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revision 440 by ph10, Wed Sep 9 10:14:40 2009 UTC revision 569 by ph10, Sun Nov 7 16:14:50 2010 UTC
# Line 132  an application that uses PCRE. The heade Line 132  an application that uses PCRE. The heade
132  and PCRE_MINOR to contain the major and minor release numbers for the library.  and PCRE_MINOR to contain the major and minor release numbers for the library.
133  Applications can use these to include support for different releases of PCRE.  Applications can use these to include support for different releases of PCRE.
134  .P  .P
135    In a Windows environment, if you want to statically link an application program
136    against a non-dll \fBpcre.a\fP file, you must define PCRE_STATIC before
137    including \fBpcre.h\fP or \fBpcrecpp.h\fP, because otherwise the
138    \fBpcre_malloc()\fP and \fBpcre_free()\fP exported functions will be declared
139    \fB__declspec(dllimport)\fP, with unwanted results.
140    .P
141  The functions \fBpcre_compile()\fP, \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, \fBpcre_study()\fP,  The functions \fBpcre_compile()\fP, \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, \fBpcre_study()\fP,
142  and \fBpcre_exec()\fP are used for compiling and matching regular expressions  and \fBpcre_exec()\fP are used for compiling and matching regular expressions
143  in a Perl-compatible manner. A sample program that demonstrates the simplest  in a Perl-compatible manner. A sample program that demonstrates the simplest
# Line 395  avoiding the use of the stack. Line 401  avoiding the use of the stack.
401  Either of the functions \fBpcre_compile()\fP or \fBpcre_compile2()\fP can be  Either of the functions \fBpcre_compile()\fP or \fBpcre_compile2()\fP can be
402  called to compile a pattern into an internal form. The only difference between  called to compile a pattern into an internal form. The only difference between
403  the two interfaces is that \fBpcre_compile2()\fP has an additional argument,  the two interfaces is that \fBpcre_compile2()\fP has an additional argument,
404  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP, via which a numerical error code can be returned.  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP, via which a numerical error code can be returned. To avoid
405    too much repetition, we refer just to \fBpcre_compile()\fP below, but the
406    information applies equally to \fBpcre_compile2()\fP.
407  .P  .P
408  The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and is passed in the  The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and is passed in the
409  \fIpattern\fP argument. A pointer to a single block of memory that is obtained  \fIpattern\fP argument. A pointer to a single block of memory that is obtained
# Line 412  argument, which is an address (see below Line 420  argument, which is an address (see below
420  The \fIoptions\fP argument contains various bit settings that affect the  The \fIoptions\fP argument contains various bit settings that affect the
421  compilation. It should be zero if no options are required. The available  compilation. It should be zero if no options are required. The available
422  options are described below. Some of them (in particular, those that are  options are described below. Some of them (in particular, those that are
423  compatible with Perl, but also some others) can also be set and unset from  compatible with Perl, but some others as well) can also be set and unset from
424  within the pattern (see the detailed description in the  within the pattern (see the detailed description in the
425  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
426  \fBpcrepattern\fP  \fBpcrepattern\fP
427  .\"  .\"
428  documentation). For those options that can be different in different parts of  documentation). For those options that can be different in different parts of
429  the pattern, the contents of the \fIoptions\fP argument specifies their initial  the pattern, the contents of the \fIoptions\fP argument specifies their
430  settings at the start of compilation and execution. The PCRE_ANCHORED and  settings at the start of compilation and execution. The PCRE_ANCHORED,
431  PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP options can be set at the time of matching as well as at  PCRE_BSR_\fIxxx\fP, and PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP options can be set at the time
432  compile time.  of matching as well as at compile time.
433  .P  .P
434  If \fIerrptr\fP is NULL, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns NULL immediately.  If \fIerrptr\fP is NULL, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns NULL immediately.
435  Otherwise, if compilation of a pattern fails, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns  Otherwise, if compilation of a pattern fails, \fBpcre_compile()\fP returns
436  NULL, and sets the variable pointed to by \fIerrptr\fP to point to a textual  NULL, and sets the variable pointed to by \fIerrptr\fP to point to a textual
437  error message. This is a static string that is part of the library. You must  error message. This is a static string that is part of the library. You must
438  not try to free it. The offset from the start of the pattern to the character  not try to free it. The offset from the start of the pattern to the byte that
439  where the error was discovered is placed in the variable pointed to by  was being processed when the error was discovered is placed in the variable
440  \fIerroffset\fP, which must not be NULL. If it is, an immediate error is given.  pointed to by \fIerroffset\fP, which must not be NULL. If it is, an immediate
441    error is given. Some errors are not detected until checks are carried out when
442    the whole pattern has been scanned; in this case the offset is set to the end
443    of the pattern.
444    .P
445    Note that the offset is in bytes, not characters, even in UTF-8 mode. It may
446    point into the middle of a UTF-8 character (for example, when
447    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 is returned for an invalid UTF-8 string).
