ANYCRLF, and -1 for ANY. The
321  default should normally be the standard sequence for your operating system.  default should normally be the standard sequence for your operating system.
322  .sp  .sp
323      PCRE_CONFIG_BSR
324    .sp
325    The output is an integer whose value indicates what character sequences the \eR
326    escape sequence matches by default. A value of 0 means that \eR matches any
327    Unicode line ending sequence; a value of 1 means that \eR matches only CR, LF,
328    or CRLF. The default can be overridden when a pattern is compiled or matched.
329    .sp
330    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE
331  .sp  .sp
332  The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal  The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal
# Line 444  facility, see the Line 468  facility, see the
468  .\"  .\"
469  documentation.  documentation.
470  .sp  .sp
471      PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
472      PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
473    .sp
474    These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \eR escape
475    sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF, or to
476    match any Unicode newline sequence. The default is specified when PCRE is
477    built. It can be overridden from within the pattern, or by setting an option
478    when a compiled pattern is matched.
479    .sp
480    PCRE_CASELESS    PCRE_CASELESS
481  .sp  .sp
482  If this bit is set, letters in the pattern match both upper and lower case  If this bit is set, letters in the pattern match both upper and lower case
# Line 516  If this option is set, an unanchored pat Line 549  If this option is set, an unanchored pat
549  the first newline in the subject string, though the matched text may continue  the first newline in the subject string, though the matched text may continue
550  over the newline.  over the newline.
551  .sp  .sp
552      PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
553    .sp
554    If this option is set, PCRE's behaviour is changed in some ways so that it is
555    compatible with JavaScript rather than Perl. The changes are as follows:
556    .P
557    (1) A lone closing square bracket in a pattern causes a compile-time error,
558    because this is illegal in JavaScript (by default it is treated as a data
559    character). Thus, the pattern AB]CD becomes illegal when this option is set.
560    .P
561    (2) At run time, a back reference to an unset subpattern group matches an empty
562    string (by default this causes the current matching alternative to fail). A
563    pattern such as (\e1)(a) succeeds when this option is set (assuming it can find
564    an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by default, for Perl compatibility.
565    .sp
566    PCRE_MULTILINE    PCRE_MULTILINE
567  .sp  .sp
568  By default, PCRE treats the subject string as consisting of a single line of  By default, PCRE treats the subject string as consisting of a single line of
# Line 639  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 686  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
686     9  nothing to repeat     9  nothing to repeat
687    10  [this code is not in use]    10  [this code is not in use]
688    11  internal error: unexpected repeat    11  internal error: unexpected repeat
689    12  unrecognized character after (?    12  unrecognized character after (? or (?-
690    13  POSIX named classes are supported only within a class    13  POSIX named classes are supported only within a class
691    14  missing )    14  missing )
692    15  reference to non-existent subpattern    15  reference to non-existent subpattern
# Line 647  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 694  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
694    17  unknown option bit(s) set    17  unknown option bit(s) set
695    18  missing ) after comment    18  missing ) after comment
696    19  [this code is not in use]    19  [this code is not in use]
697    20  regular expression too large    20  regular expression is too large
698    21  failed to get memory    21  failed to get memory
699    22  unmatched parentheses    22  unmatched parentheses
700    23  internal error: code overflow    23  internal error: code overflow
# Line 676  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 723  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
723    46  malformed \eP or \ep sequence    46  malformed \eP or \ep sequence
724    47  unknown property name after \eP or \ep    47  unknown property name after \eP or \ep
725    48  subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)    48  subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)
726    49  too many named subpatterns (maximum 10,000)    49  too many named subpatterns (maximum 10000)
727    50  [this code is not in use]    50  [this code is not in use]
728    51  octal value is greater than \e377 (not in UTF-8 mode)    51  octal value is greater than \e377 (not in UTF-8 mode)
729    52  internal error: overran compiling workspace    52  internal error: overran compiling workspace
730    53  internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern not found    53  internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern not found
731    54  DEFINE group contains more than one branch    54  DEFINE group contains more than one branch
732    55  repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed    55  repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed
733    56  inconsistent NEWLINE options"    56  inconsistent NEWLINE options
734    57  \eg is not followed by a braced name or an optionally braced    57  \eg is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted
735          non-zero number          name/number or by a plain number
736    58  (?+ or (?- or (?(+ or (?(- must be followed by a non-zero number    58  a numbered reference must not be zero
737      59  (*VERB) with an argument is not supported
738      60  (*VERB) not recognized
739      61  number is too big
740      62  subpattern name expected
741      63  digit expected after (?+
742      64  ] is an invalid data character in JavaScript compatibility mode
743    .sp
744    The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may
745    be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.
