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1  .TH PCREAPI 3  .TH PCREAPI 3
2  .SH NAME  .SH NAME
3  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
 .SH "PCRE NATIVE API"  
 .rs  
4  .sp  .sp
5  .B #include <pcre.h>  .B #include <pcre.h>
6  .PP  .
7    .
8    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API BASIC FUNCTIONS"
9    .rs
10    .sp
11  .SM  .SM
12  .B pcre *pcre_compile(const char *\fIpattern\fP, int \fIoptions\fP,  .B pcre *pcre_compile(const char *\fIpattern\fP, int \fIoptions\fP,
13  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
# Line 25  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 27  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
27  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
28  .B const char **\fIerrptr\fP);  .B const char **\fIerrptr\fP);
29  .PP  .PP
30    .B void pcre_free_study(pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP);
31    .PP
32  .B int pcre_exec(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, "const pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,"  .B int pcre_exec(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, "const pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,"
33  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
34  .B "const char *\fIsubject\fP," int \fIlength\fP, int \fIstartoffset\fP,  .B "const char *\fIsubject\fP," int \fIlength\fP, int \fIstartoffset\fP,
# Line 38  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 42  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
42  .B int \fIoptions\fP, int *\fIovector\fP, int \fIovecsize\fP,  .B int \fIoptions\fP, int *\fIovector\fP, int \fIovecsize\fP,
43  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
44  .B int *\fIworkspace\fP, int \fIwscount\fP);  .B int *\fIworkspace\fP, int \fIwscount\fP);
45  .PP  .
46    .
47    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API STRING EXTRACTION FUNCTIONS"
48    .rs
49    .sp
50  .B int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *\fIcode\fP,  .B int pcre_copy_named_substring(const pcre *\fIcode\fP,
51  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
52  .B const char *\fIsubject\fP, int *\fIovector\fP,  .B const char *\fIsubject\fP, int *\fIovector\fP,
# Line 82  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 90  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
90  .B void pcre_free_substring(const char *\fIstringptr\fP);  .B void pcre_free_substring(const char *\fIstringptr\fP);
91  .PP  .PP
92  .B void pcre_free_substring_list(const char **\fIstringptr\fP);  .B void pcre_free_substring_list(const char **\fIstringptr\fP);
93    .
94    .
95    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS"
96    .rs
97    .sp
98    .B pcre_jit_stack *pcre_jit_stack_alloc(int \fIstartsize\fP, int \fImaxsize\fP);
99    .PP
100    .B void pcre_jit_stack_free(pcre_jit_stack *\fIstack\fP);
101    .PP
102    .B void pcre_assign_jit_stack(pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,
103    .ti +5n
104    .B pcre_jit_callback \fIcallback\fP, void *\fIdata\fP);
105  .PP  .PP
106  .B const unsigned char *pcre_maketables(void);  .B const unsigned char *pcre_maketables(void);
107  .PP  .PP
# Line 89  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 109  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
109  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
110  .B int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);  .B int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);
111  .PP  .PP
 .B int pcre_info(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, int *\fIoptptr\fP, int  
 .B *\fIfirstcharptr\fP);  
 .PP  
112  .B int pcre_refcount(pcre *\fIcode\fP, int \fIadjust\fP);  .B int pcre_refcount(pcre *\fIcode\fP, int \fIadjust\fP);
113  .PP  .PP
114  .B int pcre_config(int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);  .B int pcre_config(int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);
115  .PP  .PP
116  .B char *pcre_version(void);  .B const char *pcre_version(void);
117  .PP  .PP
118    .B int pcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order(pcre *\fIcode\fP,
119    .ti +5n
120    .B pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP, const unsigned char *\fItables\fP);
121    .
122    .
123    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API INDIRECTED FUNCTIONS"
124    .rs
125    .sp
126  .B void *(*pcre_malloc)(size_t);  .B void *(*pcre_malloc)(size_t);
127  .PP  .PP
128  .B void (*pcre_free)(void *);  .B void (*pcre_free)(void *);
# Line 109  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 134  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
134  .B int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);  .B int (*pcre_callout)(pcre_callout_block *);
135  .  .
136  .  .
137    .SH "PCRE 8-BIT AND 16-BIT LIBRARIES"
138    .rs
139    .sp
140    From release 8.30, PCRE can be compiled as a library for handling 16-bit
141    character strings as well as, or instead of, the original library that handles
142    8-bit character strings. To avoid too much complication, this document
143    describes the 8-bit versions of the functions, with only occasional references
144    to the 16-bit library.
145    .P
146    The 16-bit functions operate in the same way as their 8-bit counterparts; they
147    just use different data types for their arguments and results, and their names
148    start with \fBpcre16_\fP instead of \fBpcre_\fP. For every option that has UTF8
149    in its name (for example, PCRE_UTF8), there is a corresponding 16-bit name with
150    UTF8 replaced by UTF16. This facility is in fact just cosmetic; the 16-bit
151    option names define the same bit values.
152    .P
153    References to bytes and UTF-8 in this document should be read as references to
154    16-bit data quantities and UTF-16 when using the 16-bit library, unless
155    specified otherwise. More details of the specific differences for the 16-bit
156    library are given in the
157    .\" HREF
158    \fBpcre16\fP
159    .\"
160    page.
161    .
162    .
163  .SH "PCRE API OVERVIEW"  .SH "PCRE API OVERVIEW"
164  .rs  .rs
165  .sp  .sp
166  PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There are  PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There are
167  also some wrapper functions that correspond to the POSIX regular expression  also some wrapper functions (for the 8-bit library only) that correspond to the
168  API. These are described in the  POSIX regular expression API, but they do not give access to all the
169    functionality. They are described in the
170  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
171  \fBpcreposix\fP  \fBpcreposix\fP
172  .\"  .\"
173  documentation. Both of these APIs define a set of C function calls. A C++  documentation. Both of these APIs define a set of C function calls. A C++
174  wrapper is distributed with PCRE. It is documented in the  wrapper (again for the 8-bit library only) is also distributed with PCRE. It is
175    documented in the
176  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
177  \fBpcrecpp\fP  \fBpcrecpp\fP
178  .\"  .\"
179  page.  page.
180  .P  .P
181  The native API C function prototypes are defined in the header file  The native API C function prototypes are defined in the header file
182  \fBpcre.h\fP, and on Unix systems the library itself is called \fBlibpcre\fP.  \fBpcre.h\fP, and on Unix-like systems the (8-bit) library itself is called
183  It can normally be accessed by adding \fB-lpcre\fP to the command for linking  \fBlibpcre\fP. It can normally be accessed by adding \fB-lpcre\fP to the
184  an application that uses PCRE. The header file defines the macros PCRE_MAJOR  command for linking an application that uses PCRE. The header file defines the
185  and PCRE_MINOR to contain the major and minor release numbers for the library.  macros PCRE_MAJOR and PCRE_MINOR to contain the major and minor release numbers
186  Applications can use these to include support for different releases of PCRE.  for the library. Applications can use these to include support for different
187    releases of PCRE.
188    .P
189    In a Windows environment, if you want to statically link an application program
190    against a non-dll \fBpcre.a\fP file, you must define PCRE_STATIC before
191    including \fBpcre.h\fP or \fBpcrecpp.h\fP, because otherwise the
192    \fBpcre_malloc()\fP and \fBpcre_free()\fP exported functions will be declared
193    \fB__declspec(dllimport)\fP, with unwanted results.
194  .P  .P
195  The functions \fBpcre_compile()\fP, \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, \fBpcre_study()\fP,  The functions \fBpcre_compile()\fP, \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, \fBpcre_study()\fP,
196  and \fBpcre_exec()\fP are used for compiling and matching regular expressions  and \fBpcre_exec()\fP are used for compiling and matching regular expressions
197  in a Perl-compatible manner. A sample program that demonstrates the simplest  in a Perl-compatible manner. A sample program that demonstrates the simplest
198  way of using them is provided in the file called \fIpcredemo.c\fP in the source  way of using them is provided in the file called \fIpcredemo.c\fP in the PCRE
199  distribution. The  source distribution. A listing of this program is given in the
200    .\" HREF
201    \fBpcredemo\fP
202    .\"
203    documentation, and the
204  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
205  \fBpcresample\fP  \fBpcresample\fP
206  .\"  .\"
207  documentation describes how to run it.  documentation describes how to compile and run it.
208    .P
209    Just-in-time compiler support is an optional feature of PCRE that can be built
210    in appropriate hardware environments. It greatly speeds up the matching
211    performance of many patterns. Simple programs can easily request that it be
212    used if available, by setting an option that is ignored when it is not
213    relevant. More complicated programs might need to make use of the functions
214    \fBpcre_jit_stack_alloc()\fP, \fBpcre_jit_stack_free()\fP, and
215    \fBpcre_assign_jit_stack()\fP in order to control the JIT code's memory usage.
216    These functions are discussed in the
217    .\" HREF
218    \fBpcrejit\fP
219    .\"
220    documentation.
221  .P  .P
222  A second matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, which is not  A second matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, which is not
223  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the
224  matching. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given  matching. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given
225  point in the subject), and scans the subject just once. However, this algorithm  point in the subject), and scans the subject just once (unless there are
226  does not return captured substrings. A description of the two matching  lookbehind assertions). However, this algorithm does not return captured
227  algorithms and their advantages and disadvantages is given in the  substrings. A description of the two matching algorithms and their advantages
228    and disadvantages is given in the
229  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
230  \fBpcrematching\fP  \fBpcrematching\fP
231  .\"  .\"
# Line 175  specialist use. Most commonly, no specia Line 253  specialist use. Most commonly, no specia
253  internal tables that are generated when PCRE is built are used.  internal tables that are generated when PCRE is built are used.
254  .P  .P
255  The function \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP is used to find out information about a  The function \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP is used to find out information about a
256  compiled pattern; \fBpcre_info()\fP is an obsolete version that returns only  compiled pattern. The function \fBpcre_version()\fP returns a pointer to a
257  some of the available information, but is retained for backwards compatibility.  string containing the version of PCRE and its date of release.
 The function \fBpcre_version()\fP returns a pointer to a string containing the  
 version of PCRE and its date of release.  
258  .P  .P
259  The function \fBpcre_refcount()\fP maintains a reference count in a data block  The function \fBpcre_refcount()\fP maintains a reference count in a data block
260  containing a compiled pattern. This is provided for the benefit of  containing a compiled pattern. This is provided for the benefit of
# Line 218  points during a matching operation. Deta Line 294  points during a matching operation. Deta
294  documentation.  documentation.
295  .  .
296  .  .
297    .\" HTML <a name="newlines"></a>
298  .SH NEWLINES  .SH NEWLINES
299  .rs  .rs
300  .sp  .sp
# Line 235  The default default is LF, which is the Line 312  The default default is LF, which is the
312  default can be overridden, either when a pattern is compiled, or when it is  default can be overridden, either when a pattern is compiled, or when it is
313  matched.  matched.
314  .P  .P
315    At compile time, the newline convention can be specified by the \fIoptions\fP
316    argument of \fBpcre_compile()\fP, or it can be specified by special text at the
317    start of the pattern itself; this overrides any other settings. See the
318    .\" HREF
319    \fBpcrepattern\fP
320    .\"
321    page for details of the special character sequences.
322    .P
323  In the PCRE documentation the word "newline" is used to mean "the character or  In the PCRE documentation the word "newline" is used to mean "the character or
324  pair of characters that indicate a line break". The choice of newline  pair of characters that indicate a line break". The choice of newline
325  convention affects the handling of the dot, circumflex, and dollar  convention affects the handling of the dot, circumflex, and dollar
326  metacharacters, the handling of #-comments in /x mode, and, when CRLF is a  metacharacters, the handling of #-comments in /x mode, and, when CRLF is a
327  recognized line ending sequence, the match position advancement for a  recognized line ending sequence, the match position advancement for a
328  non-anchored pattern. The choice of newline convention does not affect the  non-anchored pattern. There is more detail about this in the
329  interpretation of the \en or \er escape sequences.  .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">
330    .\" </a>
331    section on \fBpcre_exec()\fP options
332    .\"
333    below.
334    .P
335    The choice of newline convention does not affect the interpretation of
336    the \en or \er escape sequences, nor does it affect what \eR matches, which is
337    controlled in a similar way, but by separate options.
338  .  .
339  .  .
340  .SH MULTITHREADING  .SH MULTITHREADING
# Line 254  callout function pointed to by \fBpcre_c Line 347  callout function pointed to by \fBpcre_c
347  .P  .P
348  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so
349  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.
350    .P
351    If the just-in-time optimization feature is being used, it needs separate
352    memory stack areas for each thread. See the
353    .\" HREF
354    \fBpcrejit\fP
355    .\"
356    documentation for more details.
357  .  .
358  .  .