448  .P  .P
449  If \fBpcre_compile2()\fP is used instead of \fBpcre_compile()\fP, and the  If \fBpcre_compile2()\fP is used instead of \fBpcre_compile()\fP, and the
450  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is  \fIerrorcodeptr\fP argument is not NULL, a non-zero error code number is
# Line 548  set, any backslash in a pattern that is Line 563  set, any backslash in a pattern that is
563  special meaning causes an error, thus reserving these combinations for future  special meaning causes an error, thus reserving these combinations for future
564  expansion. By default, as in Perl, a backslash followed by a letter with no  expansion. By default, as in Perl, a backslash followed by a letter with no
565  special meaning is treated as a literal. (Perl can, however, be persuaded to  special meaning is treated as a literal. (Perl can, however, be persuaded to
566  give a warning for this.) There are at present no other features controlled by  give an error for this, by running it with the -w option.) There are at present
567  this option. It can also be set by a (?X) option setting within a pattern.  no other features controlled by this option. It can also be set by a (?X)
568    option setting within a pattern.
569  .sp  .sp
570    PCRE_FIRSTLINE    PCRE_FIRSTLINE
571  .sp  .sp
# Line 630  were followed by ?: but named parenthese Line 646  were followed by ?: but named parenthese
646  they acquire numbers in the usual way). There is no equivalent of this option  they acquire numbers in the usual way). There is no equivalent of this option
647  in Perl.  in Perl.
648  .sp  .sp
649      PCRE_UCP
650    .sp
651    This option changes the way PCRE processes \eb, \ed, \es, \ew, and some of the
652    POSIX character classes. By default, only ASCII characters are recognized, but
653    if PCRE_UCP is set, Unicode properties are used instead to classify characters.
654    More details are given in the section on
655    .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#genericchartypes">
656    .\" </a>
657    generic character types
658    .\"
659    in the
660    .\" HREF
661    \fBpcrepattern\fP
662    .\"
663    page. If you set PCRE_UCP, matching one of the items it affects takes much
664    longer. The option is available only if PCRE has been compiled with Unicode
665    property support.
666    .sp
667    PCRE_UNGREEDY    PCRE_UNGREEDY
668  .sp  .sp
669  This option inverts the "greediness" of the quantifiers so that they are not  This option inverts the "greediness" of the quantifiers so that they are not
# Line 735  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 769  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
769    50  [this code is not in use]    50  [this code is not in use]
770    51  octal value is greater than \e377 (not in UTF-8 mode)    51  octal value is greater than \e377 (not in UTF-8 mode)
771    52  internal error: overran compiling workspace    52  internal error: overran compiling workspace
772    53  internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern not found    53  internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern
773            not found
774    54  DEFINE group contains more than one branch    54  DEFINE group contains more than one branch
775    55  repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed    55  repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed
776    56  inconsistent NEWLINE options    56  inconsistent NEWLINE options
777    57  \eg is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted    57  \eg is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted
778          name/number or by a plain number          name/number or by a plain number
779    58  a numbered reference must not be zero    58  a numbered reference must not be zero
780    59  (*VERB) with an argument is not supported    59  an argument is not allowed for (*ACCEPT), (*FAIL), or (*COMMIT)
781    60  (*VERB) not recognized    60  (*VERB) not recognized
782    61  number is too big    61  number is too big
783    62  subpattern name expected    62  subpattern name expected
784    63  digit expected after (?+    63  digit expected after (?+
785    64  ] is an invalid data character in JavaScript compatibility mode    64  ] is an invalid data character in JavaScript compatibility mode
786      65  different names for subpatterns of the same number are
787            not allowed
788      66  (*MARK) must have an argument
789      67  this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UCP support
790  .sp  .sp
791  The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may  The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may
792  be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.  be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.
# Line 769  help speed up matching, \fBpcre_study()\ Line 808  help speed up matching, \fBpcre_study()\
808  results of the study.  results of the study.
809  .P  .P
810  The returned value from \fBpcre_study()\fP can be passed directly to  The returned value from \fBpcre_study()\fP can be passed directly to
811  \fBpcre_exec()\fP. However, a \fBpcre_extra\fP block also contains other  \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. However, a \fBpcre_extra\fP block
812  fields that can be set by the caller before the block is passed; these are  also contains other fields that can be set by the caller before the block is
813  described  passed; these are described
814  .\" HTML <a href="#extradata">  .\" HTML <a href="#extradata">
815  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
816  below  below
817  .\"  .\"
818  in the section on matching a pattern.  in the section on matching a pattern.
819  .P  .P
820  If studying the pattern does not produce any additional information  If studying the pattern does not produce any useful information,
821  \fBpcre_study()\fP returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the calling program  \fBpcre_study()\fP returns NULL. In that circumstance, if the calling program
822  wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP, it must set up its  wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
823  own \fBpcre_extra\fP block.  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, it must set up its own \fBpcre_extra\fP block.
824  .P  .P
825  The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. At present, no  The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. At present, no
826  options are defined, and this argument should always be zero.  options are defined, and this argument should always be zero.
# Line 801  This is a typical call to \fBpcre_study\ Line 840  This is a typical call to \fBpcre_study\
840      0,              /* no options exist */      0,              /* no options exist */
841      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */
842  .sp  .sp
843  At present, studying a pattern is useful only for non-anchored patterns that do  Studying a pattern does two things: first, a lower bound for the length of
844  not have a single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting  subject string that is needed to match the pattern is computed. This does not
845  bytes is created.  mean that there are any strings of that length that match, but it does
846    guarantee that no shorter strings match. The value is used by
847    \fBpcre_exec()\fP and \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to avoid wasting time by trying to
848    match strings that are shorter than the lower bound. You can find out the value
849    in a calling program via the \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function.