746  .  .
747  .  .
748  .SH "STUDYING A PATTERN"  .SH "STUDYING A PATTERN"
# Line 882  table indicating a fixed set of bytes fo Line 938  table indicating a fixed set of bytes fo
938  string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned. The  string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned. The
939  fourth argument should point to an \fBunsigned char *\fP variable.  fourth argument should point to an \fBunsigned char *\fP variable.
940  .sp  .sp
941      PCRE_INFO_HASCRORLF
942    .sp
943    Return 1 if the pattern contains any explicit matches for CR or LF characters,
944    otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. An
945    explicit match is either a literal CR or LF character, or \er or \en.
946    .sp
947    PCRE_INFO_JCHANGED    PCRE_INFO_JCHANGED
948  .sp  .sp
949  Return 1 if the (?J) option setting is used in the pattern, otherwise 0. The  Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option setting is used in the pattern, otherwise
950  fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. The (?J) internal option  0. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. (?J) and
951  setting changes the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option.  (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.
952  .sp  .sp
953    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL
954  .sp  .sp
# Line 1169  called. See the Line 1231  called. See the
1231  .\"  .\"
1232  documentation for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.  documentation for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.
1233  .  .
1234    .\" HTML <a name="execoptions"></a>
1235  .SS "Option bits for \fBpcre_exec()\fP"  .SS "Option bits for \fBpcre_exec()\fP"
1236  .rs  .rs
1237  .sp  .sp
# Line 1183  matching position. If a pattern was comp Line 1246  matching position. If a pattern was comp
1246  to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made unachored at  to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made unachored at
1247  matching time.  matching time.
1248  .sp  .sp
1249      PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
1250      PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
1251    .sp
1252    These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \eR escape
1253    sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF, or to
1254    match any Unicode newline sequence. These options override the choice that was
1255    made or defaulted when the pattern was compiled.
1256    .sp
1257    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
1258    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
1259    PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF    PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
# Line 1194  the pattern was compiled. For details, s Line 1265  the pattern was compiled. For details, s
1265  \fBpcre_compile()\fP above. During matching, the newline choice affects the  \fBpcre_compile()\fP above. During matching, the newline choice affects the
1266  behaviour of the dot, circumflex, and dollar metacharacters. It may also alter  behaviour of the dot, circumflex, and dollar metacharacters. It may also alter
1267  the way the match position is advanced after a match failure for an unanchored  the way the match position is advanced after a match failure for an unanchored
1268  pattern. When PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF, or PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY is  pattern.
1269  set, and a match attempt fails when the current position is at a CRLF sequence,  .P
1270  the match position is advanced by two characters instead of one, in other  When PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF, or PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY is set, and a
1271  words, to after the CRLF.  match attempt for an unanchored pattern fails when the current position is at a
1272    CRLF sequence, and the pattern contains no explicit matches for CR or LF
1273    characters, the match position is advanced by two characters instead of one, in
1274    other words, to after the CRLF.
1275    .P
1276    The above rule is a compromise that makes the most common cases work as
1277    expected. For example, if the pattern is .+A (and the PCRE_DOTALL option is not
1278    set), it does not match the string "\er\enA" because, after failing at the
1279    start, it skips both the CR and the LF before retrying. However, the pattern
1280    [\er\en]A does match that string, because it contains an explicit CR or LF
1281    reference, and so advances only by one character after the first failure.
1282    .P
1283    An explicit match for CR of LF is either a literal appearance of one of those
1284    characters, or one of the \er or \en escape sequences. Implicit matches such as
1285    [^X] do not count, nor does \es (which includes CR and LF in the characters
1286    that it matches).
1287    .P
1288    Notwithstanding the above, anomalous effects may still occur when CRLF is a
1289    valid newline sequence and explicit \er or \en escapes appear in the pattern.
1290  .sp  .sp
1291    PCRE_NOTBOL    PCRE_NOTBOL
1292  .sp  .sp
# Line 1282  documentation. Line 1371  documentation.
1371  .rs  .rs
1372  .sp  .sp
1373  The subject string is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP as a pointer in  The subject string is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP as a pointer in
1374  \fIsubject\fP, a length in \fIlength\fP, and a starting byte offset in  \fIsubject\fP, a length (in bytes) in \fIlength\fP, and a starting byte offset
1375  \fIstartoffset\fP. In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset must point to the start of a  in \fIstartoffset\fP. In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset must point to the start of
1376  UTF-8 character. Unlike the pattern string, the subject may contain binary zero  a UTF-8 character. Unlike the pattern string, the subject may contain binary
1377  bytes. When the starting offset is zero, the search for a match starts at the  zero bytes. When the starting offset is zero, the search for a match starts at
1378  beginning of the subject, and this is by far the most common case.  the beginning of the subject, and this is by far the most common case.