359  .SH "SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE"  .SH "SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE"
# Line 265  which it was compiled. Details are given Line 365  which it was compiled. Details are given
365  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
366  \fBpcreprecompile\fP  \fBpcreprecompile\fP
367  .\"  .\"
368  documentation. However, compiling a regular expression with one version of PCRE  documentation, which includes a description of the
369  for use with a different version is not guaranteed to work and may cause  \fBpcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order()\fP function. However, compiling a regular
370  crashes.  expression with one version of PCRE for use with a different version is not
371    guaranteed to work and may cause crashes.
372  .  .
373  .  .
374  .SH "CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS"  .SH "CHECKING BUILD-TIME OPTIONS"
# Line 284  documentation has more details about the Line 385  documentation has more details about the
385  .P  .P
386  The first argument for \fBpcre_config()\fP is an integer, specifying which  The first argument for \fBpcre_config()\fP is an integer, specifying which
387  information is required; the second argument is a pointer to a variable into  information is required; the second argument is a pointer to a variable into
388  which the information is placed. The following information is available:  which the information is placed. The returned value is zero on success, or the
389    negative error code PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION if the value in the first argument is
390    not recognized. The following information is available:
391  .sp  .sp
392    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8
393  .sp  .sp
394  The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;  The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;
395  otherwise it is set to zero.  otherwise it is set to zero. If this option is given to the 16-bit version of
396    this function, \fBpcre16_config()\fP, the result is PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION.
397    .sp
398      PCRE_CONFIG_UTF16
399    .sp
400    The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-16 support is available;
401    otherwise it is set to zero. This value should normally be given to the 16-bit
402    version of this function, \fBpcre16_config()\fP. If it is given to the 8-bit
403    version of this function, the result is PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION.
404  .sp  .sp
405    PCRE_CONFIG_UNICODE_PROPERTIES    PCRE_CONFIG_UNICODE_PROPERTIES
406  .sp  .sp
407  The output is an integer that is set to one if support for Unicode character  The output is an integer that is set to one if support for Unicode character
408  properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.  properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
409  .sp  .sp
410      PCRE_CONFIG_JIT
411    .sp
412    The output is an integer that is set to one if support for just-in-time
413    compiling is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
414    .sp
415    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE
416  .sp  .sp
417  The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character sequence  The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character sequence
418  that is recognized as meaning "newline". The four values that are supported  that is recognized as meaning "newline". The four values that are supported
419  are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for ANYCRLF, and -1 for ANY. The  are: 10 for LF, 13 for CR, 3338 for CRLF, -2 for ANYCRLF, and -1 for ANY.
420  default should normally be the standard sequence for your operating system.  Though they are derived from ASCII, the same values are returned in EBCDIC
421    environments. The default should normally correspond to the standard sequence
422    for your operating system.
423    .sp
424      PCRE_CONFIG_BSR
425    .sp
426    The output is an integer whose value indicates what character sequences the \eR
427    escape sequence matches by default. A value of 0 means that \eR matches any
428    Unicode line ending sequence; a value of 1 means that \eR matches only CR, LF,
429    or CRLF. The default can be overridden when a pattern is compiled or matched.
430  .sp  .sp
431    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE    PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE
432  .sp  .sp
433  The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal  The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal
434  linkage in compiled regular expressions. The value is 2, 3, or 4. Larger values  linkage in compiled regular expressions. For the 8-bit library, the value can
435  allow larger regular expressions to be compiled, at the expense of slower  be 2, 3, or 4. For the 16-bit library, the value is either 2 or 4 and is still
436  matching. The default value of 2 is sufficient for all but the most massive  a number of bytes. The default value of 2 is sufficient for all but the most
437  patterns, since it allows the compiled pattern to be up to 64K in size.  massive patterns, since it allows the compiled pattern to be up to 64K in size.
438    Larger values allow larger regular expressions to be compiled, at the expense
439    of slower matching.
440  .sp  .sp
441    PCRE_CONFIG_POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD    PCRE_CONFIG_POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD
442  .sp  .sp
# Line 323  documentation. Line 450  documentation.
450  .sp  .sp
451    PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT    PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT
452  .sp  .sp
453  The output is an integer that gives the default limit for the number of  The output is a long integer that gives the default limit for the number of
454  internal matching function calls in a \fBpcre_exec()\fP execution. Further  internal matching function calls in a \fBpcre_exec()\fP execution. Further
455  details are given with \fBpcre_exec()\fP below.  details are given with \fBpcre_exec()\fP below.
456  .sp  .sp
457    PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION    PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION
458  .sp  .sp
459  The output is an integer that gives the default limit for the depth of  The output is a long integer that gives the default limit for the depth of
460  recursion when calling the internal matching function in a \fBpcre_exec()\fP  recursion when calling the internal matching function in a \fBpcre_exec()\fP
461  execution. Further details are given with \fBpcre_exec()\fP below.  execution. Further details are given with \fBpcre_exec()\fP below.
462  .sp  .sp
# Line 364  avoiding the use of the stack. Line 491  avoiding the use of the stack.
491  Either of the functions \fBpcre_compile()\fP or \fBpcre_compile2()\fP can be  Either of the functions \fBpcre_compile()\fP or \fBpcre_compile2()\fP can be
492  called to compile a pattern into an internal form. The only difference between  called to compile a pattern into an internal form. The only difference between
493  the two interfaces is that \fBpcre_compile2()\fP has an additional argument,  the two interfaces is that \fBpcre_compile2()\fP has an additional argument,
494  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP, via which a numerical error code can be returned.  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP, via which a numerical error code can be returned. To avoid
495    too much repetition, we refer just to \fBpcre_compile()\fP below, but the
496    information applies equally to \fBpcre_compile2()\fP.
497  .P  .P
498  The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and is passed in the  The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and is passed in the
499  \fIpattern\fP argument. A pointer to a single block of memory that is obtained  \fIpattern\fP argument. A pointer to a single block of memory that is obtained
# Line 380  argument, which is an address (see below Line 509  argument, which is an address (see below
509  .P  .P
510  The \fIoptions\fP argument contains various bit settings that affect the  The \fIoptions\fP argument contains various bit settings that affect the
511  compilation. It should be zero if no options are required. The available  compilation. It should be zero if no options are required. The available
512  options are described below. Some of them, in particular, those that are  options are described below. Some of them (in particular, those that are
513  compatible with Perl, can also be set and unset from within the pattern (see  compatible with Perl, but some others as well) can also be set and unset from
514  the detailed description in the  within the pattern (see the detailed description in the
515  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
516  \fBpcrepattern\fP  \fBpcrepattern\fP
517  .\"  .\"
518  documentation). For these options, the contents of the \fIoptions\fP argument  documentation). For those options that can be different in different parts of
519  specifies their initial settings at the start of compilation and execution. The  the pattern, the contents of the \fIoptions\fP argument specifies their
520  PCRE_ANCHORED and PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP options can be set at the time of  settings at the start of compilation and execution. The PCRE_ANCHORED,
521  matching as well as at compile time.  PCRE_BSR_\fIxxx\fP, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, and
522    PCRE_NO_START_OPT options can be set at the time of matching as well as at
523    compile time.
524  .P  .P
525  If \fIerrptr\fP is NULL, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns NULL immediately.  If \fIerrptr\fP is NULL, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns NULL immediately.
526  Otherwise, if compilation of a pattern fails, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns  Otherwise, if compilation of a pattern fails, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns
527  NULL, and sets the variable pointed to by \fIerrptr\fP to point to a textual  NULL, and sets the variable pointed to by \fIerrptr\fP to point to a textual
528  error message. This is a static string that is part of the library. You must  error message. This is a static string that is part of the library. You must
529  not try to free it. The offset from the start of the pattern to the character  not try to free it. Normally, the offset from the start of the pattern to the
530  where the error was discovered is placed in the variable pointed to by  byte that was being processed when the error was discovered is placed in the
531  \fIerroffset\fP, which must not be NULL. If it is, an immediate error is given.  variable pointed to by \fIerroffset\fP, which must not be NULL (if it is, an
532    immediate error is given). However, for an invalid UTF-8 string, the offset is
533    that of the first byte of the failing character.
534    .P
535    Some errors are not detected until the whole pattern has been scanned; in these
536    cases, the offset passed back is the length of the pattern. Note that the
537    offset is in bytes, not characters, even in UTF-8 mode. It may sometimes point
538    into the middle of a UTF-8 character.
539  .P  .P
540  If \fBpcre_compile2()\fP is used instead of \fBpcre_compile()\fP, and the  If \fBpcre_compile2()\fP is used instead of \fBpcre_compile()\fP, and the
541  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is
# Line 444  facility, see the Line 582  facility, see the
582  .\"  .\"
583  documentation.  documentation.
584  .sp  .sp
585      PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
586      PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
587    .sp
588    These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \eR escape
589    sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF, or to
590    match any Unicode newline sequence. The default is specified when PCRE is
591    built. It can be overridden from within the pattern, or by setting an option
592    when a compiled pattern is matched.
593    .sp
594    PCRE_CASELESS    PCRE_CASELESS
595  .sp  .sp
596  If this bit is set, letters in the pattern match both upper and lower case  If this bit is set, letters in the pattern match both upper and lower case
# Line 467  pattern. Line 614  pattern.
614  .sp  .sp
615    PCRE_DOTALL    PCRE_DOTALL
616  .sp  .sp
617  If this bit is set, a dot metacharater in the pattern matches all characters,  If this bit is set, a dot metacharacter in the pattern matches a character of
618  including those that indicate newline. Without it, a dot does not match when  any value, including one that indicates a newline. However, it only ever
619  the current position is at a newline. This option is equivalent to Perl's /s  matches one character, even if newlines are coded as CRLF. Without this option,
620  option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a (?s) option setting. A  a dot does not match when the current position is at a newline. This option is
621  negative class such as [^a] always matches newline characters, independent of  equivalent to Perl's /s option, and it can be changed within a pattern by a
622  the setting of this option.  (?s) option setting. A negative class such as [^a] always matches newline
623    characters, independent of the setting of this option.
624  .sp  .sp
625    PCRE_DUPNAMES    PCRE_DUPNAMES
626  .sp  .sp
# Line 494  unescaped # outside a character class an Line 642  unescaped # outside a character class an
642  ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x option, and it can be changed within a  ignored. This is equivalent to Perl's /x option, and it can be changed within a
643  pattern by a (?x) option setting.  pattern by a (?x) option setting.
644  .P  .P
645    Which characters are interpreted as newlines is controlled by the options
646    passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP or by a special sequence at the start of the
647    pattern, as described in the section entitled
648    .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern.html#newlines">
649    .\" </a>
650    "Newline conventions"
651    .\"
652    in the \fBpcrepattern\fP documentation. Note that the end of this type of
653    comment is a literal newline sequence in the pattern; escape sequences that
654    happen to represent a newline do not count.
655    .P
656  This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated patterns.  This option makes it possible to include comments inside complicated patterns.
657  Note, however, that this applies only to data characters. Whitespace characters  Note, however, that this applies only to data characters. Whitespace characters
658  may never appear within special character sequences in a pattern, for example  may never appear within special character sequences in a pattern, for example
659  within the sequence (?( which introduces a conditional subpattern.  within the sequence (?( that introduces a conditional subpattern.
660  .sp  .sp
661    PCRE_EXTRA    PCRE_EXTRA
662  .sp  .sp
# Line 507  set, any backslash in a pattern that is Line 666  set, any backslash in a pattern that is
666  special meaning causes an error, thus reserving these combinations for future  special meaning causes an error, thus reserving these combinations for future
667  expansion. By default, as in Perl, a backslash followed by a letter with no  expansion. By default, as in Perl, a backslash followed by a letter with no
668  special meaning is treated as a literal. (Perl can, however, be persuaded to  special meaning is treated as a literal. (Perl can, however, be persuaded to
669  give a warning for this.) There are at present no other features controlled by  give an error for this, by running it with the -w option.) There are at present
670  this option. It can also be set by a (?X) option setting within a pattern.  no other features controlled by this option. It can also be set by a (?X)
671    option setting within a pattern.
672  .sp  .sp
673    PCRE_FIRSTLINE    PCRE_FIRSTLINE
674  .sp  .sp
# Line 516  If this option is set, an unanchored pat Line 676  If this option is set, an unanchored pat
676  the first newline in the subject string, though the matched text may continue  the first newline in the subject string, though the matched text may continue
677  over the newline.  over the newline.
678  .sp  .sp
679      PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
680    .sp
681    If this option is set, PCRE's behaviour is changed in some ways so that it is
682    compatible with JavaScript rather than Perl. The changes are as follows:
683    .P
684    (1) A lone closing square bracket in a pattern causes a compile-time error,
685    because this is illegal in JavaScript (by default it is treated as a data
686    character). Thus, the pattern AB]CD becomes illegal when this option is set.
687    .P
688    (2) At run time, a back reference to an unset subpattern group matches an empty
689    string (by default this causes the current matching alternative to fail). A
690    pattern such as (\e1)(a) succeeds when this option is set (assuming it can find
691    an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by default, for Perl compatibility.