850    .P
851    Studying a pattern is also useful for non-anchored patterns that do not have a
852    single fixed starting character. A bitmap of possible starting bytes is
853    created. This speeds up finding a position in the subject at which to start
854    matching.
855    .P
856    The two optimizations just described can be disabled by setting the
857    PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
858    \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. You might want to do this if your pattern contains
859    callouts, or make use of (*MARK), and you make use of these in cases where
860    matching fails. See the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
861    .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">
862    .\" </a>
863    below.
864    .\"
865  .  .
866  .  .
867  .\" HTML <a name="localesupport"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="localesupport"></a>
# Line 813  bytes is created. Line 871  bytes is created.
871  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters,  PCRE handles caseless matching, and determines whether characters are letters,
872  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed by character  digits, or whatever, by reference to a set of tables, indexed by character
873  value. When running in UTF-8 mode, this applies only to characters with codes  value. When running in UTF-8 mode, this applies only to characters with codes
874  less than 128. Higher-valued codes never match escapes such as \ew or \ed, but  less than 128. By default, higher-valued codes never match escapes such as \ew
875  can be tested with \ep if PCRE is built with Unicode character property  or \ed, but they can be tested with \ep if PCRE is built with Unicode character
876  support. The use of locales with Unicode is discouraged. If you are handling  property support. Alternatively, the PCRE_UCP option can be set at compile
877  characters with codes greater than 128, you should either use UTF-8 and  time; this causes \ew and friends to use Unicode property support instead of
878  Unicode, or use locales, but not try to mix the two.  built-in tables. The use of locales with Unicode is discouraged. If you are
879    handling characters with codes greater than 128, you should either use UTF-8
880    and Unicode, or use locales, but not try to mix the two.
881  .P  .P
882  PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used when the final argument  PCRE contains an internal set of tables that are used when the final argument
883  of \fBpcre_compile()\fP is NULL. These are sufficient for many applications.  of \fBpcre_compile()\fP is NULL. These are sufficient for many applications.
# Line 968  follows something of variable length. Fo Line 1028  follows something of variable length. Fo
1028  /^a\ed+z\ed+/ the returned value is "z", but for /^a\edz\ed/ the returned value  /^a\ed+z\ed+/ the returned value is "z", but for /^a\edz\ed/ the returned value
1029  is -1.  is -1.
1030  .sp  .sp
1031      PCRE_INFO_MINLENGTH
1032    .sp
1033    If the pattern was studied and a minimum length for matching subject strings
1034    was computed, its value is returned. Otherwise the returned value is -1. The
1035    value is a number of characters, not bytes (this may be relevant in UTF-8
1036    mode). The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. A
1037    non-negative value is a lower bound to the length of any matching string. There
1038    may not be any strings of that length that do actually match, but every string
1039    that does match is at least that long.
1040    .sp
1041    PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT    PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT
1042    PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE    PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE
1043    PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE    PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE
# Line 988  entry; both of these return an \fBint\fP Line 1058  entry; both of these return an \fBint\fP
1058  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE returns a pointer to the first  length of the longest name. PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE returns a pointer to the first
1059  entry of the table (a pointer to \fBchar\fP). The first two bytes of each entry  entry of the table (a pointer to \fBchar\fP). The first two bytes of each entry
1060  are the number of the capturing parenthesis, most significant byte first. The  are the number of the capturing parenthesis, most significant byte first. The
1061  rest of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated. The names are in  rest of the entry is the corresponding name, zero terminated.
1062  alphabetical order. When PCRE_DUPNAMES is set, duplicate names are in order of  .P
1063  their parentheses numbers. For example, consider the following pattern (assume  The names are in alphabetical order. Duplicate names may appear if (?| is used
1064  PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including newlines - is ignored):  to create multiple groups with the same number, as described in the
1065    .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern.html#dupsubpatternnumber">
1066    .\" </a>
1067    section on duplicate subpattern numbers
1068    .\"
1069    in the
1070    .\" HREF
1071    \fBpcrepattern\fP
1072    .\"
1073    page. Duplicate names for subpatterns with different numbers are permitted only
1074    if PCRE_DUPNAMES is set. In all cases of duplicate names, they appear in the
1075    table in the order in which they were found in the pattern. In the absence of
1076    (?| this is the order of increasing number; when (?| is used this is not
1077    necessarily the case because later subpatterns may have lower numbers.