1379  .P  .P
1380  A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match in the  A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match in the
1381  same subject by calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP again after a previous success.  same subject by calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP again after a previous success.
# Line 1320  pattern. Following the usage in Jeffrey Line 1409  pattern. Following the usage in Jeffrey
1409  a fragment of a pattern that picks out a substring. PCRE supports several other  a fragment of a pattern that picks out a substring. PCRE supports several other
1410  kinds of parenthesized subpattern that do not cause substrings to be captured.  kinds of parenthesized subpattern that do not cause substrings to be captured.
1411  .P  .P
1412  Captured substrings are returned to the caller via a vector of integer offsets  Captured substrings are returned to the caller via a vector of integers whose
1413  whose address is passed in \fIovector\fP. The number of elements in the vector  address is passed in \fIovector\fP. The number of elements in the vector is
1414  is passed in \fIovecsize\fP, which must be a non-negative number. \fBNote\fP:  passed in \fIovecsize\fP, which must be a non-negative number. \fBNote\fP: this
1415  this argument is NOT the size of \fIovector\fP in bytes.  argument is NOT the size of \fIovector\fP in bytes.
1416  .P  .P
1417  The first two-thirds of the vector is used to pass back captured substrings,  The first two-thirds of the vector is used to pass back captured substrings,
1418  each substring using a pair of integers. The remaining third of the vector is  each substring using a pair of integers. The remaining third of the vector is
1419  used as workspace by \fBpcre_exec()\fP while matching capturing subpatterns,  used as workspace by \fBpcre_exec()\fP while matching capturing subpatterns,
1420  and is not available for passing back information. The length passed in  and is not available for passing back information. The number passed in
1421  \fIovecsize\fP should always be a multiple of three. If it is not, it is  \fIovecsize\fP should always be a multiple of three. If it is not, it is
1422  rounded down.  rounded down.
1423  .P  .P
1424  When a match is successful, information about captured substrings is returned  When a match is successful, information about captured substrings is returned
1425  in pairs of integers, starting at the beginning of \fIovector\fP, and  in pairs of integers, starting at the beginning of \fIovector\fP, and
1426  continuing up to two-thirds of its length at the most. The first element of a  continuing up to two-thirds of its length at the most. The first element of
1427  pair is set to the offset of the first character in a substring, and the second  each pair is set to the byte offset of the first character in a substring, and
1428  is set to the offset of the first character after the end of a substring. The  the second is set to the byte offset of the first character after the end of a
1429  first pair, \fIovector[0]\fP and \fIovector[1]\fP, identify the portion of the  substring. \fBNote\fP: these values are always byte offsets, even in UTF-8
1430  subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next pair is used for the  mode. They are not character counts.
1431  first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value returned by \fBpcre_exec()\fP  .P
1432  is one more than the highest numbered pair that has been set. For example, if  The first pair of integers, \fIovector[0]\fP and \fIovector[1]\fP, identify the
1433  two substrings have been captured, the returned value is 3. If there are no  portion of the subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next pair is
1434  capturing subpatterns, the return value from a successful match is 1,  used for the first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value returned by
1435  indicating that just the first pair of offsets has been set.  \fBpcre_exec()\fP is one more than the highest numbered pair that has been set.
1436    For example, if two substrings have been captured, the returned value is 3. If
1437    there are no capturing subpatterns, the return value from a successful match is
1438    1, indicating that just the first pair of offsets has been set.
1439  .P  .P
1440  If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion of the  If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion of the
1441  string that it matched that is returned.  string that it matched that is returned.
1442  .P  .P
1443  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets, it is  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets, it is
1444  used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function  used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function
1445  returns a value of zero. In particular, if the substring offsets are not of  returns a value of zero. If the substring offsets are not of interest,
1446  interest, \fBpcre_exec()\fP may be called with \fIovector\fP passed as NULL and  \fBpcre_exec()\fP may be called with \fIovector\fP passed as NULL and
1447  \fIovecsize\fP as zero. However, if the pattern contains back references and  \fIovecsize\fP as zero. However, if the pattern contains back references and
1448  the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to remember the related substrings, PCRE  the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to remember the related substrings, PCRE
1449  has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usually  has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usually
# Line 1886  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England. Line 1978  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
1978  .rs  .rs
1979  .sp  .sp
1980  .nf  .nf
1981  Last updated: 09 August 2007  Last updated: 24 August 2008
1982  Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2008 University of Cambridge.
1983  .fi  .fi

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