692    .P
693    (3) \eU matches an upper case "U" character; by default \eU causes a compile
694    time error (Perl uses \eU to upper case subsequent characters).
695    .P
696    (4) \eu matches a lower case "u" character unless it is followed by four
697    hexadecimal digits, in which case the hexadecimal number defines the code point
698    to match. By default, \eu causes a compile time error (Perl uses it to upper
699    case the following character).
700    .P
701    (5) \ex matches a lower case "x" character unless it is followed by two
702    hexadecimal digits, in which case the hexadecimal number defines the code point
703    to match. By default, as in Perl, a hexadecimal number is always expected after
704    \ex, but it may have zero, one, or two digits (so, for example, \exz matches a
705    binary zero character followed by z).
706    .sp
707    PCRE_MULTILINE    PCRE_MULTILINE
708  .sp  .sp
709  By default, PCRE treats the subject string as consisting of a single line of  By default, PCRE treats the subject string as consisting of a single line of
# Line 547  preceding sequences should be recognized Line 735  preceding sequences should be recognized
735  that any Unicode newline sequence should be recognized. The Unicode newline  that any Unicode newline sequence should be recognized. The Unicode newline
736  sequences are the three just mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical  sequences are the three just mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical
737  tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line  tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line
738  separator, U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029). The last two are  separator, U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029). For the 8-bit
739  recognized only in UTF-8 mode.  library, the last two are recognized only in UTF-8 mode.
740  .P  .P
741  The newline setting in the options word uses three bits that are treated  The newline setting in the options word uses three bits that are treated
742  as a number, giving eight possibilities. Currently only six are used (default  as a number, giving eight possibilities. Currently only six are used (default
# Line 557  option, the combination may or may not b Line 745  option, the combination may or may not b
745  PCRE_NEWLINE_CR with PCRE_NEWLINE_LF is equivalent to PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, but  PCRE_NEWLINE_CR with PCRE_NEWLINE_LF is equivalent to PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, but
746  other combinations may yield unused numbers and cause an error.  other combinations may yield unused numbers and cause an error.
747  .P  .P
748  The only time that a line break is specially recognized when compiling a  The only time that a line break in a pattern is specially recognized when
749  pattern is if PCRE_EXTENDED is set, and an unescaped # outside a character  compiling is when PCRE_EXTENDED is set. CR and LF are whitespace characters,
750  class is encountered. This indicates a comment that lasts until after the next  and so are ignored in this mode. Also, an unescaped # outside a character class
751  line break sequence. In other circumstances, line break sequences are treated  indicates a comment that lasts until after the next line break sequence. In
752  as literal data, except that in PCRE_EXTENDED mode, both CR and LF are treated  other circumstances, line break sequences in patterns are treated as literal
753  as whitespace characters and are therefore ignored.  data.
754  .P  .P
755  The newline option that is set at compile time becomes the default that is used  The newline option that is set at compile time becomes the default that is used
756  for \fBpcre_exec()\fP and \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, but it can be overridden.  for \fBpcre_exec()\fP and \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, but it can be overridden.
# Line 575  were followed by ?: but named parenthese Line 763  were followed by ?: but named parenthese
763  they acquire numbers in the usual way). There is no equivalent of this option  they acquire numbers in the usual way). There is no equivalent of this option
764  in Perl.  in Perl.
765  .sp  .sp
766      NO_START_OPTIMIZE
767    .sp
768    This is an option that acts at matching time; that is, it is really an option
769    for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. If it is set at compile time,
770    it is remembered with the compiled pattern and assumed at matching time. For
771    details see the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
772    .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">
773    .\" </a>
774    below.
775    .\"
776    .sp
777      PCRE_UCP
778    .sp
779    This option changes the way PCRE processes \eB, \eb, \eD, \ed, \eS, \es, \eW,
780    \ew, and some of the POSIX character classes. By default, only ASCII characters
781    are recognized, but if PCRE_UCP is set, Unicode properties are used instead to
782    classify characters. More details are given in the section on
783    .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#genericchartypes">
784    .\" </a>
785    generic character types
786    .\"
787    in the
788    .\" HREF
789    \fBpcrepattern\fP
790    .\"
791    page. If you set PCRE_UCP, matching one of the items it affects takes much
792    longer. The option is available only if PCRE has been compiled with Unicode
793    property support.
794    .sp
795    PCRE_UNGREEDY    PCRE_UNGREEDY
796  .sp  .sp
797  This option inverts the "greediness" of the quantifiers so that they are not  This option inverts the "greediness" of the quantifiers so that they are not
# Line 584  with Perl. It can also be set by a (?U) Line 801  with Perl. It can also be set by a (?U)
801    PCRE_UTF8    PCRE_UTF8
802  .sp  .sp
803  This option causes PCRE to regard both the pattern and the subject as strings  This option causes PCRE to regard both the pattern and the subject as strings
804  of UTF-8 characters instead of single-byte character strings. However, it is  of UTF-8 characters instead of single-byte strings. However, it is available
805  available only when PCRE is built to include UTF-8 support. If not, the use  only when PCRE is built to include UTF support. If not, the use of this option
806  of this option provokes an error. Details of how this option changes the  provokes an error. Details of how this option changes the behaviour of PCRE are
807  behaviour of PCRE are given in the  given in the
 .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#utf8support">  
 .\" </a>  
 section on UTF-8 support  
 .\"  
 in the main  
808  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
809  \fBpcre\fP  \fBpcreunicode\fP
810  .\"  .\"
811  page.  page.
812  .sp  .sp
813    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
814  .sp  .sp
815  When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8 string is  When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8
816  automatically checked. There is a discussion about the  string is automatically checked. There is a discussion about the
817  .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#utf8strings">  .\" HTML <a href="pcreunicode.html#utf8strings">
818  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
819  validity of UTF-8 strings  validity of UTF-8 strings
820  .\"  .\"
821  in the main  in the
822  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
823  \fBpcre\fP  \fBpcreunicode\fP
824  .\"  .\"
825  page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found, \fBpcre_compile()\fP  page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence is found, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns an
826  returns an error. If you already know that your pattern is valid, and you want  error. If you already know that your pattern is valid, and you want to skip
827  to skip this check for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  this check for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option.
828  option. When it is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a  When it is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a pattern is
829  pattern is undefined. It may cause your program to crash. Note that this option  undefined. It may cause your program to crash. Note that this option can also
830  can also be passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP and \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to suppress  be passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP and \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to suppress the
831  the UTF-8 validity checking of subject strings.  validity checking of subject strings.
832  .  .
833  .  .
834  .SH "COMPILATION ERROR CODES"  .SH "COMPILATION ERROR CODES"
# Line 624  the UTF-8 validity checking of subject s Line 836  the UTF-8 validity checking of subject s
836  .sp  .sp
837  The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by  The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by
838  \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, along with the error messages that may be returned by  \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, along with the error messages that may be returned by
839  both compiling functions. As PCRE has developed, some error codes have fallen  both compiling functions. Note that error messages are always 8-bit ASCII
840  out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been re-used.  strings, even in 16-bit mode. As PCRE has developed, some error codes have
841    fallen out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been re-used.
842  .sp  .sp
843     0  no error     0  no error
844     1  \e at end of pattern     1  \e at end of pattern
# Line 639  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 852  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
852     9  nothing to repeat     9  nothing to repeat
853    10  [this code is not in use]    10  [this code is not in use]
854    11  internal error: unexpected repeat    11  internal error: unexpected repeat
855    12  unrecognized character after (?    12  unrecognized character after (? or (?-
856    13  POSIX named classes are supported only within a class    13  POSIX named classes are supported only within a class
857    14  missing )    14  missing )
858    15  reference to non-existent subpattern    15  reference to non-existent subpattern
# Line 647  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 860  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
860    17  unknown option bit(s) set    17  unknown option bit(s) set
861    18  missing ) after comment    18  missing ) after comment
862    19  [this code is not in use]    19  [this code is not in use]
863    20  regular expression too large    20  regular expression is too large
864    21  failed to get memory    21  failed to get memory
865    22  unmatched parentheses    22  unmatched parentheses
866    23  internal error: code overflow    23  internal error: code overflow
# Line 659  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 872  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
872    29  (?R or (?[+-]digits must be followed by )    29  (?R or (?[+-]digits must be followed by )
873    30  unknown POSIX class name    30  unknown POSIX class name
874    31  POSIX collating elements are not supported    31  POSIX collating elements are not supported
875    32  this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UTF8 support    32  this version of PCRE is compiled without UTF support
876    33  [this code is not in use]    33  [this code is not in use]
877    34  character value in \ex{...} sequence is too large    34  character value in \ex{...} sequence is too large
878    35  invalid condition (?(0)    35  invalid condition (?(0)
879    36  \eC not allowed in lookbehind assertion    36  \eC not allowed in lookbehind assertion
880    37  PCRE does not support \eL, \el, \eN, \eU, or \eu    37  PCRE does not support \eL, \el, \eN{name}, \eU, or \eu
881    38  number after (?C is > 255    38  number after (?C is > 255
882    39  closing ) for (?C expected    39  closing ) for (?C expected
883    40  recursive call could loop indefinitely    40  recursive call could loop indefinitely
884    41  unrecognized character after (?P    41  unrecognized character after (?P
885    42  syntax error in subpattern name (missing terminator)    42  syntax error in subpattern name (missing terminator)
886    43  two named subpatterns have the same name    43  two named subpatterns have the same name
887    44  invalid UTF-8 string    44  invalid UTF-8 string (specifically UTF-8)
888    45  support for \eP, \ep, and \eX has not been compiled    45  support for \eP, \ep, and \eX has not been compiled
889    46  malformed \eP or \ep sequence    46  malformed \eP or \ep sequence
890    47  unknown property name after \eP or \ep    47  unknown property name after \eP or \ep
891    48  subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)    48  subpattern name is too long (maximum 32 characters)
892    49  too many named subpatterns (maximum 10,000)    49  too many named subpatterns (maximum 10000)
893    50  [this code is not in use]    50  [this code is not in use]
894    51  octal value is greater than \e377 (not in UTF-8 mode)    51  octal value is greater than \e377 in 8-bit non-UTF-8 mode
895    52  internal error: overran compiling workspace    52  internal error: overran compiling workspace
896    53  internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern not found    53  internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern
897            not found
898    54  DEFINE group contains more than one branch    54  DEFINE group contains more than one branch
899    55  repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed    55  repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed
900    56  inconsistent NEWLINE options"    56  inconsistent NEWLINE options
901    57  \eg is not followed by a braced name or an optionally braced    57  \eg is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted
902          non-zero number          name/number or by a plain number
903    58  (?+ or (?- or (?(+ or (?(- must be followed by a non-zero number    58  a numbered reference must not be zero
904      59  an argument is not allowed for (*ACCEPT), (*FAIL), or (*COMMIT)
905      60  (*VERB) not recognized
906      61  number is too big
907      62  subpattern name expected
908      63  digit expected after (?+
909      64  ] is an invalid data character in JavaScript compatibility mode
910      65  different names for subpatterns of the same number are
911            not allowed
912      66  (*MARK) must have an argument
913      67  this version of PCRE is not compiled with Unicode property
914            support
915      68  \ec must be followed by an ASCII character
916      69  \ek is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted name
917      70  internal error: unknown opcode in find_fixedlength()
918      71  \eN is not supported in a class
919      72  too many forward references
920      73  disallowed Unicode code point (>= 0xd800 && <= 0xdfff)
921      74  invalid UTF-16 string (specifically UTF-16)
922    .sp
923    The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may
924    be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.
925  .  .
926  .  .
927    .\" HTML <a name="studyingapattern"></a>
928  .SH "STUDYING A PATTERN"  .SH "STUDYING A PATTERN"
929  .rs  .rs
930  .sp  .sp
# Line 705  help speed up matching, \fBpcre_study()\ Line 941  help speed up matching, \fBpcre_study()\
941  results of the study.  results of the study.
942  .P  .P
943  The returned value from \fBpcre_study()\fP can be passed directly to  The returned value from \fBpcre_study()\fP can be passed directly to
944  \fBpcre_exec()\fP. However, a \fBpcre_extra\fP block also contains other  \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. However, a \fBpcre_extra\fP block
945  fields that can be set by the caller before the block is passed; these are  also contains other fields that can be set by the caller before the block is
946  described  passed; these are described
947  .\" HTML <a href="#extradata">  .\" HTML <a href="#extradata">
948  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
949  below  below
950  .\"  .\"
951  in the section on matching a pattern.  in the section on matching a pattern.
952  .P  .P
953  If studying the pattern does not produce any additional information  If studying the pattern does not produce any useful information,
954  \fBpcre_study()\fP returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the calling program  \fBpcre_study()\fP returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the calling program
955  wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP, it must set up its  wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
956  own \fBpcre_extra\fP block.  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, it must set up its own \fBpcre_extra\fP block.