1078    .P
1079    As a simple example of the name/number table, consider the following pattern
1080    (assume PCRE_EXTENDED is set, so white space - including newlines - is
1081    ignored):
1082  .sp  .sp
1083  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
1084    (?<date> (?<year>(\ed\ed)?\ed\ed) -    (?<date> (?<year>(\ed\ed)?\ed\ed) -
# Line 1056  variable. Line 1143  variable.
1143  Return the size of the data block pointed to by the \fIstudy_data\fP field in  Return the size of the data block pointed to by the \fIstudy_data\fP field in
1144  a \fBpcre_extra\fP block. That is, it is the value that was passed to  a \fBpcre_extra\fP block. That is, it is the value that was passed to
1145  \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when PCRE was getting memory into which to place the data  \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when PCRE was getting memory into which to place the data
1146  created by \fBpcre_study()\fP. The fourth argument should point to a  created by \fBpcre_study()\fP. If \fBpcre_extra\fP is NULL, or there is no
1147    study data, zero is returned. The fourth argument should point to a
1148  \fBsize_t\fP variable.  \fBsize_t\fP variable.
1149  .  .
1150  .  .
# Line 1118  is different. (This seems a highly unlik Line 1206  is different. (This seems a highly unlik
1206  .P  .P
1207  The function \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called to match a subject string against a  The function \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called to match a subject string against a
1208  compiled pattern, which is passed in the \fIcode\fP argument. If the  compiled pattern, which is passed in the \fIcode\fP argument. If the
1209  pattern has been studied, the result of the study should be passed in the  pattern was studied, the result of the study should be passed in the
1210  \fIextra\fP argument. This function is the main matching facility of the  \fIextra\fP argument. This function is the main matching facility of the
1211  library, and it operates in a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is  library, and it operates in a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is
1212  also an alternative matching function, which is described  also an alternative matching function, which is described
# Line 1168  fields (not necessarily in this order): Line 1256  fields (not necessarily in this order):
1256    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP;    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP;
1257    void *\fIcallout_data\fP;    void *\fIcallout_data\fP;
1258    const unsigned char *\fItables\fP;    const unsigned char *\fItables\fP;
1259      unsigned char **\fImark\fP;
1260  .sp  .sp
1261  The \fIflags\fP field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields  The \fIflags\fP field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields
1262  are set. The flag bits are:  are set. The flag bits are:
# Line 1177  are set. The flag bits are: Line 1266  are set. The flag bits are:
1266    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION
1267    PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA    PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA
1268    PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES    PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES
1269      PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
1270  .sp  .sp
1271  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The \fIstudy_data\fP field is set in the  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The \fIstudy_data\fP field is set in the
1272  \fBpcre_extra\fP block that is returned by \fBpcre_study()\fP, together with  \fBpcre_extra\fP block that is returned by \fBpcre_study()\fP, together with
# Line 1186  the block by setting the other fields an Line 1276  the block by setting the other fields an
1276  The \fImatch_limit\fP field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a  The \fImatch_limit\fP field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a
1277  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,
1278  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The
1279  classic example is the use of nested unlimited repeats.  classic example is a pattern that uses nested unlimited repeats.
1280  .P  .P
1281  Internally, PCRE uses a function called \fBmatch()\fP which it calls repeatedly  Internally, PCRE uses a function called \fBmatch()\fP which it calls repeatedly
1282  (sometimes recursively). The limit set by \fImatch_limit\fP is imposed on the  (sometimes recursively). The limit set by \fImatch_limit\fP is imposed on the
# Line 1239  called. See the Line 1329  called. See the
1329  \fBpcreprecompile\fP  \fBpcreprecompile\fP
1330  .\"  .\"
1331  documentation for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.  documentation for a discussion of saving compiled patterns for later use.
1332    .P
1333    If PCRE_EXTRA_MARK is set in the \fIflags\fP field, the \fImark\fP field must
1334    be set to point to a \fBchar *\fP variable. If the pattern contains any
1335    backtracking control verbs such as (*MARK:NAME), and the execution ends up with
1336    a name to pass back, a pointer to the name string (zero terminated) is placed
1337    in the variable pointed to by the \fImark\fP field. The names are within the
1338    compiled pattern; if you wish to retain such a name you must copy it before
1339    freeing the memory of a compiled pattern. If there is no name to pass back, the
1340    variable pointed to by the \fImark\fP field set to NULL. For details of the
1341    backtracking control verbs, see the section entitled
1342    .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern#backtrackcontrol">
1343    .\" </a>
1344    "Backtracking control"
1345    .\"
1346    in the
1347    .\" HREF
1348    \fBpcrepattern\fP
1349    .\"
1350    documentation.
1351    .
1352  .  .
1353  .\" HTML <a name="execoptions"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="execoptions"></a>
1354  .SS "Option bits for \fBpcre_exec()\fP"  .SS "Option bits for \fBpcre_exec()\fP"
# Line 1246  documentation for a discussion of saving Line 1356  documentation for a discussion of saving
1356  .sp  .sp
1357  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP must be  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP must be
1358  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,
1359  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE,  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
1360  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, and PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD.  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, and
1361    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD.
1362  .sp  .sp
1363    PCRE_ANCHORED    PCRE_ANCHORED
1364  .sp  .sp
# Line 1322  match the empty string, the entire match Line 1433  match the empty string, the entire match
1433  .sp  .sp
1434    a?b?    a?b?
1435  .sp  .sp
1436  is applied to a string not beginning with "a" or "b", it matches the empty  is applied to a string not beginning with "a" or "b", it matches an empty
1437  string at the start of the subject. With PCRE_NOTEMPTY set, this match is not  string at the start of the subject. With PCRE_NOTEMPTY set, this match is not
1438  valid, so PCRE searches further into the string for occurrences of "a" or "b".  valid, so PCRE searches further into the string for occurrences of "a" or "b".
1439  .P  .sp
1440  Perl has no direct equivalent of PCRE_NOTEMPTY, but it does make a special case    PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART
1441  of a pattern match of the empty string within its \fBsplit()\fP function, and  .sp
1442  when using the /g modifier. It is possible to emulate Perl's behaviour after  This is like PCRE_NOTEMPTY, except that an empty string match that is not at
1443  matching a null string by first trying the match again at the same offset with  the start of the subject is permitted. If the pattern is anchored, such a match
1444  PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED, and then if that fails by advancing the  can occur only if the pattern contains \eK.
1445  starting offset (see below) and trying an ordinary match again. There is some  .P
1446  code that demonstrates how to do this in the  Perl has no direct equivalent of PCRE_NOTEMPTY or PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART, but it
1447    does make a special case of a pattern match of the empty string within its
1448    \fBsplit()\fP function, and when using the /g modifier. It is possible to
1449    emulate Perl's behaviour after matching a null string by first trying the match
1450    again at the same offset with PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and PCRE_ANCHORED, and then
1451    if that fails, by advancing the starting offset (see below) and trying an
1452    ordinary match again. There is some code that demonstrates how to do this in
1453    the
1454  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
1455  \fBpcredemo\fP  \fBpcredemo\fP
1456  .\"  .\"
1457  sample program.  sample program. In the most general case, you have to check to see if the
1458    newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline, and if so, and the current
1459    character is CR followed by LF, advance the starting offset by two characters
1460    instead of one.
1461  .sp  .sp
1462    PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE    PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
1463  .sp  .sp
1464  There are a number of optimizations that \fBpcre_exec()\fP uses at the start of  There are a number of optimizations that \fBpcre_exec()\fP uses at the start of
1465  a match, in order to speed up the process. For example, if it is known that a  a match, in order to speed up the process. For example, if it is known that an
1466  match must start with a specific character, it searches the subject for that  unanchored match must start with a specific character, it searches the subject
1467  character, and fails immediately if it cannot find it, without actually running  for that character, and fails immediately if it cannot find it, without
1468  the main matching function. When callouts are in use, these optimizations can  actually running the main matching function. This means that a special item
1469  cause them to be skipped. This option disables the "start-up" optimizations,  such as (*COMMIT) at the start of a pattern is not considered until after a
1470  causing performance to suffer, but ensuring that the callouts do occur.  suitable starting point for the match has been found. When callouts or (*MARK)
1471    items are in use, these "start-up" optimizations can cause them to be skipped
1472    if the pattern is never actually used. The start-up optimizations are in effect
1473    a pre-scan of the subject that takes place before the pattern is run.
1474    .P
1475    The PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option disables the start-up optimizations, possibly
1476    causing performance to suffer, but ensuring that in cases where the result is
1477    "no match", the callouts do occur, and that items such as (*COMMIT) and (*MARK)
1478    are considered at every possible starting position in the subject string.
1479    Setting PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE can change the outcome of a matching operation.
1480    Consider the pattern
1481    .sp
1482      (*COMMIT)ABC
1483    .sp
1484    When this is compiled, PCRE records the fact that a match must start with the
1485    character "A". Suppose the subject string is "DEFABC". The start-up
1486    optimization scans along the subject, finds "A" and runs the first match
1487    attempt from there. The (*COMMIT) item means that the pattern must match the
1488    current starting position, which in this case, it does. However, if the same
1489    match is run with PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE set, the initial scan along the
1490    subject string does not happen. The first match attempt is run starting from
1491    "D" and when this fails, (*COMMIT) prevents any further matches being tried, so
1492    the overall result is "no match". If the pattern is studied, more start-up
1493    optimizations may be used. For example, a minimum length for the subject may be
1494    recorded. Consider the pattern
1495    .sp
1496      (*MARK:A)(X|Y)
1497    .sp
1498    The minimum length for a match is one character. If the subject is "ABC", there
1499    will be attempts to match "ABC", "BC", "C", and then finally an empty string.
1500    If the pattern is studied, the final attempt does not take place, because PCRE
1501    knows that the subject is too short, and so the (*MARK) is never encountered.
1502    In this case, studying the pattern does not affect the overall match result,
1503    which is still "no match", but it does affect the auxiliary information that is
1504    returned.
1505  .sp  .sp
1506    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
1507  .sp  .sp
# Line 1364  in the main Line 1519  in the main
1519  \fBpcre\fP  \fBpcre\fP
1520  .\"  .\"
1521  page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns  page. If an invalid UTF-8 sequence of bytes is found, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns
1522  the error PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8. If \fIstartoffset\fP contains an invalid value,  the error PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8 or, if PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set and the problem is
1523  PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET is returned.  a truncated UTF-8 character at the end of the subject, PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8. If
1524    \fIstartoffset\fP contains a value that does not point to the start of a UTF-8
1525    character (or to the end of the subject), PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET is
1526    returned.