957  .P  .P
958  The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. At present, no  The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. There is only
959  options are defined, and this argument should always be zero.  one option: PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE. If this is set, and the just-in-time
960    compiler is available, the pattern is further compiled into machine code that
961    executes much faster than the \fBpcre_exec()\fP matching function. If
962    the just-in-time compiler is not available, this option is ignored. All other
963    bits in the \fIoptions\fP argument must be zero.
964    .P
965    JIT compilation is a heavyweight optimization. It can take some time for
966    patterns to be analyzed, and for one-off matches and simple patterns the
967    benefit of faster execution might be offset by a much slower study time.
968    Not all patterns can be optimized by the JIT compiler. For those that cannot be
969    handled, matching automatically falls back to the \fBpcre_exec()\fP
970    interpreter. For more details, see the
971    .\" HREF
972    \fBpcrejit\fP
973    .\"
974    documentation.
975  .P  .P
976  The third argument for \fBpcre_study()\fP is a pointer for an error message. If  The third argument for \fBpcre_study()\fP is a pointer for an error message. If
977  studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it points to is  studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it points to is
# Line 729  static string that is part of the librar Line 980  static string that is part of the librar
980  should test the error pointer for NULL after calling \fBpcre_study()\fP, to be  should test the error pointer for NULL after calling \fBpcre_study()\fP, to be
981  sure that it has run successfully.  sure that it has run successfully.
982  .P  .P
983  This is a typical call to \fBpcre_study\fP():  When you are finished with a pattern, you can free the memory used for the
984    study data by calling \fBpcre_free_study()\fP. This function was added to the
985    API for release 8.20. For earlier versions, the memory could be freed with
986    \fBpcre_free()\fP, just like the pattern itself. This will still work in cases
987    where PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE is not used, but it is advisable to change to the
988    new function when convenient.
989    .P
990    This is a typical way in which \fBpcre_study\fP() is used (except that in a
991    real application there should be tests for errors):
992  .sp  .sp
993    pcre_extra *pe;    int rc;
994    pe = pcre_study(    pcre *re;
995      pcre_extra *sd;
996      re = pcre_compile("pattern", 0, &error, &erroroffset, NULL);
997      sd = pcre_study(
998      re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */      re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */
999      0,              /* no options exist */      0,              /* no options */
1000      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */
1001  .sp    rc = pcre_exec(   /* see below for details of pcre_exec() options */
1002  At present, studying a pattern is useful only for non-anchored patterns that do      re, sd, "subject", 7, 0, 0, ovector, 30);
1003  not have a single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting    ...
1004  bytes is created.    pcre_free_study(sd);
1005      pcre_free(re);
1006    .sp
1007    Studying a pattern does two things: first, a lower bound for the length of
1008    subject string that is needed to match the pattern is computed. This does not
1009    mean that there are any strings of that length that match, but it does
1010    guarantee that no shorter strings match. The value is used by
1011    \fBpcre_exec()\fP and \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to avoid wasting time by trying to
1012    match strings that are shorter than the lower bound. You can find out the value
1013    in a calling program via the \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function.
1014    .P
1015    Studying a pattern is also useful for non-anchored patterns that do not have a
1016    single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting bytes is
1017    created. This speeds up finding a position in the subject at which to start
1018    matching. (In 16-bit mode, the bitmap is used for 16-bit values less than 256.)
1019    .P
1020    These two optimizations apply to both \fBpcre_exec()\fP and
1021    \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. However, they are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP if
1022    \fBpcre_study()\fP is called with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, and
1023    just-in-time compiling is successful. The optimizations can be disabled by
1024    setting the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
1025    \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. You might want to do this if your pattern contains
1026    callouts or (*MARK) (which cannot be handled by the JIT compiler), and you want
1027    to make use of these facilities in cases where matching fails. See the
1028    discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
1029    .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">
1030    .\" </a>
1031    below.
1032    .\"
1033  .  .
1034  .  .
1035  .\" HTML <a name="localesupport"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="localesupport"></a>
# Line 748  bytes is created. Line 1038  bytes is created.
1038  .sp  .sp
1039  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters,  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters,
1040  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed by character  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed by character
1041  value. When running in UTF-8 mode, this applies only to characters with codes  value. When running in UTF-8 mode, this applies only to characters
1042  less than 128. Higher-valued codes never match escapes such as \ew or \ed, but  with codes less than 128. By default, higher-valued codes never match escapes
1043  can be tested with \ep if PCRE is built with Unicode character property  such as \ew or \ed, but they can be tested with \ep if PCRE is built with
1044  support. The use of locales with Unicode is discouraged. If you are handling  Unicode character property support. Alternatively, the PCRE_UCP option can be
1045  characters with codes greater than 128, you should either use UTF-8 and  set at compile time; this causes \ew and friends to use Unicode property
1046  Unicode, or use locales, but not try to mix the two.  support instead of built-in tables. The use of locales with Unicode is
1047    discouraged. If you are handling characters with codes greater than 128, you
1048    should either use UTF-8 and Unicode, or use locales, but not try to mix the
1049    two.
1050  .P  .P
1051  PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used when the final argument  PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used when the final argument
1052  of \fBpcre_compile()\fP is NULL. These are sufficient for many applications.  of \fBpcre_compile()\fP is NULL. These are sufficient for many applications.
# Line 798  one in which it was compiled. Passing ta Line 1091  one in which it was compiled. Passing ta
1091  below in the section on matching a pattern.  below in the section on matching a pattern.
1092  .  .
1093  .  .
1094    .\" HTML <a name="infoaboutpattern"></a>
1095  .SH "INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN"  .SH "INFORMATION ABOUT A PATTERN"
1096  .rs  .rs
1097  .sp  .sp
# Line 806  below in the section on matching a patte Line 1100  below in the section on matching a patte
1100  .B int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);  .B int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);
1101  .PP  .PP
1102  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function returns information about a compiled  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function returns information about a compiled
1103  pattern. It replaces the obsolete \fBpcre_info()\fP function, which is  pattern. It replaces the \fBpcre_info()\fP function, which was removed from the
1104  nevertheless retained for backwards compability (and is documented below).  library at version 8.30, after more than 10 years of obsolescence.
1105  .P  .P
1106  The first argument for \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP is a pointer to the compiled  The first argument for \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP is a pointer to the compiled
1107  pattern. The second argument is the result of \fBpcre_study()\fP, or NULL if  pattern. The second argument is the result of \fBpcre_study()\fP, or NULL if
# Line 816  information is required, and the fourth Line 1110  information is required, and the fourth
1110  to receive the data. The yield of the function is zero for success, or one of  to receive the data. The yield of the function is zero for success, or one of
1111  the following negative numbers:  the following negative numbers:
1112  .sp  .sp
1113    PCRE_ERROR_NULL       the argument \fIcode\fP was NULL    PCRE_ERROR_NULL           the argument \fIcode\fP was NULL
1114                          the argument \fIwhere\fP was NULL                              the argument \fIwhere\fP was NULL
1115    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC   the "magic number" was not found    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC       the "magic number" was not found
1116    PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION  the value of \fIwhat\fP was invalid    PCRE_ERROR_BADENDIANNESS  the pattern was compiled with different
1117                                endianness
1118      PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION      the value of \fIwhat\fP was invalid
1119  .sp  .sp
1120  The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled pattern as an simple  The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled pattern as an simple
1121  check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. Here is a typical call of  check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. The endianness error can
1122  \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP, to obtain the length of the compiled pattern:  occur if a compiled pattern is saved and reloaded on a different host. Here is
1123    a typical call of \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP, to obtain the length of the compiled
1124    pattern:
1125  .sp  .sp
1126    int rc;    int rc;
1127    size_t length;    size_t length;
1128    rc = pcre_fullinfo(    rc = pcre_fullinfo(
1129      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */
1130      pe,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */      sd,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */
1131      PCRE_INFO_SIZE,   /* what is required */      PCRE_INFO_SIZE,   /* what is required */
1132      &length);         /* where to put the data */      &length);         /* where to put the data */
1133  .sp  .sp
# Line 857  a NULL table pointer. Line 1155  a NULL table pointer.
1155  .sp  .sp
1156    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE
1157  .sp  .sp
1158  Return information about the first byte of any matched string, for a  Return information about the first data unit of any matched string, for a
1159  non-anchored pattern. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP  non-anchored pattern. (The name of this option refers to the 8-bit library,
1160  variable. (This option used to be called PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR; the old name is  where data units are bytes.) The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP
1161  still recognized for backwards compatibility.)  variable.
1162  .P  .P
1163  If there is a fixed first byte, for example, from a pattern such as  If there is a fixed first value, for example, the letter "c" from a pattern
1164  (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. Otherwise, if either  such as (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. In the 8-bit library, the
1165    value is always less than 256; in the 16-bit library the value can be up to
1166    0xffff.
1167    .P
1168    If there is no fixed first value, and if either
1169  .sp  .sp
1170  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch  (a) the pattern was compiled with the PCRE_MULTILINE option, and every branch
1171  starts with "^", or  starts with "^", or
# Line 878  returned. For anchored patterns, -2 is r Line 1180  returned. For anchored patterns, -2 is r
1180    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTTABLE    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTTABLE
1181  .sp  .sp
1182  If the pattern was studied, and this resulted in the construction of a 256-bit  If the pattern was studied, and this resulted in the construction of a 256-bit
1183  table indicating a fixed set of bytes for the first byte in any matching  table indicating a fixed set of values for the first data unit in any matching
1184  string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned. The  string, a pointer to the table is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned. The
1185  fourth argument should point to an \fBunsigned char *\fP variable.  fourth argument should point to an \fBunsigned char *\fP variable.
1186  .sp  .sp
1187      PCRE_INFO_HASCRORLF
1188    .sp
1189    Return 1 if the pattern contains any explicit matches for CR or LF characters,
1190    otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. An
1191    explicit match is either a literal CR or LF character, or \er or \en.
1192    .sp
1193    PCRE_INFO_JCHANGED    PCRE_INFO_JCHANGED
1194  .sp  .sp
1195  Return 1 if the (?J) option setting is used in the pattern, otherwise 0. The  Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option setting is used in the pattern, otherwise
1196  fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. The (?J) internal option  0. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. (?J) and
1197  setting changes the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option.  (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.
1198    .sp
1199      PCRE_INFO_JIT
1200    .sp
1201    Return 1 if the pattern was studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, and
1202    just-in-time compiling was successful. The fourth argument should point to an
1203    \fBint\fP variable. A return value of 0 means that JIT support is not available
1204    in this version of PCRE, or that the pattern was not studied with the
1205    PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, or that the JIT compiler could not handle this
1206    particular pattern. See the
1207    .\" HREF
1208    \fBpcrejit\fP
1209    .\"
1210    documentation for details of what can and cannot be handled.
1211    .sp
1212      PCRE_INFO_JITSIZE
1213    .sp
1214    If the pattern was successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
1215    return the size of the JIT compiled code, otherwise return zero. The fourth
1216    argument should point to a \fBsize_t\fP variable.
1217  .sp  .sp
1218    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL
1219  .sp  .sp
1220  Return the value of the rightmost literal byte that must exist in any matched  Return the value of the rightmost literal data unit that must exist in any
1221  string, other than at its start, if such a byte has been recorded. The fourth  matched string, other than at its start, if such a value has been recorded. The
1222  argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. If there is no such byte, -1 is  fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. If there is no such
1223  returned. For anchored patterns, a last literal byte is recorded only if it  value, -1 is returned. For anchored patterns, a last literal value is recorded
1224  follows something of variable length. For example, for the pattern  only if it follows something of variable length. For example, for the pattern
1225  /^a\ed+z\ed+/ the returned value is "z", but for /^a\edz\ed/ the returned value  /^a\ed+z\ed+/ the returned value is "z", but for /^a\edz\ed/ the returned value
1226  is -1.  is -1.
1227  .sp  .sp
1228      PCRE_INFO_MINLENGTH
1229    .sp
1230    If the pattern was studied and a minimum length for matching subject strings
1231    was computed, its value is returned. Otherwise the returned value is -1. The
1232    value is a number of characters, which in UTF-8 mode may be different from the
1233    number of bytes. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. A
1234    non-negative value is a lower bound to the length of any matching string. There
1235    may not be any strings of that length that do actually match, but every string
1236    that does match is at least that long.
1237    .sp
1238    PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT    PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT
1239    PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE    PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE
1240    PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE    PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE
# Line 916  The map consists of a number of fixed-si Line 1253  The map consists of a number of fixed-si
1253  the number of entries, and PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE gives the size of each  the number of entries, and PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE gives the size of each
1254  entry; both of these return an \fBint\fP value. The entry size depends on the  entry; both of these return an \fBint\fP value. The entry size depends on the
1255  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE returns a pointer to the first  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE returns a pointer to the first
1256  entry of the table (a pointer to \fBchar\fP). The first two bytes of each entry  entry of the table. This is a pointer to \fBchar\fP in the 8-bit library, where
1257  are the number of the capturing parenthesis, most significant byte first. The  the first two bytes of each entry are the number of the capturing parenthesis,
1258  rest of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated. The names are in  most significant byte first. In the 16-bit library, the pointer points to
1259  alphabetical order. When PCRE_DUPNAMES is set, duplicate names are in order of  16-bit data units, the first of which contains the parenthesis number. The rest
1260  their parentheses numbers. For example, consider the following pattern (assume  of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated.
1261  PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including newlines - is ignored):  .P
1262    The names are in alphabetical order. Duplicate names may appear if (?| is used
1263    to create multiple groups with the same number, as described in the
1264    .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern.html#dupsubpatternnumber">
1265    .\" </a>
1266    section on duplicate subpattern numbers
1267    .\"
1268    in the
1269    .\" HREF
1270    \fBpcrepattern\fP
1271    .\"
1272    page. Duplicate names for subpatterns with different numbers are permitted only
1273    if PCRE_DUPNAMES is set. In all cases of duplicate names, they appear in the
1274    table in the order in which they were found in the pattern. In the absence of
1275    (?| this is the order of increasing number; when (?| is used this is not
1276    necessarily the case because later subpatterns may have lower numbers.
1277    .P
1278    As a simple example of the name/number table, consider the following pattern
1279    after compilation by the 8-bit library (assume PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white
1280    space - including newlines - is ignored):
1281  .sp  .sp
1282  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
1283    (?<date> (?<year>(\ed\ed)?\ed\ed) -    (?<date> (?<year>(\ed\ed)?\ed\ed) -
# Line 942  different for each compiled pattern. Line 1298  different for each compiled pattern.
1298  .sp  .sp
1299    PCRE_INFO_OKPARTIAL    PCRE_INFO_OKPARTIAL
1300  .sp  .sp
1301  Return 1 if the pattern can be used for partial matching, otherwise 0. The  Return 1 if the pattern can be used for partial matching with
1302  fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. The  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, otherwise 0. The fourth argument should point to an
1303    \fBint\fP variable. From release 8.00, this always returns 1, because the
1304    restrictions that previously applied to partial matching have been lifted. The
1305  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
1306  \fBpcrepartial\fP  \fBpcrepartial\fP
1307  .\"  .\"
1308  documentation lists the restrictions that apply to patterns when partial  documentation gives details of partial matching.
 matching is used.  
1309  .sp  .sp
1310    PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS    PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS
1311  .sp  .sp
# Line 975  For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit Line 1332  For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit
1332  .sp  .sp
1333    PCRE_INFO_SIZE    PCRE_INFO_SIZE
1334  .sp  .sp
1335  Return the size of the compiled pattern, that is, the value that was passed as  Return the size of the compiled pattern in bytes (for both libraries). The
1336  the argument to \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when PCRE was getting memory in which to  fourth argument should point to a \fBsize_t\fP variable. This value does not
1337  place the compiled data. The fourth argument should point to a \fBsize_t\fP  include the size of the \fBpcre\fP structure that is returned by
1338  variable.  \fBpcre_compile()\fP. The value that is passed as the argument to
1339    \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when \fBpcre_compile()\fP is getting memory in which to
1340    place the compiled data is the value returned by this option plus the size of
1341    the \fBpcre\fP structure. Studying a compiled pattern, with or without JIT,
1342    does not alter the value returned by this option.
1343  .sp  .sp
1344    PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE    PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE
1345  .sp  .sp
1346  Return the size of the data block pointed to by the \fIstudy_data\fP field in  Return the size in bytes of the data block pointed to by the \fIstudy_data\fP
1347  a \fBpcre_extra\fP block. That is, it is the value that was passed to  field in a \fBpcre_extra\fP block. If \fBpcre_extra\fP is NULL, or there is no
1348  \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when PCRE was getting memory into which to place the data  study data, zero is returned. The fourth argument should point to a
1349  created by \fBpcre_study()\fP. The fourth argument should point to a  \fBsize_t\fP variable. The \fIstudy_data\fP field is set by \fBpcre_study()\fP
1350  \fBsize_t\fP variable.  to record information that will speed up matching (see the section entitled
1351  .  .\" HTML <a href="#studyingapattern">
1352  .  .\" </a>
1353  .SH "OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION"  "Studying a pattern"
1354  .rs  .\"
1355  .sp  above). The format of the \fIstudy_data\fP block is private, but its length
1356  .B int pcre_info(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, int *\fIoptptr\fP, int  is made available via this option so that it can be saved and restored (see the
1357  .B *\fIfirstcharptr\fP);  .\" HREF
1358  .PP  \fBpcreprecompile\fP
1359  The \fBpcre_info()\fP function is now obsolete because its interface is too  .\"
1360  restrictive to return all the available data about a compiled pattern. New  documentation for details).
 programs should use \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP instead. The yield of  
 \fBpcre_info()\fP is the number of capturing subpatterns, or one of the  
 following negative numbers:  
 .sp  
   PCRE_ERROR_NULL       the argument \fIcode\fP was NULL  
   PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC   the "magic number" was not found  
 .sp  
 If the \fIoptptr\fP argument is not NULL, a copy of the options with which the  
 pattern was compiled is placed in the integer it points to (see  
 PCRE_INFO_OPTIONS above).  
 .P  
 If the pattern is not anchored and the \fIfirstcharptr\fP argument is not NULL,  
 it is used to pass back information about the first character of any matched  
 string (see PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE above).  
1361  .  .
1362  .  .
1363  .SH "REFERENCE COUNTS"  .SH "REFERENCE COUNTS"
# Line 1047  is different. (This seems a highly unlik Line 1394  is different. (This seems a highly unlik
1394  .P  .P
1395  The function \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called to match a subject string against a  The function \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called to match a subject string against a
1396  compiled pattern, which is passed in the \fIcode\fP argument. If the  compiled pattern, which is passed in the \fIcode\fP argument. If the
1397  pattern has been studied, the result of the study should be passed in the  pattern was studied, the result of the study should be passed in the
1398  \fIextra\fP argument. This function is the main matching facility of the  \fIextra\fP argument. You can call \fBpcre_exec()\fP with the same \fIcode\fP
1399  library, and it operates in a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is  and \fIextra\fP arguments as many times as you like, in order to match
1400  also an alternative matching function, which is described  different subject strings with the same pattern.
1401    .P
1402    This function is the main matching facility of the library, and it operates in
1403    a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is also an alternative matching
1404    function, which is described
1405  .\" HTML <a href="#dfamatch">  .\" HTML <a href="#dfamatch">
1406  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
1407  below  below
# Line 1081  Here is an example of a simple call to \ Line 1432  Here is an example of a simple call to \
1432      ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */      ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */
1433      30);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */      30);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
1434  .  .
1435    .
1436  .\" HTML <a name="extradata"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="extradata"></a>
1437  .SS "Extra data for \fBpcre_exec()\fR"  .SS "Extra data for \fBpcre_exec()\fR"
1438  .rs  .rs
# Line 1093  fields (not necessarily in this order): Line 1445  fields (not necessarily in this order):
1445  .sp  .sp
1446    unsigned long int \fIflags\fP;    unsigned long int \fIflags\fP;
1447    void *\fIstudy_data\fP;    void *\fIstudy_data\fP;
1448      void *\fIexecutable_jit\fP;
1449    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit\fP;    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit\fP;
1450    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP;    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP;
1451    void *\fIcallout_data\fP;    void *\fIcallout_data\fP;
1452    const unsigned char *\fItables\fP;    const unsigned char *\fItables\fP;
1453      unsigned char **\fImark\fP;
1454  .sp  .sp
1455    In the 16-bit version of this structure, the \fImark\fP field has type
1456    "PCRE_SCHAR16 **".
1457    .P
1458  The \fIflags\fP field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields  The \fIflags\fP field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields
1459  are set. The flag bits are:  are set. The flag bits are:
1460  .sp  .sp
1461    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA
1462      PCRE_EXTRA_EXECUTABLE_JIT
1463    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT
1464    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION
1465    PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA    PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA
1466    PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES    PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES
1467      PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
1468  .sp  .sp
1469  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The \fIstudy_data\fP field is set in the  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The \fIstudy_data\fP field and sometimes
1470  \fBpcre_extra\fP block that is returned by \fBpcre_study()\fP, together with  the \fIexecutable_jit\fP field are set in the \fBpcre_extra\fP block that is
1471  the appropriate flag bit. You should not set this yourself, but you may add to  returned by \fBpcre_study()\fP, together with the appropriate flag bits. You
1472  the block by setting the other fields and their corresponding flag bits.  should not set these yourself, but you may add to the block by setting the
1473    other fields and their corresponding flag bits.
1474  .P  .P
1475  The \fImatch_limit\fP field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a  The \fImatch_limit\fP field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a
1476  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,
1477  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The
1478  classic example is the use of nested unlimited repeats.  classic example is a pattern that uses nested unlimited repeats.
1479  .P  .P
1480  Internally, PCRE uses a function called \fBmatch()\fP which it calls repeatedly  Internally, \fBpcre_exec()\fP uses a function called \fBmatch()\fP, which it
1481  (sometimes recursively). The limit set by \fImatch_limit\fP is imposed on the  calls repeatedly (sometimes recursively). The limit set by \fImatch_limit\fP is
1482  number of times this function is called during a match, which has the effect of  imposed on the number of times this function is called during a match, which
1483  limiting the amount of backtracking that can take place. For patterns that are  has the effect of limiting the amount of backtracking that can take place. For
1484  not anchored, the count restarts from zero for each position in the subject  patterns that are not anchored, the count restarts from zero for each position
1485  string.  in the subject string.
1486    .P
1487    When \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called with a pattern that was successfully studied
1488    with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the way that the matching is executed
1489    is entirely different. However, there is still the possibility of runaway
1490    matching that goes on for a very long time, and so the \fImatch_limit\fP value
1491    is also used in this case (but in a different way) to limit how long the
1492    matching can continue.
1493  .P  .P
1494  The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the default  The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the default
1495  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can
# Line 1137  limits the depth of recursion. The recur Line 1504  limits the depth of recursion. The recur
1504  total number of calls, because not all calls to \fBmatch()\fP are recursive.  total number of calls, because not all calls to \fBmatch()\fP are recursive.
1505  This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than \fImatch_limit\fP.  This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than \fImatch_limit\fP.
1506  .P  .P
1507  Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of stack that can be used, or,  Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of machine stack that can be
1508  when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead of the stack, the  used, or, when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead of the
1509  amount of heap memory that can be used.  stack, the amount of heap memory that can be used. This limit is not relevant,
1510    and is ignored, if the pattern was successfully studied with
1511    PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE.
1512  .P  .P
1513  The default value for \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP can be set when PCRE is  The default value for \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP can be set when PCRE is
1514  built; the default default is the same value as the default for  built; the default default is the same value as the default for
# Line 1148  with a \fBpcre_extra\fP block in which \ Line 1517  with a \fBpcre_extra\fP block in which \
1517  PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION is set in the \fIflags\fP field. If the limit  PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION is set in the \fIflags\fP field. If the limit
1518  is exceeded, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT.  is exceeded, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT.
1519  .P  .P
1520  The \fIpcre_callout\fP field is used in conjunction with the "callout" feature,  The \fIcallout_data\fP field is used in conjunction with the "callout" feature,
1521  which is described in the  and is described in the
1522  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
1523  \fBpcrecallout\fP  \fBpcrecallout\fP
1524  .\"  .\"
# Line 1168  called. See the Line 1537  called. See the
1537  \fBpcreprecompile\fP  \fBpcreprecompile\fP
1538  .\"  .\"
1539  documentation for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.  documentation for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.
1540    .P
1541    If PCRE_EXTRA_MARK is set in the \fIflags\fP field, the \fImark\fP field must
1542    be set to point to a suitable variable. If the pattern contains any
1543    backtracking control verbs such as (*MARK:NAME), and the execution ends up with
1544    a name to pass back, a pointer to the name string (zero terminated) is placed
1545    in the variable pointed to by the \fImark\fP field. The names are within the
1546    compiled pattern; if you wish to retain such a name you must copy it before
1547    freeing the memory of a compiled pattern. If there is no name to pass back, the
1548    variable pointed to by the \fImark\fP field is set to NULL. For details of the
1549    backtracking control verbs, see the section entitled
1550    .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern#backtrackcontrol">
1551    .\" </a>
1552    "Backtracking control"
1553    .\"
1554    in the
1555    .\" HREF
1556    \fBpcrepattern\fP
1557    .\"
1558    documentation.
1559  .  .
1560    .
1561    .\" HTML <a name="execoptions"></a>
1562  .SS "Option bits for \fBpcre_exec()\fP"  .SS "Option bits for \fBpcre_exec()\fP"
1563  .rs  .rs
1564  .sp  .sp
1565  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP must be  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP must be
1566  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,
1567  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK and PCRE_PARTIAL.  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
1568    PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, and
1569    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD.