1527  .P  .P
1528  If you already know that your subject is valid, and you want to skip these  If you already know that your subject is valid, and you want to skip these
1529  checks for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option when  checks for performance reasons, you can set the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option when
1530  calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP. You might want to do this for the second and  calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP. You might want to do this for the second and
1531  subsequent calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP if you are making repeated calls to find  subsequent calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP if you are making repeated calls to find
1532  all the matches in a single subject string. However, you should be sure that  all the matches in a single subject string. However, you should be sure that
1533  the value of \fIstartoffset\fP points to the start of a UTF-8 character. When  the value of \fIstartoffset\fP points to the start of a UTF-8 character (or the
1534  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an invalid UTF-8 string as a  end of the subject). When PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK is set, the effect of passing an
1535  subject, or a value of \fIstartoffset\fP that does not point to the start of a  invalid UTF-8 string as a subject or an invalid value of \fIstartoffset\fP is
1536  UTF-8 character, is undefined. Your program may crash.  undefined. Your program may crash.
1537  .sp  .sp
1538    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
1539    PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT    PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT
1540  .sp  .sp
1541  These options turn on the partial matching feature. For backwards  These options turn on the partial matching feature. For backwards
1542  compatibility, PCRE_PARTIAL is a synonym for PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. A partial match  compatibility, PCRE_PARTIAL is a synonym for PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. A partial match
1543  occurs if the end of the subject string is reached successfully, but there are  occurs if the end of the subject string is reached successfully, but there are
1544  not enough subject characters to complete the match. If this happens when  not enough subject characters to complete the match. If this happens when
1545  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, \fBpcre_exec()\fP immediately returns  PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT (but not PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD) is set, matching continues by
1546  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. Otherwise, if PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT is set, matching continues  testing any remaining alternatives. Only if no complete match can be found is
1547  by testing any other alternatives. Only if they all fail is PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL returned instead of PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH. In other words,
1548  returned (instead of PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH). The portion of the string that  PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT says that the caller is prepared to handle a partial match,
1549  was inspected when the partial match was found is set as the first matching  but only if no complete match can be found.
1550  string. There is a more detailed discussion in the  .P
1551    If PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, it overrides PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. In this case, if a
1552    partial match is found, \fBpcre_exec()\fP immediately returns
1553    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL, without considering any other alternatives. In other words,
1554    when PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set, a partial match is considered to be more
1555    important that an alternative complete match.
1556    .P
1557    In both cases, the portion of the string that was inspected when the partial
1558    match was found is set as the first matching string. There is a more detailed
1559    discussion of partial and multi-segment matching, with examples, in the
1560  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
1561  \fBpcrepartial\fP  \fBpcrepartial\fP
1562  .\"  .\"
1563  documentation.  documentation.
1564  .  .
1565    .
1566  .SS "The string to be matched by \fBpcre_exec()\fP"  .SS "The string to be matched by \fBpcre_exec()\fP"
1567  .rs  .rs
1568  .sp  .sp
1569  The subject string is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP as a pointer in  The subject string is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP as a pointer in
1570  \fIsubject\fP, a length (in bytes) in \fIlength\fP, and a starting byte offset  \fIsubject\fP, a length (in bytes) in \fIlength\fP, and a starting byte offset
1571  in \fIstartoffset\fP. In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset must point to the start of  in \fIstartoffset\fP. If this is negative or greater than the length of the
1572  a UTF-8 character. Unlike the pattern string, the subject may contain binary  subject, \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET.
1573  zero bytes. When the starting offset is zero, the search for a match starts at  .P
1574  the beginning of the subject, and this is by far the most common case.  In UTF-8 mode, the byte offset must point to the start of a UTF-8 character (or
1575    the end of the subject). Unlike the pattern string, the subject may contain
1576    binary zero bytes. When the starting offset is zero, the search for a match
1577    starts at the beginning of the subject, and this is by far the most common
1578    case.
1579  .P  .P
1580  A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match in the  A non-zero starting offset is useful when searching for another match in the
1581  same subject by calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP again after a previous success.  same subject by calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP again after a previous success.
# Line 1423  start of the subject, which is deemed to Line 1595  start of the subject, which is deemed to
1595  set to 4, it finds the second occurrence of "iss" because it is able to look  set to 4, it finds the second occurrence of "iss" because it is able to look
1596  behind the starting point to discover that it is preceded by a letter.  behind the starting point to discover that it is preceded by a letter.
1597  .P  .P
1598    Finding all the matches in a subject is tricky when the pattern can match an
1599    empty string. It is possible to emulate Perl's /g behaviour by first trying the
1600    match again at the same offset, with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
1601    PCRE_ANCHORED options, and then if that fails, advancing the starting offset
1602    and trying an ordinary match again. There is some code that demonstrates how to
1603    do this in the
1604    .\" HREF
1605    \fBpcredemo\fP
1606    .\"
1607    sample program. In the most general case, you have to check to see if the
1608    newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline, and if so, and the current
1609    character is CR followed by LF, advance the starting offset by two characters
1610    instead of one.
1611    .P
1612  If a non-zero starting offset is passed when the pattern is anchored, one  If a non-zero starting offset is passed when the pattern is anchored, one
1613  attempt to match at the given offset is made. This can only succeed if the  attempt to match at the given offset is made. This can only succeed if the
1614  pattern does not require the match to be at the start of the subject.  pattern does not require the match to be at the start of the subject.