1570    .P
1571    If the pattern was successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
1572    the only supported options for JIT execution are PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK,
1573    PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, and PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART. Note in
1574    particular that partial matching is not supported. If an unsupported option is
1575    used, JIT execution is disabled and the normal interpretive code in
1576    \fBpcre_exec()\fP is run.
1577  .sp  .sp
1578    PCRE_ANCHORED    PCRE_ANCHORED
1579  .sp  .sp
# Line 1183  matching position. If a pattern was comp Line 1582  matching position. If a pattern was comp
1582  to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made unachored at  to be anchored by virtue of its contents, it cannot be made unachored at
1583  matching time.  matching time.
1584  .sp  .sp
1585      PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
1586      PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
1587    .sp
1588    These options (which are mutually exclusive) control what the \eR escape
1589    sequence matches. The choice is either to match only CR, LF, or CRLF, or to
1590    match any Unicode newline sequence. These options override the choice that was
1591    made or defaulted when the pattern was compiled.
1592    .sp
1593    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
1594    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
1595    PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF    PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
# Line 1194  the pattern was compiled. For details, s Line 1601  the pattern was compiled. For details, s
1601  \fBpcre_compile()\fP above. During matching, the newline choice affects the  \fBpcre_compile()\fP above. During matching, the newline choice affects the
1602  behaviour of the dot, circumflex, and dollar metacharacters. It may also alter  behaviour of the dot, circumflex, and dollar metacharacters. It may also alter
1603  the way the match position is advanced after a match failure for an unanchored  the way the match position is advanced after a match failure for an unanchored
1604  pattern. When PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF, or PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY is  pattern.
1605  set, and a match attempt fails when the current position is at a CRLF sequence,  .P
1606  the match position is advanced by two characters instead of one, in other  When PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF, PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF, or PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY is set, and a
1607  words, to after the CRLF.  match attempt for an unanchored pattern fails when the current position is at a
1608    CRLF sequence, and the pattern contains no explicit matches for CR or LF
1609    characters, the match position is advanced by two characters instead of one, in
1610    other words, to after the CRLF.
1611    .P
1612    The above rule is a compromise that makes the most common cases work as
1613    expected. For example, if the pattern is .+A (and the PCRE_DOTALL option is not
1614    set), it does not match the string "\er\enA" because, after failing at the
1615    start, it skips both the CR and the LF before retrying. However, the pattern
1616    [\er\en]A does match that string, because it contains an explicit CR or LF
1617    reference, and so advances only by one character after the first failure.
1618    .P
1619    An explicit match for CR of LF is either a literal appearance of one of those
1620    characters, or one of the \er or \en escape sequences. Implicit matches such as
1621    [^X] do not count, nor does \es (which includes CR and LF in the characters
1622    that it matches).
1623    .P
1624    Notwithstanding the above, anomalous effects may still occur when CRLF is a
1625    valid newline sequence and explicit \er or \en escapes appear in the pattern.
1626  .sp  .sp
1627    PCRE_NOTBOL    PCRE_NOTBOL
1628  .sp  .sp
# Line 1223  match the empty string, the entire match Line 1648  match the empty string, the entire match
1648  .sp  .sp
1649    a?b?    a?b?
1650  .sp  .sp
1651  is applied to a string not beginning with "a" or "b", it matches the empty  is applied to a string not beginning with "a" or "b", it matches an empty
1652  string at the start of the subject. With PCRE_NOTEMPTY set, this match is not  string at the start of the subject. With PCRE_NOTEMPTY set, this match is not
1653  valid, so PCRE searches further into the string for occurrences of "a" or "b".  valid, so PCRE searches further into the string for occurrences of "a" or "b".
1654  .P  .sp
1655  Perl has no direct equivalent of PCRE_NOTEMPTY, but it does make a special case    PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART
1656  of a pattern match of the empty string within its \fBsplit()\fP function, and  .sp
1657  when using the /g modifier. It is possible to emulate Perl's behaviour after  This is like PCRE_NOTEMPTY, except that an empty string match that is not at
1658  matching a null string by first trying the match again at the same offset with  the start of the subject is permitted. If the pattern is anchored, such a match
1659  PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED, and then if that fails by advancing the  can occur only if the pattern contains \eK.
1660  starting offset (see below) and trying an ordinary match again. There is some  .P
1661  code that demonstrates how to do this in the \fIpcredemo.c\fP sample program.  Perl has no direct equivalent of PCRE_NOTEMPTY or PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART, but it
1662    does make a special case of a pattern match of the empty string within its
1663    \fBsplit()\fP function, and when using the /g modifier. It is possible to
1664    emulate Perl's behaviour after matching a null string by first trying the match
1665    again at the same offset with PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and PCRE_ANCHORED, and then
1666    if that fails, by advancing the starting offset (see below) and trying an
1667    ordinary match again. There is some code that demonstrates how to do this in
1668    the
1669    .\" HREF
1670    \fBpcredemo\fP
1671    .\"
1672    sample program. In the most general case, you have to check to see if the
1673    newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline, and if so, and the current
1674    character is CR followed by LF, advance the starting offset by two characters
1675    instead of one.
1676    .sp
1677      PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
1678    .sp
1679    There are a number of optimizations that \fBpcre_exec()\fP uses at the start of
1680    a match, in order to speed up the process. For example, if it is known that an
1681    unanchored match must start with a specific character, it searches the subject
1682    for that character, and fails immediately if it cannot find it, without
1683    actually running the main matching function. This means that a special item
1684    such as (*COMMIT) at the start of a pattern is not considered until after a
1685    suitable starting point for the match has been found. When callouts or (*MARK)
1686    items are in use, these "start-up" optimizations can cause them to be skipped
1687    if the pattern is never actually used. The start-up optimizations are in effect
1688    a pre-scan of the subject that takes place before the pattern is run.
1689    .P
1690    The PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option disables the start-up optimizations, possibly
1691    causing performance to suffer, but ensuring that in cases where the result is
1692    "no match", the callouts do occur, and that items such as (*COMMIT) and (*MARK)
1693    are considered at every possible starting position in the subject string. If
1694    PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE is set at compile time, it cannot be unset at matching
1695    time.
1696    .P
1697    Setting PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE can change the outcome of a matching operation.
1698    Consider the pattern
1699    .sp
1700      (*COMMIT)ABC
1701    .sp
1702    When this is compiled, PCRE records the fact that a match must start with the
1703    character "A". Suppose the subject string is "DEFABC". The start-up
1704    optimization scans along the subject, finds "A" and runs the first match
1705    attempt from there. The (*COMMIT) item means that the pattern must match the
1706    current starting position, which in this case, it does. However, if the same
1707    match is run with PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE set, the initial scan along the
1708    subject string does not happen. The first match attempt is run starting from
1709    "D" and when this fails, (*COMMIT) prevents any further matches being tried, so
1710    the overall result is "no match". If the pattern is studied, more start-up
1711    optimizations may be used. For example, a minimum length for the subject may be
1712    recorded. Consider the pattern
1713    .sp
1714      (*MARK:A)(X|Y)
1715    .sp
1716    The minimum length for a match is one character. If the subject is "ABC", there
1717    will be attempts to match "ABC", "BC", "C", and then finally an empty string.
1718    If the pattern is studied, the final attempt does not take place, because PCRE
1719    knows that the subject is too short, and so the (*MARK) is never encountered.
1720    In this case, studying the pattern does not affect the overall match result,
1721    which is still "no match", but it does affect the auxiliary information that is
1722    returned.
1723  .sp  .sp
1724    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
1725  .sp  .sp
# Line 1242  string is automatically checked when \fB Line 1728  string is automatically checked when \fB
1728  The value of \fIstartoffset\fP is also checked to ensure that it points to the  The value of \fIstartoffset\fP is also checked to ensure that it points to the
1729  start of a UTF-8 character. There is a discussion about the validity of UTF-8  start of a UTF-8 character. There is a discussion about the validity of UTF-8
1730  strings in the  strings in the
 .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#utf8strings">  
 .\" </a>  
 section on UTF-8 support  
 .\"  
 in the main  
1731  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
1732  \fBpcre\fP  \fBpcreunicode\fP
1733    .\"
1734    page. If an invalid sequence of bytes is found, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns the
1735    error PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or, if PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set and the problem is a
1736    truncated character at the end of the subject, PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8. In both
1737    cases, information about the precise nature of the error may also be returned
1738    (see the descriptions of these errors in the section entitled \fIError return
1739    values from\fP \fBpcre_exec()\fP
1740    .\" HTML <a href="#errorlist">
1741    .\" </a>
1742    below).
1743  .\"  .\"
1744  page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns  If \fIstartoffset\fP contains a value that does not point to the start of a
1745  the error PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8. If \fIstartoffset\fP contains an invalid value,  UTF-8 character (or to the end of the subject), PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET is
1746  PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET is returned.  returned.
1747  .P  .P
1748  If you already know that your subject is valid, and you want to skip these  If you already know that your subject is valid, and you want to skip these
1749  checks for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option when  checks for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option when
1750  calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP. You might want to do this for the second and  calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP. You might want to do this for the second and
1751  subsequent calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP if you are making repeated calls to find  subsequent calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP if you are making repeated calls to find
1752  all the matches in a single subject string. However, you should be sure that  all the matches in a single subject string. However, you should be sure that
1753  the value of \fIstartoffset\fP points to the start of a UTF-8 character. When  the value of \fIstartoffset\fP points to the start of a character (or the end
1754  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a  of the subject). When PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an
1755  subject, or a value of \fIstartoffset\fP that does not point to the start of a  invalid string as a subject or an invalid value of \fIstartoffset\fP is
1756  UTF-8 character, is undefined. Your program may crash.  undefined. Your program may crash.
1757  .sp  .sp
1758    PCRE_PARTIAL    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
1759  .sp    PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT
1760  This option turns on the partial matching feature. If the subject string fails  .sp
1761  to match the pattern, but at some point during the matching process the end of  These options turn on the partial matching feature. For backwards
1762  the subject was reached (that is, the subject partially matches the pattern and  compatibility, PCRE_PARTIAL is a synonym for PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. A partial match
1763  the failure to match occurred only because there were not enough subject  occurs if the end of the subject string is reached successfully, but there are
1764  characters), \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL instead of  not enough subject characters to complete the match. If this happens when
1765  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH. When PCRE_PARTIAL is used, there are restrictions on what  PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT (but not PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD) is set, matching continues by
1766  may appear in the pattern. These are discussed in the  testing any remaining alternatives. Only if no complete match can be found is
1767    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL returned instead of PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH. In other words,
1768    PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT says that the caller is prepared to handle a partial match,
1769    but only if no complete match can be found.
1770    .P
1771    If PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, it overrides PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. In this case, if a
1772    partial match is found, \fBpcre_exec()\fP immediately returns
1773    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL, without considering any other alternatives. In other words,
1774    when PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, a partial match is considered to be more
1775    important that an alternative complete match.
1776    .P
1777    In both cases, the portion of the string that was inspected when the partial
1778    match was found is set as the first matching string. There is a more detailed
1779    discussion of partial and multi-segment matching, with examples, in the
1780  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
1781  \fBpcrepartial\fP  \fBpcrepartial\fP
1782  .\"  .\"
1783  documentation.  documentation.
1784  .  .
1785    .
1786  .SS "The string to be matched by \fBpcre_exec()\fP"  .SS "The string to be matched by \fBpcre_exec()\fP"
1787  .rs  .rs
1788  .sp  .sp
1789  The subject string is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP as a pointer in  The subject string is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP as a pointer in
1790  \fIsubject\fP, a length in \fIlength\fP, and a starting byte offset in  \fIsubject\fP, a length in bytes in \fIlength\fP, and a starting byte offset
1791  \fIstartoffset\fP. In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset must point to the start of a  in \fIstartoffset\fP. If this is negative or greater than the length of the
1792  UTF-8 character. Unlike the pattern string, the subject may contain binary zero  subject, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET. When the starting
1793  bytes. When the starting offset is zero, the search for a match starts at the  offset is zero, the search for a match starts at the beginning of the subject,
1794  beginning of the subject, and this is by far the most common case.  and this is by far the most common case. In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset must
1795    point to the start of a UTF-8 character (or the end of the subject). Unlike the
1796    pattern string, the subject may contain binary zero bytes.
1797  .P  .P
1798  A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match in the  A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match in the
1799  same subject by calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP again after a previous success.  same subject by calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP again after a previous success.
# Line 1306  start of the subject, which is deemed to Line 1813  start of the subject, which is deemed to
1813  set to 4, it finds the second occurrence of "iss" because it is able to look  set to 4, it finds the second occurrence of "iss" because it is able to look
1814  behind the starting point to discover that it is preceded by a letter.  behind the starting point to discover that it is preceded by a letter.
1815  .P  .P
1816    Finding all the matches in a subject is tricky when the pattern can match an
1817    empty string. It is possible to emulate Perl's /g behaviour by first trying the
1818    match again at the same offset, with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
1819    PCRE_ANCHORED options, and then if that fails, advancing the starting offset
1820    and trying an ordinary match again. There is some code that demonstrates how to
1821    do this in the
1822    .\" HREF
1823    \fBpcredemo\fP
1824    .\"
1825    sample program. In the most general case, you have to check to see if the
1826    newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline, and if so, and the current
1827    character is CR followed by LF, advance the starting offset by two characters
1828    instead of one.
1829    .P
1830  If a non-zero starting offset is passed when the pattern is anchored, one  If a non-zero starting offset is passed when the pattern is anchored, one
1831  attempt to match at the given offset is made. This can only succeed if the  attempt to match at the given offset is made. This can only succeed if the
1832  pattern does not require the match to be at the start of the subject.  pattern does not require the match to be at the start of the subject.
1833  .  .
1834    .
1835  .SS "How \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns captured substrings"  .SS "How \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns captured substrings"
1836  .rs  .rs
1837  .sp  .sp
# Line 1320  pattern. Following the usage in Jeffrey Line 1842  pattern. Following the usage in Jeffrey
1842  a fragment of a pattern that picks out a substring. PCRE supports several other  a fragment of a pattern that picks out a substring. PCRE supports several other
1843  kinds of parenthesized subpattern that do not cause substrings to be captured.  kinds of parenthesized subpattern that do not cause substrings to be captured.
1844  .P  .P
1845  Captured substrings are returned to the caller via a vector of integer offsets  Captured substrings are returned to the caller via a vector of integers whose
1846  whose address is passed in \fIovector\fP. The number of elements in the vector  address is passed in \fIovector\fP. The number of elements in the vector is
1847  is passed in \fIovecsize\fP, which must be a non-negative number. \fBNote\fP:  passed in \fIovecsize\fP, which must be a non-negative number. \fBNote\fP: this
1848  this argument is NOT the size of \fIovector\fP in bytes.  argument is NOT the size of \fIovector\fP in bytes.
1849  .P  .P
1850  The first two-thirds of the vector is used to pass back captured substrings,  The first two-thirds of the vector is used to pass back captured substrings,
1851  each substring using a pair of integers. The remaining third of the vector is  each substring using a pair of integers. The remaining third of the vector is
1852  used as workspace by \fBpcre_exec()\fP while matching capturing subpatterns,  used as workspace by \fBpcre_exec()\fP while matching capturing subpatterns,
1853  and is not available for passing back information. The length passed in  and is not available for passing back information. The number passed in
1854  \fIovecsize\fP should always be a multiple of three. If it is not, it is  \fIovecsize\fP should always be a multiple of three. If it is not, it is
1855  rounded down.  rounded down.
1856  .P  .P
1857  When a match is successful, information about captured substrings is returned  When a match is successful, information about captured substrings is returned
1858  in pairs of integers, starting at the beginning of \fIovector\fP, and  in pairs of integers, starting at the beginning of \fIovector\fP, and
1859  continuing up to two-thirds of its length at the most. The first element of a  continuing up to two-thirds of its length at the most. The first element of
1860  pair is set to the offset of the first character in a substring, and the second  each pair is set to the byte offset of the first character in a substring, and
1861  is set to the offset of the first character after the end of a substring. The  the second is set to the byte offset of the first character after the end of a
1862  first pair, \fIovector[0]\fP and \fIovector[1]\fP, identify the portion of the  substring. \fBNote\fP: these values are always byte offsets, even in UTF-8
1863  subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next pair is used for the  mode. They are not character counts.
1864  first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value returned by \fBpcre_exec()\fP  .P
1865  is one more than the highest numbered pair that has been set. For example, if  The first pair of integers, \fIovector[0]\fP and \fIovector[1]\fP, identify the
1866  two substrings have been captured, the returned value is 3. If there are no  portion of the subject string matched by the entire pattern. The next pair is
1867  capturing subpatterns, the return value from a successful match is 1,  used for the first capturing subpattern, and so on. The value returned by
1868  indicating that just the first pair of offsets has been set.  \fBpcre_exec()\fP is one more than the highest numbered pair that has been set.
1869    For example, if two substrings have been captured, the returned value is 3. If
1870    there are no capturing subpatterns, the return value from a successful match is
1871    1, indicating that just the first pair of offsets has been set.
1872  .P  .P
1873  If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion of the  If a capturing subpattern is matched repeatedly, it is the last portion of the
1874  string that it matched that is returned.  string that it matched that is returned.
1875  .P  .P
1876  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets, it is  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets, it is
1877  used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function  used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function
1878  returns a value of zero. In particular, if the substring offsets are not of  returns a value of zero. If neither the actual string matched not any captured
1879  interest, \fBpcre_exec()\fP may be called with \fIovector\fP passed as NULL and  substrings are of interest, \fBpcre_exec()\fP may be called with \fIovector\fP
1880  \fIovecsize\fP as zero. However, if the pattern contains back references and  passed as NULL and \fIovecsize\fP as zero. However, if the pattern contains
1881  the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to remember the related substrings, PCRE  back references and the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to remember the related
1882  has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usually  substrings, PCRE has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it
1883  advisable to supply an \fIovector\fP.  is usually advisable to supply an \fIovector\fP of reasonable size.
1884    .P
1885    There are some cases where zero is returned (indicating vector overflow) when
1886    in fact the vector is exactly the right size for the final match. For example,
1887    consider the pattern
1888    .sp
1889      (a)(?:(b)c|bd)
1890    .sp
1891    If a vector of 6 elements (allowing for only 1 captured substring) is given
1892    with subject string "abd", \fBpcre_exec()\fP will try to set the second
1893    captured string, thereby recording a vector overflow, before failing to match
1894    "c" and backing up to try the second alternative. The zero return, however,
1895    does correctly indicate that the maximum number of slots (namely 2) have been
1896    filled. In similar cases where there is temporary overflow, but the final
1897    number of used slots is actually less than the maximum, a non-zero value is
1898    returned.
1899  .P  .P
1900  The \fBpcre_info()\fP function can be used to find out how many capturing  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function can be used to find out how many capturing
1901  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for
1902  \fIovector\fP that will allow for \fIn\fP captured substrings, in addition to  \fIovector\fP that will allow for \fIn\fP captured substrings, in addition to
1903  the offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (\fIn\fP+1)*3.  the offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (\fIn\fP+1)*3.
# Line 1373  Offset values that correspond to unused Line 1913  Offset values that correspond to unused
1913  expression are also set to -1. For example, if the string "abc" is matched  expression are also set to -1. For example, if the string "abc" is matched
1914  against the pattern (abc)(x(yz)?)? subpatterns 2 and 3 are not matched. The  against the pattern (abc)(x(yz)?)? subpatterns 2 and 3 are not matched. The
1915  return from the function is 2, because the highest used capturing subpattern  return from the function is 2, because the highest used capturing subpattern
1916  number is 1. However, you can refer to the offsets for the second and third  number is 1, and the offsets for for the second and third capturing subpatterns
1917  capturing subpatterns if you wish (assuming the vector is large enough, of  (assuming the vector is large enough, of course) are set to -1.
1918  course).  .P
1919    \fBNote\fP: Elements in the first two-thirds of \fIovector\fP that do not
1920    correspond to capturing parentheses in the pattern are never changed. That is,
1921    if a pattern contains \fIn\fP capturing parentheses, no more than
1922    \fIovector[0]\fP to \fIovector[2n+1]\fP are set by \fBpcre_exec()\fP. The other
1923    elements (in the first two-thirds) retain whatever values they previously had.
1924  .P  .P
1925  Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings  Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings
1926  as separate strings. These are described below.  as separate strings. These are described below.
1927  .  .
1928    .
1929  .\" HTML <a name="errorlist"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="errorlist"></a>
1930  .SS "Error return values from \fBpcre_exec()\fP"  .SS "Error return values from \fBpcre_exec()\fP"
1931  .rs  .rs
# Line 1421  If a pattern contains back references, b Line 1967  If a pattern contains back references, b
1967  gets a block of memory at the start of matching to use for this purpose. If the  gets a block of memory at the start of matching to use for this purpose. If the
1968  call via \fBpcre_malloc()\fP fails, this error is given. The memory is  call via \fBpcre_malloc()\fP fails, this error is given. The memory is
1969  automatically freed at the end of matching.  automatically freed at the end of matching.
1970    .P
1971    This error is also given if \fBpcre_stack_malloc()\fP fails in
1972    \fBpcre_exec()\fP. This can happen only when PCRE has been compiled with
1973    \fB--disable-stack-for-recursion\fP.
1974  .sp  .sp
1975    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)
1976  .sp  .sp
# Line 1445  documentation for details. Line 1995  documentation for details.
1995  .sp  .sp
1996    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8        (-10)    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8        (-10)
1997  .sp  .sp
1998  A string that contains an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence was passed as a subject.  A string that contains an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence was passed as a subject,
1999    and the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option was not set. If the size of the output vector
2000    (\fIovecsize\fP) is at least 2, the byte offset to the start of the the invalid
2001    UTF-8 character is placed in the first element, and a reason code is placed in
2002    the second element. The reason codes are listed in the
2003    .\" HTML <a href="#badutf8reasons">
2004    .\" </a>
2005    following section.
2006    .\"
2007    For backward compatibility, if PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set and the problem is a
2008    truncated UTF-8 character at the end of the subject (reason codes 1 to 5),
2009    PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8 is returned instead of PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8.
2010  .sp  .sp
2011    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)
2012  .sp  .sp
2013  The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was valid, but the value  The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was checked and found to
2014  of \fIstartoffset\fP did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 character.  be valid (the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option was not set), but the value of
2015    \fIstartoffset\fP did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 character or the
2016    end of the subject.
2017  .sp  .sp
2018    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL        (-12)    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL        (-12)
2019  .sp  .sp
# Line 1462  documentation for details of partial mat Line 2025  documentation for details of partial mat
2025  .sp  .sp
2026    PCRE_ERROR_BADPARTIAL     (-13)    PCRE_ERROR_BADPARTIAL     (-13)
2027  .sp  .sp
2028  The PCRE_PARTIAL option was used with a compiled pattern containing items that  This code is no longer in use. It was formerly returned when the PCRE_PARTIAL
2029  are not supported for partial matching. See the  option was used with a compiled pattern containing items that were not
2030  .\" HREF  supported for partial matching. From release 8.00 onwards, there are no
2031  \fBpcrepartial\fP  restrictions on partial matching.
 .\"  
 documentation for details of partial matching.  
2032  .sp  .sp
2033    PCRE_ERROR_INTERNAL       (-14)    PCRE_ERROR_INTERNAL       (-14)
2034  .sp  .sp
# Line 1487  description above. Line 2048  description above.
2048    PCRE_ERROR_BADNEWLINE     (-23)    PCRE_ERROR_BADNEWLINE     (-23)
2049  .sp  .sp
2050  An invalid combination of PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP options was given.  An invalid combination of PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP options was given.
2051    .sp
2052      PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET      (-24)
2053    .sp
2054    The value of \fIstartoffset\fP was negative or greater than the length of the
2055    subject, that is, the value in \fIlength\fP.
2056    .sp
2057      PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8      (-25)
2058    .sp
2059    This error is returned instead of PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 when the subject string
2060    ends with a truncated UTF-8 character and the PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option is set.
2061    Information about the failure is returned as for PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8. It is in
2062    fact sufficient to detect this case, but this special error code for
2063    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD precedes the implementation of returned information; it is
2064    retained for backwards compatibility.
2065    .sp
2066      PCRE_ERROR_RECURSELOOP    (-26)
2067    .sp
2068    This error is returned when \fBpcre_exec()\fP detects a recursion loop within
2069    the pattern. Specifically, it means that either the whole pattern or a
2070    subpattern has been called recursively for the second time at the same position
2071    in the subject string. Some simple patterns that might do this are detected and
2072    faulted at compile time, but more complicated cases, in particular mutual
2073    recursions between two different subpatterns, cannot be detected until run
2074    time.
2075    .sp
2076      PCRE_ERROR_JIT_STACKLIMIT (-27)
2077    .sp
2078    This error is returned when a pattern that was successfully studied using the
2079    PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option is being matched, but the memory available for
2080    the just-in-time processing stack is not large enough. See the
2081    .\" HREF
2082    \fBpcrejit\fP
2083    .\"
2084    documentation for more details.
2085    .sp
2086      PCRE_ERROR_BADMODE (-28)
2087    .sp
2088    This error is given if a pattern that was compiled by the 8-bit library is
2089    passed to a 16-bit library function, or vice versa.
2090    .sp
2091      PCRE_ERROR_BADENDIANNESS (-29)
2092    .sp
2093    This error is given if a pattern that was compiled and saved is reloaded on a
2094    host with different endianness. The utility function
2095    \fBpcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order()\fP can be used to convert such a pattern
2096    so that it runs on the new host.
2097  .P  .P
2098  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.