1615  .  .
1616    .
1617  .SS "How \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns captured substrings"  .SS "How \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns captured substrings"
1618  .rs  .rs
1619  .sp  .sp
# Line 1477  the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to r Line 1664  the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to r
1664  has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usually  has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usually
1665  advisable to supply an \fIovector\fP.  advisable to supply an \fIovector\fP.
1666  .P  .P
1667  The \fBpcre_info()\fP function can be used to find out how many capturing  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function can be used to find out how many capturing
1668  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for
1669  \fIovector\fP that will allow for \fIn\fP captured substrings, in addition to  \fIovector\fP that will allow for \fIn\fP captured substrings, in addition to
1670  the offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (\fIn\fP+1)*3.  the offsets of the substring matched by the whole pattern, is (\fIn\fP+1)*3.
# Line 1493  Offset values that correspond to unused Line 1680  Offset values that correspond to unused
1680  expression are also set to -1. For example, if the string "abc" is matched  expression are also set to -1. For example, if the string "abc" is matched
1681  against the pattern (abc)(x(yz)?)? subpatterns 2 and 3 are not matched. The  against the pattern (abc)(x(yz)?)? subpatterns 2 and 3 are not matched. The
1682  return from the function is 2, because the highest used capturing subpattern  return from the function is 2, because the highest used capturing subpattern
1683  number is 1. However, you can refer to the offsets for the second and third  number is 1, and the offsets for for the second and third capturing subpatterns
1684  capturing subpatterns if you wish (assuming the vector is large enough, of  (assuming the vector is large enough, of course) are set to -1.
1685  course).  .P
1686    \fBNote\fP: Elements of \fIovector\fP that do not correspond to capturing
1687    parentheses in the pattern are never changed. That is, if a pattern contains
1688    \fIn\fP capturing parentheses, no more than \fIovector[0]\fP to
1689    \fIovector[2n+1]\fP are set by \fBpcre_exec()\fP. The other elements retain
1690    whatever values they previously had.
1691  .P  .P
1692  Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings  Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings
1693  as separate strings. These are described below.  as separate strings. These are described below.
# Line 1541  If a pattern contains back references, b Line 1733  If a pattern contains back references, b
1733  gets a block of memory at the start of matching to use for this purpose. If the  gets a block of memory at the start of matching to use for this purpose. If the
1734  call via \fBpcre_malloc()\fP fails, this error is given. The memory is  call via \fBpcre_malloc()\fP fails, this error is given. The memory is
1735  automatically freed at the end of matching.  automatically freed at the end of matching.
1736    .P
1737    This error is also given if \fBpcre_stack_malloc()\fP fails in
1738    \fBpcre_exec()\fP. This can happen only when PCRE has been compiled with
1739    \fB--disable-stack-for-recursion\fP.
1740  .sp  .sp
1741    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)    PCRE_ERROR_NOSUBSTRING    (-7)
1742  .sp  .sp
# Line 1566  documentation for details. Line 1762  documentation for details.
1762    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8        (-10)    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8        (-10)
1763  .sp  .sp
1764  A string that contains an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence was passed as a subject.  A string that contains an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence was passed as a subject.
1765    However, if PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set and the problem is a truncated UTF-8
1766    character at the end of the subject, PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8 is used instead.
1767  .sp  .sp
1768    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)    PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11)
1769  .sp  .sp
1770  The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was valid, but the value  The UTF-8 byte sequence that was passed as a subject was valid, but the value
1771  of \fIstartoffset\fP did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 character.  of \fIstartoffset\fP did not point to the beginning of a UTF-8 character or the
1772    end of the subject.
1773  .sp  .sp
1774    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL        (-12)    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL        (-12)
1775  .sp  .sp
# Line 1584  documentation for details of partial mat Line 1783  documentation for details of partial mat
1783  .sp  .sp
1784  This code is no longer in use. It was formerly returned when the PCRE_PARTIAL  This code is no longer in use. It was formerly returned when the PCRE_PARTIAL
1785  option was used with a compiled pattern containing items that were not  option was used with a compiled pattern containing items that were not
1786  supported for partial matching. From release 8.00 onwards, there are no  supported for partial matching. From release 8.00 onwards, there are no
1787  restrictions on partial matching.  restrictions on partial matching.
1788  .sp  .sp
1789    PCRE_ERROR_INTERNAL       (-14)    PCRE_ERROR_INTERNAL       (-14)
# Line 1605  description above. Line 1804  description above.
1804    PCRE_ERROR_BADNEWLINE     (-23)    PCRE_ERROR_BADNEWLINE     (-23)
1805  .sp  .sp
1806  An invalid combination of PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP options was given.  An invalid combination of PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP options was given.
1807    .sp
1808      PCRE_ERROR_BADOFFSET      (-24)
1809    .sp
1810    The value of \fIstartoffset\fP was negative or greater than the length of the
1811    subject, that is, the value in \fIlength\fP.
1812    .sp
1813      PCRE_ERROR_SHORTUTF8      (-25)
1814    .sp
1815    The subject string ended with an incomplete (truncated) UTF-8 character, and
1816    the PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option was set. Without this option, PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8
1817    is returned in this situation.
1818  .P  .P
1819  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.
1820  .  .
# Line 1756  then call \fBpcre_copy_substring()\fP or Line 1966  then call \fBpcre_copy_substring()\fP or
1966  appropriate. \fBNOTE:\fP If PCRE_DUPNAMES is set and there are duplicate names,  appropriate. \fBNOTE:\fP If PCRE_DUPNAMES is set and there are duplicate names,
1967  the behaviour may not be what you want (see the next section).  the behaviour may not be what you want (see the next section).
1968  .P  .P
1969  \fBWarning:\fP If the pattern uses the "(?|" feature to set up multiple  \fBWarning:\fP If the pattern uses the (?| feature to set up multiple
1970  subpatterns with the same number, you cannot use names to distinguish them,  subpatterns with the same number, as described in the
1971  because names are not included in the compiled code. The matching process uses  .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern.html#dupsubpatternnumber">
1972  only numbers.  .\" </a>
1973    section on duplicate subpattern numbers
1974    .\"
1975    in the
1976    .\" HREF
1977    \fBpcrepattern\fP
1978    .\"
1979    page, you cannot use names to distinguish the different subpatterns, because
1980    names are not included in the compiled code. The matching process uses only
1981    numbers. For this reason, the use of different names for subpatterns of the
1982    same number causes an error at compile time.
1983  .  .
1984  .SH "DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES"  .SH "DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES"
1985  .rs  .rs
# Line 1769  only numbers. Line 1989  only numbers.
1989  .B const char *\fIname\fP, char **\fIfirst\fP, char **\fIlast\fP);  .B const char *\fIname\fP, char **\fIfirst\fP, char **\fIlast\fP);
1990  .PP  .PP
1991  When a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_DUPNAMES option, names for subpatterns  When a pattern is compiled with the PCRE_DUPNAMES option, names for subpatterns
1992  are not required to be unique. Normally, patterns with duplicate names are such  are not required to be unique. (Duplicate names are always allowed for
1993  that in any one match, only one of the named subpatterns participates. An  subpatterns with the same number, created by using the (?| feature. Indeed, if
1994  example is shown in the  such subpatterns are named, they are required to use the same names.)
1995    .P
1996    Normally, patterns with duplicate names are such that in any one match, only
1997    one of the named subpatterns participates. An example is shown in the
1998  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
1999  \fBpcrepattern\fP  \fBpcrepattern\fP
2000  .\"  .\"
# Line 1835  a compiled pattern, using a matching alg Line 2058  a compiled pattern, using a matching alg
2058  just once, and does not backtrack. This has different characteristics to the  just once, and does not backtrack. This has different characteristics to the
2059  normal algorithm, and is not compatible with Perl. Some of the features of PCRE  normal algorithm, and is not compatible with Perl. Some of the features of PCRE
2060  patterns are not supported. Nevertheless, there are times when this kind of  patterns are not supported. Nevertheless, there are times when this kind of
2061  matching can be useful. For a discussion of the two matching algorithms, and a  matching can be useful. For a discussion of the two matching algorithms, and a
2062  list of features that \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP does not support, see the  list of features that \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP does not support, see the
2063  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
2064  \fBpcrematching\fP  \fBpcrematching\fP
# Line 1875  Here is an example of a simple call to \ Line 2098  Here is an example of a simple call to \
2098  .sp  .sp
2099  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP must be  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP must be
2100  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,
2101  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD,  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
2102  PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST, and PCRE_DFA_RESTART. All but the last  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF, PCRE_BSR_UNICODE, PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE,
2103  four of these are exactly the same as for \fBpcre_exec()\fP, so their  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST, and PCRE_DFA_RESTART.
2104  description is not repeated here.  All but the last four of these are exactly the same as for \fBpcre_exec()\fP,
2105    so their description is not repeated here.
2106  .sp  .sp
2107    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD
2108    PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT    PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT
2109  .sp  .sp
2110  These have the same general effect as they do for \fBpcre_exec()\fP, but the  These have the same general effect as they do for \fBpcre_exec()\fP, but the
2111  details are slightly different. When PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set for  details are slightly different. When PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD is set for
# Line 1893  is converted into PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if Line 2117  is converted into PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL if
2117  there have been no complete matches, but there is still at least one matching  there have been no complete matches, but there is still at least one matching
2118  possibility. The portion of the string that was inspected when the longest  possibility. The portion of the string that was inspected when the longest
2119  partial match was found is set as the first matching string in both cases.  partial match was found is set as the first matching string in both cases.
2120    There is a more detailed discussion of partial and multi-segment matching, with
2121    examples, in the
2122    .\" HREF
2123    \fBpcrepartial\fP
2124    .\"
2125    documentation.
2126  .sp  .sp
2127    PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST    PCRE_DFA_SHORTEST
2128  .sp  .sp
# Line 2012  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England. Line 2242  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
2242  .rs  .rs
2243  .sp  .sp
2244  .nf  .nf
2245  Last updated: 09 September 2009  Last updated: 06 November 2010
2246  Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
2247  .fi  .fi

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