2099  .  .
2100  .  .
2101    .\" HTML <a name="badutf8reasons"></a>
2102    .SS "Reason codes for invalid UTF-8 strings"
2103    .rs
2104    .sp
2105    This section applies only to the 8-bit library. The corresponding information
2106    for the 16-bit library is given in the
2107    .\" HREF
2108    \fBpcre16\fP
2109    .\"
2110    page.
2111    .P
2112    When \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns either PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or
2113    PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8, and the size of the output vector (\fIovecsize\fP) is at
2114    least 2, the offset of the start of the invalid UTF-8 character is placed in
2115    the first output vector element (\fIovector[0]\fP) and a reason code is placed
2116    in the second element (\fIovector[1]\fP). The reason codes are given names in
2117    the \fBpcre.h\fP header file:
2118    .sp
2119      PCRE_UTF8_ERR1
2120      PCRE_UTF8_ERR2
2121      PCRE_UTF8_ERR3
2122      PCRE_UTF8_ERR4
2123      PCRE_UTF8_ERR5
2124    .sp
2125    The string ends with a truncated UTF-8 character; the code specifies how many
2126    bytes are missing (1 to 5). Although RFC 3629 restricts UTF-8 characters to be
2127    no longer than 4 bytes, the encoding scheme (originally defined by RFC 2279)
2128    allows for up to 6 bytes, and this is checked first; hence the possibility of
2129    4 or 5 missing bytes.
2130    .sp
2131      PCRE_UTF8_ERR6
2132      PCRE_UTF8_ERR7
2133      PCRE_UTF8_ERR8
2134      PCRE_UTF8_ERR9
2135      PCRE_UTF8_ERR10
2136    .sp
2137    The two most significant bits of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, or 6th byte of the
2138    character do not have the binary value 0b10 (that is, either the most
2139    significant bit is 0, or the next bit is 1).
2140    .sp
2141      PCRE_UTF8_ERR11
2142      PCRE_UTF8_ERR12
2143    .sp
2144    A character that is valid by the RFC 2279 rules is either 5 or 6 bytes long;
2145    these code points are excluded by RFC 3629.
2146    .sp
2147      PCRE_UTF8_ERR13
2148    .sp
2149    A 4-byte character has a value greater than 0x10fff; these code points are
2150    excluded by RFC 3629.
2151    .sp
2152      PCRE_UTF8_ERR14
2153    .sp
2154    A 3-byte character has a value in the range 0xd800 to 0xdfff; this range of
2155    code points are reserved by RFC 3629 for use with UTF-16, and so are excluded
2156    from UTF-8.
2157    .sp
2158      PCRE_UTF8_ERR15
2159      PCRE_UTF8_ERR16
2160      PCRE_UTF8_ERR17
2161      PCRE_UTF8_ERR18
2162      PCRE_UTF8_ERR19
2163    .sp
2164    A 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-byte character is "overlong", that is, it codes for a
2165    value that can be represented by fewer bytes, which is invalid. For example,
2166    the two bytes 0xc0, 0xae give the value 0x2e, whose correct coding uses just
2167    one byte.
2168    .sp
2169      PCRE_UTF8_ERR20
2170    .sp
2171    The two most significant bits of the first byte of a character have the binary
2172    value 0b10 (that is, the most significant bit is 1 and the second is 0). Such a
2173    byte can only validly occur as the second or subsequent byte of a multi-byte
2174    character.
2175    .sp
2176      PCRE_UTF8_ERR21
2177    .sp
2178    The first byte of a character has the value 0xfe or 0xff. These values can
2179    never occur in a valid UTF-8 string.
2180    .
2181    .
2182  .SH "EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER"  .SH "EXTRACTING CAPTURED SUBSTRINGS BY NUMBER"
2183  .rs  .rs
2184  .sp  .sp
# Line 1637  These functions call \fBpcre_get_stringn Line 2325  These functions call \fBpcre_get_stringn
2325  then call \fBpcre_copy_substring()\fP or \fBpcre_get_substring()\fP, as  then call \fBpcre_copy_substring()\fP or \fBpcre_get_substring()\fP, as
2326  appropriate. \fBNOTE:\fP If PCRE_DUPNAMES is set and there are duplicate names,  appropriate. \fBNOTE:\fP If PCRE_DUPNAMES is set and there are duplicate names,
2327  the behaviour may not be what you want (see the next section).  the behaviour may not be what you want (see the next section).
2328    .P
2329    \fBWarning:\fP If the pattern uses the (?| feature to set up multiple
2330    subpatterns with the same number, as described in the
2331    .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern.html#dupsubpatternnumber">
2332    .\" </a>
2333    section on duplicate subpattern numbers
2334    .\"
2335    in the
2336    .\" HREF
2337    \fBpcrepattern\fP
2338    .\"
2339    page, you cannot use names to distinguish the different subpatterns, because
2340    names are not included in the compiled code. The matching process uses only
2341    numbers. For this reason, the use of different names for subpatterns of the
2342    same number causes an error at compile time.
2343  .  .
2344  .  .
2345  .SH "DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES"  .SH "DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES"
# Line 1647  the behaviour may not be what you want ( Line 2350  the behaviour may not be what you want (
2350  .B const char *\fIname\fP, char **\fIfirst\fP, char **\fIlast\fP);  .B const char *\fIname\fP, char **\fIfirst\fP, char **\fIlast\fP);
2351  .PP  .PP
2352  When a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_DUPNAMES option, names for subpatterns  When a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_DUPNAMES option, names for subpatterns
2353  are not required to be unique. Normally, patterns with duplicate names are such  are not required to be unique. (Duplicate names are always allowed for
2354  that in any one match, only one of the named subpatterns participates. An  subpatterns with the same number, created by using the (?| feature. Indeed, if
2355  example is shown in the  such subpatterns are named, they are required to use the same names.)
2356    .P
2357    Normally, patterns with duplicate names are such that in any one match, only
2358    one of the named subpatterns participates. An example is shown in the
2359  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
2360  \fBpcrepattern\fP  \fBpcrepattern\fP
2361  .\"  .\"
# Line 1669  fourth are pointers to variables which a Line 2375  fourth are pointers to variables which a
2375  has run, they point to the first and last entries in the name-to-number table  has run, they point to the first and last entries in the name-to-number table
2376  for the given name. The function itself returns the length of each entry, or  for the given name. The function itself returns the length of each entry, or
2377  PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if there are none. The format of the table is  PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING (-7) if there are none. The format of the table is
2378  described above in the section entitled \fIInformation about a pattern\fP.  described above in the section entitled \fIInformation about a pattern\fP
2379    .\" HTML <a href="#infoaboutpattern">
2380    .\" </a>
2381    above.
2382    .\"
2383  Given all the relevant entries for the name, you can extract each of their  Given all the relevant entries for the name, you can extract each of their
2384  numbers, and hence the captured data, if any.  numbers, and hence the captured data, if any.
2385  .  .
# Line 1713  a compiled pattern, using a matching alg Line 2423  a compiled pattern, using a matching alg
2423  just once, and does not backtrack. This has different characteristics to the  just once, and does not backtrack. This has different characteristics to the
2424  normal algorithm, and is not compatible with Perl. Some of the features of PCRE  normal algorithm, and is not compatible with Perl. Some of the features of PCRE
2425  patterns are not supported. Nevertheless, there are times when this kind of  patterns are not supported. Nevertheless, there are times when this kind of
2426  matching can be useful. For a discussion of the two matching algorithms, see  matching can be useful. For a discussion of the two matching algorithms, and a
2427  the  list of features that \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP does not support, see the
2428  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
2429  \fBpcrematching\fP  \fBpcrematching\fP
2430  .\"  .\"
# Line 1753  Here is an example of a simple call to \ Line 2463  Here is an example of a simple call to \
2463  .sp  .sp
2464  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP must be  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP must be
2465  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,
2466  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL,  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
2467  PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST, and PCRE_DFA_RESTART. All but the last three of these are  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF, PCRE_BSR_UNICODE, PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE,
2468  the same as for \fBpcre_exec()\fP, so their description is not repeated here.  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST, and PCRE_DFA_RESTART.
2469  .sp  All but the last four of these are exactly the same as for \fBpcre_exec()\fP,
2470    PCRE_PARTIAL  so their description is not repeated here.
2471  .sp  .sp
2472  This has the same general effect as it does for \fBpcre_exec()\fP, but the    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
2473  details are slightly different. When PCRE_PARTIAL is set for    PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT
2474  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, the return code PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH is converted into  .sp
2475  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end of the subject is reached, there have been no  These have the same general effect as they do for \fBpcre_exec()\fP, but the
2476  complete matches, but there is still at least one matching possibility. The  details are slightly different. When PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set for
2477  portion of the string that provided the partial match is set as the first  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, it returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end of the subject
2478  matching string.  is reached and there is still at least one matching possibility that requires
2479    additional characters. This happens even if some complete matches have also
2480    been found. When PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT is set, the return code PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH
2481    is converted into PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if the end of the subject is reached,
2482    there have been no complete matches, but there is still at least one matching
2483    possibility. The portion of the string that was inspected when the longest
2484    partial match was found is set as the first matching string in both cases.
2485    There is a more detailed discussion of partial and multi-segment matching, with
2486    examples, in the
2487    .\" HREF
2488    \fBpcrepartial\fP
2489    .\"
2490    documentation.
2491  .sp  .sp
2492    PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST    PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST
2493  .sp  .sp
# Line 1776  matching point in the subject string. Line 2498  matching point in the subject string.
2498  .sp  .sp
2499    PCRE_DFA_RESTART    PCRE_DFA_RESTART
2500  .sp  .sp
2501  When \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP is called with the PCRE_PARTIAL option, and returns  When \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP returns a partial match, it is possible to call it
2502  a partial match, it is possible to call it again, with additional subject  again, with additional subject characters, and have it continue with the same
2503  characters, and have it continue with the same match. The PCRE_DFA_RESTART  match. The PCRE_DFA_RESTART option requests this action; when it is set, the
2504  option requests this action; when it is set, the \fIworkspace\fP and  \fIworkspace\fP and \fIwscount\fP options must reference the same vector as
2505  \fIwscount\fP options must reference the same vector as before because data  before because data about the match so far is left in them after a partial
2506  about the match so far is left in them after a partial match. There is more  match. There is more discussion of this facility in the
 discussion of this facility in the  
2507  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
2508  \fBpcrepartial\fP  \fBpcrepartial\fP
2509  .\"  .\"
2510  documentation.  documentation.
2511  .  .
2512    .
2513  .SS "Successful returns from \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP"  .SS "Successful returns from \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP"
2514  .rs  .rs
2515  .sp  .sp
# Line 1819  returns data, even though the meaning of Line 2541  returns data, even though the meaning of
2541  The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the longest  The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the longest
2542  matching string is given first. If there were too many matches to fit into  matching string is given first. If there were too many matches to fit into
2543  \fIovector\fP, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is filled with  \fIovector\fP, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is filled with
2544  the longest matches.  the longest matches. Unlike \fBpcre_exec()\fP, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP can use
2545    the entire \fIovector\fP for returning matched strings.
2546    .
2547  .  .
2548  .SS "Error returns from \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP"  .SS "Error returns from \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP"
2549  .rs  .rs
# Line 1848  group. These are not supported. Line 2572  group. These are not supported.
2572    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UMLIMIT    (-18)    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UMLIMIT    (-18)
2573  .sp  .sp
2574  This return is given if \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP is called with an \fIextra\fP  This return is given if \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP is called with an \fIextra\fP
2575  block that contains a setting of the \fImatch_limit\fP field. This is not  block that contains a setting of the \fImatch_limit\fP or
2576  supported (it is meaningless).  \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP fields. This is not supported (these fields are
2577    meaningless for DFA matching).
2578  .sp  .sp
2579    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_WSSIZE     (-19)    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_WSSIZE     (-19)
2580  .sp  .sp
# Line 1867  extremely rare, as a vector of size 1000 Line 2592  extremely rare, as a vector of size 1000
2592  .SH "SEE ALSO"  .SH "SEE ALSO"
2593  .rs  .rs
2594  .sp  .sp
2595  \fBpcrebuild\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrecpp(3)\fP(3),  \fBpcre16\fP(3), \fBpcrebuild\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrecpp(3)\fP(3),
2596  \fBpcrematching\fP(3), \fBpcrepartial\fP(3), \fBpcreposix\fP(3),  \fBpcrematching\fP(3), \fBpcrepartial\fP(3), \fBpcreposix\fP(3),
2597  \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3), \fBpcresample\fP(3), \fBpcrestack\fP(3).  \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3), \fBpcresample\fP(3), \fBpcrestack\fP(3).
2598  .  .
# Line 1886  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England. Line 2611  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
2611  .rs  .rs
2612  .sp  .sp
2613  .nf  .nf
2614  Last updated: 09 August 2007  Last updated: 07 January 2012
2615  Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.
2616  .fi  .fi

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